TOPICS IN (NANO) BIOTECHNOLOGY Introduction to Nanotechnology

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PhD Course. TOPICS IN (NANO) BIOTECHNOLOGY Introduction to Nanotechnology. May 12th, 2004. Simeonova, 1994. Eigler, 1990. Nanotechnology: What is it?. Nano derived from Greek word for dwarf. Nanotechnology is defined in terms of linear scale . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Nanotechnology: What is it?Nano derived from Greek word for dwarf.Nanotechnology is defined in terms of linear scale.It describes materials, systems & devices with characteristic dimensions in the range 1-100 nanometer.In 1999, less than 2% of Fortune 2000 executives were able to define the term, but products are on the high street now!

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  • And how small is nano?

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  • And how small is nano?

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  • Applied Nanotechnology Examples of Current Research and Applications

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  • Disruptive Apps - MaterialsFiber that is stronger than spider webMetal 100 xs stronger than steel, 1/6 weightCatalysts that respond more quickly and to more agentsPlastics that conduct electricityCoatings that are nearly frictionless (Shipping Industry) Materials that change color and transparency on demand.Materials that are self repairing, self cleaning, and never need repainting.Nanoscale powders that are five times as light as plastic but provide the same radiation protection as metal.

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  • Changing properties on nanoscale

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  • Disruptive Apps - EnergyFuel cell technology becomes cost effective within 3 years. Batteries that store more energy and are much more efficient Plastics and paints that will store solar power and convert to energy for $1 per watt.

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  • Disruptive Apps - ComputingSilicon is hitting its size limit, Moores law reaches maximum in 2007SuperChips Combination of Silicon and Galium Arsenide create wireless chipsPlastic semiconductors manufactured by regular printing devices cheaply produced.Electronic Paper

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  • Disruptive Apps Bio MedicineCosmetics that can penetrate the skinCures for Aids, Cancers, Alzheimer's, DiabetesAbility to view cells In vivo - Fast Drug CreationNanomaterials that can see inside vessels for plaque buildupTechnology that can re-grow bone and organsNanoSensors for disease detection 10xs faster and 100,000 xs more accurateNanofilters will help create impurity free drugs.

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  • Key Terms You Need to KnowBuckyBallsCarbon NanotubesMEMSQuantum DotsMolecular Self Repair/AssemblyMRAM/SpintronicsLithography

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  • Carbon Nanotubes4 nm width (smaller diameter than DNA)100xs stronger than steel 1/6 weightThermal/electrically conductiveMetallic and Semi-Conductive

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  • BuckyBalls C60Roundest and most symmetrical molecule known to manCompressed becomes stronger than diamondThird major form of pure carbonHeat resistance and electrical conductivity

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  • MEMS and Quantum DotsQuantum Dot

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  • Technology Momentum Reminders"There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home." (Ken Olsen, Digital Equipment Corp, 1977) "Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons." (Popular Mechanics, 1949) "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers." (IBM's Thomas Watson, 1943)

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  • History of the integrated circuit1958-1959: Integrated circuit invented byJack Kilby (Texas Instruments)Robert Noyce (Fairchild Semiconductor)

    1965: Gordon Moore (Intel)Observes that the density of transistors (computing elements) has been doubling every two yearsPredicts this will continue or speed upPredicts 65,000 transistors per chip by 1975

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  • Moores Law

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  • Approaches: Top-Down & Bottom-UpIntersection occurred ~AD2000

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  • HistoryRichard Feyman Eric Drexler

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  • History5000 BC: Democritus postulates atoms to be the fundamental building blocks of the visible world: atom not cleavable

    1959: Feynman delivers Caltech lecture Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html)

    1974: Norio Taniguchi conceives the word nanotechnology

    1981: Binnig & Rohrer build first scanning tunnelling microscope (STM)

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  • History cont1989: Eigler writes IBM company logo using Xe atoms placed in position using a STM

    January 2000, Bill Clinton announces $0.5B National Nanotechnology Initiative

    April 2000, Bill Joy (co-founder of Sun Microsystems) stated that research into nanotechnology should stop immediately, as developments in the wrong hands could end life, as we know it!

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  • HistoryBut I am not afraid to consider the final question as to whether, ultimately in the great future we can arrange the atoms the way we want; the very atoms, all the way down! Feynman, 1959D.M. Eigler, E.K. Schweizer. Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope. Nature 344, 524-526 (1990).

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  • History cont2001 - Prince Charles refers to grey goo and Michael Crichton writes Prey

    In the Nevada desert, an experiment has gone horribly wrong. A cloud of nanoparticles -- micro-robots -- has escaped from the laboratory. This cloud is self-sustaining and self-reproducing. It is intelligent and learns from experience. For all practical purposes, it is alive. It has been programmed as a predator. It is evolving swiftly, becoming more deadly with each passing hour. Every attempt to destroy it has failed. And we are the prey.

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  • General CommentsExponential increase in use of the word nano in the popular press (~point on hype-line that equates to 1993 for the internet.

    Different from the internet in that nanotechnology requires an integrated understanding and collaboration between multiple fields of science (biology, physics, chemistry, material and computer science, mechanical and electrical engineering)

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  • General Comments cont.Biology has evolved nano-components and systems that exhibit motor, memory, sensor, signal processing, catalysis, synthesis, circuitry, and delivery functions.

    Mimicking the precision and efficiency already present in biological systems is likely to yield the greatest results - the starting position being components and processes that have been perfected through millions of years of evolution under diverse environment conditions.

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  • General Comments cont.Nanotechnology commercial enterprises must have tangible products or processes, not just information (.com)

    Not all nanotechnology is new (nano-sized carbon black particles have been used as a reinforcing agent in car tyres for the last 100 years)

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  • Funding for Nanotechnology

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  • Soft Lithography

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  • Dip-Pen Lithography

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  • Nanoelectronics

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  • Nanomechanisms

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  • Nanobiotechnology

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  • Nanobiotechnology

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  • DNA computing

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  • Some QuotesAny intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex and more violent. It takes a touch of genius and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction (A. Einstein)

    Nanotechnology is like ladies lingerie; the more one invests the less one gets. (Evolution Capital, January 2001)

    Nano says: Socialists not perfect, but still best. (General Nano, Tirana, May 2001)

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  • What were going to look atImportance of sizeFundamental sciencesTools for nanosciencesSmart MaterialsSensorsBiomedical applicationsOptics & electronicsNanobusiness

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