Traffic Safety TS4273 Traffic Engineering. SPEED REALLY DOES KILL

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  • Traffic SafetyTS4273 Traffic Engineering

  • SPEED REALLY DOES KILL

  • WHO DOES SPEED KILL

  • WHERE DOES SPEED KILL

  • HOW DOES SPEED KILL

  • DID YOU KNOW?80% of motorcycle crashes kill or injure rider.While 20% of car crashes kill or injure a vehicle occupant.

  • The First Road Traffic Accident!The first recorded Road Traffic Accident was Bridget Driscoll in London, August 17th.1896.

    The Coroner stated that it was easily avoidable and should never happen again.

    It Has Over 25 million times!

  • What is an Accident?Up until 1650 an accident was seen as either Witchcraft or Gods will.

    It was then that social science began by recording births, deaths & later marriages.

  • Traffic SafetySafety is the condition in which the risk of harm or damage is limited to an acceptable level

    State of mind that make people Thinking, Acting, Behave in such way to minimizing the exposure to danger.

  • Dampak Kecelakaan Transportasi DaratGLOBALKorban meninggal dunia rata-rata 1 juta jiwa per tahun (1,200,000 persons per year 10 jumbo jet crashes per day!)

    75% terjadi di negara berkembang

    Kerugian mencapai 2% GDP (US$ 100 Milyar)

  • Dampak Kecelakaan Transportasi DaratNASIONALKorban meninggal dunia rata-rata 30 jiwa per hari

    Kerugian sekitar US$ 3,5 Milyar sekitar 2,17% GDP Indonesia

  • Crime/Crash ClockCRIME vs. CRASH CLOCK (2002)1 murder every 32 minutes1 aggravated assault every 35 seconds1 violent crime every 22 seconds1 fatality every 12 minutes1 injury every 16 seconds1 crash every 5 seconds

  • Death and Traffic Accidents

    1990 Rank2020 RankDisease / InjuryRankDisease / InjuryRankRespiratory1Ischaemic Heart Diseases1Diarhoeal Diseases2Unipolar Major Depression2Perinatal3Road Traffic Accidents3Unipolar Major Depression4Cerebrovascular Diseases4Ischaemic Heart Diseases5Pulmonary5Cerebrovascular Diseases6Respiratory6Tuberculosis7Tuberculosis7Measles8Diarhoeal Diseases8Road Traffic Accidents9HIV9Congenital Anomalities10Perinatal10Malaria11Congenital Anomalities11Pulmonary12Measles12

  • The top 10 leading global burdens1990 20201. Lower respiratory infections2. Diarrhoeal diseases 3. Perinatal conditions4. Unipolar major depression 5. Ischaemic heart disease6. Cerebrovascular disease 7. Tuberculosis8. Measles 9. Road traffic injuries 10. Congenital Abnormalities

    1. Ischaemic heart disease2. Unipolar major depression3. Road traffic injuries4. Cerebrovascular disease 5. Chronic pulmonary disease6. Lower respiratory infections 7. Tuberculosis8. War 9. Diarrhoeal diseases 10. HIV

  • Top 10 Leading Causes of Death taken from Runges slide

  • Fatality Rate 100 Million Passenger-Miles in Transport in the United States

    ModeRateAutos and Taxis1,90Motorcycles17,00Local Transit0,16Buses0,19Railroads0,53Domestic Scheduled Air Carriers0,13Water TransportNA

  • Prime Cause of Road Accidents

    Cause% of AccidentHuman Factors Alone65Human + Road25Human + Vehicle5Road Factors Alone2Vehicle Factors Alone2Human + Road + Vehicle1TOTAL100

  • Americans Killed in Combat vs Motor Vehicle Fatalities - BreakdownAmericans Killed in Combat vs. Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Chart12

    4435

    33651

    47369

    53513

    184594

    292131

    3070189

    Number of Deaths(in thousands)

    Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    combat vs motor vehicle crashes

    Americans killed in combat (1775-1999) vs. killed in motor vehicle crashes (1900-1999)

    CombatMotor Vehicle Crashes

    8048133070189

    combat vs motor vehicle crashes

    0

    0

    Cause of Death

    Number of Deaths(in thousands)

    separate wars

    Separate wars

    RevolutionaryKorean WarVietnam WarWorld War ICivil WarWorld War IIMotor Vehicle Crashes

    44353365147369535131845942921313070189

    separate wars

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Deaths(in thousands)

    Sheet3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of Deaths(in thousands)

  • Americans Killed in Combat vs Motor Vehicle Fatalities Big pictureAmericans Killed in Combat vs. Motor Vehicle Fatalities3,070,189620,219(225 years)(100 years)

    Chart11

    804813

    3070189

    Number of Deaths

    Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Sheet1

    Americans killed in combat (1775-1999) vs. killed in motor vehicle accidents (1900-1999)

    CombatMotor Vehicle Accidents

    8048133070189

    Sheet1

    0

    0

    Cause of Death

    Number of Deaths(in thousands)

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Cars and Weapons!Cars have killed more people since their invention than all the wars and conflicts put together including both World Wars!

  • General Road Accident Statistics in Malaysia

  • General Road Accident Statistics in Malaysia

  • Statistics Road Accidents in Malaysia (2005)

  • Causes of Traffic accidents in MalaysiaCombination of traffic compositionImproper intersection designProvision of street lightningHigh traffic volumeProvision of pedestrian crossingSignal lightVehicle speed

  • Statistical Report Road Accident, Royal Malaysian Police. 2005

  • Statistical Report Road Accident, Royal Malaysian Police. 2005

  • Fatality Model and Safety Target in Malaysia

  • Fatality Model and Safety Target in Malaysia

  • Predictive Model of Yearly Traffic Deaths

  • Approaches used in Road Safety ProgrammesAccident Preventions (proactive action)

    Accident Reduction (reactive action)Improvement of hazardous locationMotorcycle lanePaving of road shoulderImprovement of dangerous curve

  • Approaches used in Road Safety ProgrammesPedestrian crossingOvertaking laneStreet lightingRoad Maintenance

    Road Maintenance

    Building New Road

  • Fatalities per 10.000 Vehicles

  • Profil Jumlah Kendaraan di Indonesia Tahun 1990 - 2003

  • Profil Kecelakaan Jalan di Indonesia Tahun 1990 - 2003

  • Profil Kecelakaan Jalan di Indonesia Tahun 1990 - 2003

  • Profil Kecelakaan Jalan di Indonesia Tahun 1990 - 2003

  • Faktor Penyebab Kecelakaan di IndonesiaPengguna Jalan (lengah, mabuk, ngebut, jarak terlalu dekat, penyeberang jalan, hewan) 93,52%Jalan (persimpangan, marka/rambu tidak jelas, permukaan licin) 3,23%Kendaraan (ban pecah, rem blong, kemudi dan lampu tidak berfungsi) 2,76%Lingkungan (mix traffic, pengawasan dan penegakan hukum, cuaca) 0,49%

  • The Weak Link!Millions of dollars are spent every year on safer car design and car safety systems.

    Millions of dollars are spent every year on safer road designs

    Only a few hundred dollars is spent on the most important factorTHE DRIVER!

  • Age the younger driverLimited skillsSense of overconfidenceYounger drivers tend to drive faster, drive at night, and drive while drunk.After the first year of driving, young drivers have acquired the basic control skills of driving but not the tactical and strategic judgment needed for safe driving.

  • Age the older driverInformation-processing impairmentsSlower response timeA more restricted field of attentionReduced time-sharing abilitiesReduced visual capacity, especially at nightOlder drivers compensate by driving more slowly and by not driving at night.Older drivers drive less safely at the control level but can compensate with appropriate choices at the tactical and strategic levels.

  • The Impaired Driver AlcoholInvolved in approximately 50% of fatal highway accidents in the U.S.With blood alcohol content as low as 0.05%, drivers react more slowly, are poorer at tracking, are less effective at time-sharing, and show impaired information processing.One of the most effect interventions may be social norming.Fatigue has roughly the same effect as alcohol.

  • Impairment interactions A combination of fatigue, alcohol, and age can combine to degrade driving performanceThe presence of passengers may be distracting and encourage risky behavior.A young person driving with friends at night and after drinking is an extremely dangerous combination.

  • Perilaku Pengendara

  • Perilaku Pengendara

  • Perilaku Pengendara

  • Perilaku Pengendara

  • Perilaku Pengendara

  • Perilaku Pengendara

  • DISTRACTED DRIVINGDoes Cause CrashesNo Reliable info on degree of involvementCell PhonesThe worstHands free is no betterDVD PlayersPortable and mountedRapidly growing issueAll the old standbysNot as bad as above

  • Drowsy & Distracted Driving

  • DISTRACTED DRIVING

  • The 3 Es

  • EducationThe raising awareness of hazards and how to avoid them

    Child car seatsGreen Cross CodeInduction trainingSubliminal AdvertisingIncentive schemesAccident Investigations

  • Training and selection Tests of static visual acuity have very little relevance for driving.Driver's Education class may not help.Behind the wheel navigation in a vehicle may not be the best test.Simulators for training and for testing can be helpful and cost effective.

  • Driver adaptation and risk calibrationPeople do not respond rapidly to the unexpected.Since most people have not been in an accident, their expectancy is set at zero.Risk homeostasis - people tend to maintain their risk even with added safety features.

  • Condition Diagrams

  • Collision DiagramsIdentify common crash types or conditionsNeed police crash reports to constructMay require several years of crash records

  • Crash Mapping

  • A More Detailed Look2/5/12, day, wet9/25/99, day, dry12/31/01,night,snow,dui

  • Priority

    SEVERITYFREQUENCYFrequentOccasionalRareFatalURGENTHIGHMEDIUMSeriousHIGHMEDIUMLOWMinorMEDIUMLOWLOW

  • Collision Into Portable Barrier

  • Final Rest of 1996 Freightliner

  • Final Rest of Chevrolet SUV

  • Time to react to a perceived hazard Two seconds is a minimum.

  • EngineeringAltering the environment to reduce risk and chance taking

    Safer car designRoad designSeparating vehicles and pedestriansTraffic management systemsEmergency response

  • Driving Safety ImprovementsDriver characteristicsTraining and selectionDriver adaptation and risk calibrationRegulatory complianceVehicle characteristics Sensing and warningsProtective devices

  • Driver adaptation and risk calibrationThe design of vehicle performance improvements, such as antilock brakes, may make the driver adjust the driving speed to maintain the same perceived risk (risk homeostatis).The design of protection features, such as widening highways from 2 to 4 lanes, has a positive effect on safety.

  • Sensing and warningsHigh-mounted brake lightsSome direct sensors of the rate of closure with the leading car

  • Protective devices Failure to use shoulder/lap seat belts is associated with a 40% increase in fatalities.Air bags have a similar protective value.The most critical factor contributing to driver survival after a crash is the time from the crash scene to an emergency room.

  • Road designDefine engineers role in designing, operating, and maintaining safe intersections.

  • Engineers RoleChallengesSafety vs. efficiencyUniformity vs. flexibility in design & operationProactive vs. reactive in addressing safetyGlobal vs. local scope of solution

  • Engineering For SafetyProblem Identification

    Special users: older drivers, trucks, peds

  • EnforcementThe formal sanctions to deter risk taking behaviour

    Fines & imprisonmentInsuranceMinimum safety standardsName & shameDriver Improvement Scheme

  • Regulatory complianceTickets and warningsPhoto radar (controversial)When the highway speed limit was increased to 65 mph, the number of fatalities increased 10 to 16%.Police randomly rewarding seat-belt use by drivers with cash and coupons

  • General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in IndonesiaGeometryJunctionsSignal Controlled JunctionsSigns and MarkingsPedestrian Crossing

  • General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in IndonesiaGeometryBus Stops/Vehicle Parking, stopping on main carriagewayLandscaping, plants grow to traffic signRoad surfacing, polishing effect

  • General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in IndonesiaJunctionsGeometry of major junctions, wide junction with wide approachSide road junctions, scene of conflictsRight turn maneuvers on the route, serious problem

  • General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in IndonesiaSignal Controlled JunctionsIncorrect arrangement, object obstructing signal heads, inadequate inter-green.Access to signal-controlled junctions, uncontrolled-road access to signal controlled junctions observedPedestrian facilities, high number of pedestrian fatalitiesPlacement of signal posts, sited in the walking path.

  • General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in IndonesiaSigns and MarkingsInconsistent signing, leads to confusion and indecisionAdvance traffic sign and local directions, early and advance traffic signingSign facings, too small size of letter.Carriageway markings, badly design and poorly laid out.

  • General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in IndonesiaPedestrian CrossingLack of advance warning, result in more serious injuryLack of conspicuityWidth of pedestrian, too narrow

  • Upaya Meminimalkan KecelakaanPembatasan Usia dalam pemberian SIMPembatasan lama waktu mengemudi tanpa istirahat (2-4 jam)Ujian pengemudiPenggunaan sabuk pengamanPenyuluhan dan kampanye keselamatan lalulintas

  • Surat Ijin Mengemudi (SIM)SIM-D usia 16 tahun, kecepatan sepeda motor < 40 kpjSIM-C usia 16 tahun, kecepatan sepeda motor > 40 kpjSIM-A usia 17 tahun, berat kendaraan < 3.500kgSIM-B1 berat kendaraan > 3.500kg, punya SIM-A > 12blnSIM-B2 kendaraan dengan gandengan, punya SIM-B1 > 12bln

  • Generic Measures Beneficial to Specific Road Safety Issues

    Road Safety IssuesClasses of InitiativesBetter EnforcementPublicEducationLower SpeedsSafer RoadsOccupant ProtectionSafer Modes of TravelPlanning a Safer SystemDrink-driving Speeding No Seat Belt Driver Fatigue Drugs

  • Generic Measures Beneficial to Specific Road Safety Issues

    Road Safety IssuesClasses of InitiativesBetter EnforcementPublicEducationLower SpeedsSafer RoadsOccupant ProtectionSafer Modes of TravelPlanning a Safer SystemYoung Drivers Older Drivers Motor-cycles Bicycles Pedes-trians H. Veh.

  • They are NEVER to young to learn about Traffic Safety

  • Final ThoughtWhen I die, I want to die like my grandfather who died peacefully in his sleep. Not screaming like all the passengers in his car.- Author Unknown

  • Traffic SafetyTS4273 Traffic Engineering

    *This is the drivers side of the car. See the intact seat belt hanging there. See the intact window frame and door frame. Had the driver been using his belt he would have crawled out of the car and talked about the E-Ticket ride. Instead he died of suffocation. Not from injuries. You cant breath with a 3000 lb car on you chest.*Can anyone spot a safety hazard on this diagram?Trees on outsides of curvesUtility pole in front of guardrailSigns improperly placedPines may cause sight distance problem at intersectionUnprotected headwall

    What if you do the diagram, and it gets subpoenaed? - have a plan for correcting any safety deficiencies you may find- execute the plan.*A collision diagram can be a useful tool for identifying common crash types or conditions that frequently exist during crashes at intersections or on road segments. To prepare a collision diagram, you will need to know the layout of the intersection or the road segment. You will also need the police crash reports to construct the diagram.

    The graphic shows the vehicle movement and crash severity; crash type, date, and time; and identification number for each incident.

    Understand that there are some serious drawbacks to crash analysis. First, you need enough quality data to get a good perspective on the area and its problems, but you cannot conduct an a...