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<ul><li><p>The State of Climate Change Adaptation in </p><p>the Great Lakes Region </p><p>Rachel M. Gregg, Kirsten M. Feifel, Jessi M. Kershner, and Jessica L. Hitt </p><p>October 2012 </p></li><li><p>Cover photo: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) </p></li><li><p>The State of Climate Change Adaptation in </p><p>the Great Lakes Region </p><p>October 2012 </p><p>Rachel M. Gregg, Kirsten M. Feifel, Jessi M. Kershner, and Jessica L. Hitt </p><p>EcoAdapt </p><p>PO Box 11195 </p><p>Bainbridge Island, WA 98110 </p></li><li><p>Please cite this publication as: </p><p>Gregg, R. M., K. M. Feifel, J. M. Kershner, and J. L. Hitt. 2012. The State of Climate Change </p><p>Adaptation in the Great Lakes Region. EcoAdapt, Bainbridge Island, WA. </p></li><li><p>Acknowledgements </p><p>Thank you to the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation for providing financial support. We would </p><p>especially like to thank Sam Passmore for his guidance. </p><p>Thank you to our peer reviewers, Heather Stirratt (NOAA's National Ocean Service) and Molly </p><p>Woloszyn (Midwestern Regional Climate Center/Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant), for their invaluable </p><p>input and insights. </p><p>Finally, thank you to the numerous individuals who contributed materials and participated in </p><p>interviews and surveys for this project. We hope that our products will promote and support your </p><p>adaptation efforts. </p></li><li><p>Table of Contents </p><p> Executive Summary ................................................................................................................... 2 </p><p>Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 4 </p><p>Climate Change and the Great Lakes Region ........................................................................... 6 </p><p>Air Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................... 10 </p><p>Lake Temperature and Ice Cover .............................................................................................................................. 13 </p><p>Precipitation .................................................................................................................................................................. 15 </p><p>Lake Levels .................................................................................................................................................................... 16 </p><p>Water Chemistry ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 </p><p>Adaptation Projects and Programs in the Great Lakes Region .............................................. 20 </p><p>Adaptation Projects and Initiatives ........................................................................................................................... 20 </p><p>Capacity Building ..................................................................................................................................................... 22 </p><p>Design or reform institutions ............................................................................................................................ 22 </p><p>Conduct research, studies, and assessments ................................................................................................... 27 </p><p>Conduct training and planning exercises ......................................................................................................... 31 </p><p>Increase/improve public awareness, education, and outreach efforts ....................................................... 34 </p><p>Create/enhance resources and tools ................................................................................................................ 36 </p><p>Monitor climate change impacts and adaptation efficacy ............................................................................. 39 </p><p>Policy.......................................................................................................................................................................... 41 </p><p>Develop/implement adaptation plans ............................................................................................................. 41 </p><p>Create new or enhance existing policies or regulations ................................................................................ 43 </p><p>Develop/implement adaptive management strategies .................................................................................. 45 </p><p>Natural Resource Management and Conservation ............................................................................................. 47 </p><p>Incorporate climate-smart guidelines into restoration .................................................................................. 47 </p><p>Enhance connectivity and areas under protection ......................................................................................... 48 </p><p>Reduce local climate or related change ............................................................................................................ 49 </p></li><li><p>Reduce non-climate stressors likely to interact with climate change .......................................................... 50 </p><p>Infrastructure, Planning, and Development ........................................................................................................ 53 </p><p>Make infrastructure resistant or resilient to climate change ......................................................................... 53 </p><p>Community planning (developing climate-smart communities) .................................................................. 55 </p><p>Create or modify shoreline management measures ....................................................................................... 57 </p><p>Develop disaster preparedness plans and policies ......................................................................................... 58 </p><p>Regional Challenges and Opportunities ................................................................................. 59 </p><p>Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 62 </p><p>Appendices .............................................................................................................................. 63 </p><p>A. Climate Change Adaptation Literature ............................................................................................................ 64 </p><p>B. State of Adaptation Methodology .................................................................................................................... 65 </p><p>C. Adaptation Case Studies from the Great Lakes Region (by strategy) ......................................................... 67 </p><p>D. Adaptation Case Studies Compendium ........................................................................................................... 76 </p><p>A Roadmap for Action: The Chicago Climate Action Plan ......................................................................... 79 </p><p>Adapting to Climate Change in Ontario Parks ............................................................................................... 83 </p><p>Addressing Climate Change Impacts in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement .............................. 87 </p><p>Addressing Climate Change in the International Upper Great Lakes Study ............................................. 90 </p><p>Assessing the Relative Coastal Vulnerability of National Park Units to Sea Level Rise and Lake Level </p><p>Changes ................................................................................................................................................................. 92 </p><p>Building Capacity for Climate-Resilient Communities and Water Conservation in the Huron River </p><p>Watershed ............................................................................................................................................................. 94 </p><p>Canadas Regional Adaptation Collaboratives Climate Change Program .................................................. 97 </p><p>ClimAID: Developing a Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Assessment for New York State .. 99 </p><p>Climate Adaptation in the City of Ann Arbor, Michigan ........................................................................... 103 </p><p>Climate Change Adaptation Planning at the State Level in Minnesota .................................................... 106 </p><p>Climate Change Adaptation Planning at the State Level in Pennsylvania ............................................... 109 </p><p>Climate Change and Coastal Adaptation Options for the Great Lakes ................................................... 112 </p></li><li><p>Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Planning in Wisconsins Lake Michigan Coastal </p><p>Communities ...................................................................................................................................................... 115 </p><p>Climate Change, the Great Lakes, and Mining ............................................................................................. 117 </p><p>Climate Consortium for Research Action and Integration (CC-RAI) ...................................................... 119 </p><p>Creating a National Adaptation Strategy for the United States: The Interagency Climate Change </p><p>Adaptation Task Force ..................................................................................................................................... 121 </p><p>Developing a Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Forest and Water Resources in Alger County, </p><p>Michigan ............................................................................................................................................................. 124 </p><p>Developing a National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy for the United States127 </p><p>Developing Ontarios Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan ........................................ 129 </p><p>Enhancing Climate Change Education and Outreach for Wisconsins Coastal Communities ............ 132 </p><p>Fish, Fisheries, and Water Resources: Adapting to Ontarios Changing Climate................................... 134 </p><p>Fostering a Climate-Informed Community Perspective in the Great Lakes: The Great Lakes </p><p>Community Climate Program ......................................................................................................................... 139 </p><p>Great Lakes Adaptation Assessment for Cities ............................................................................................ 142 </p><p>Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Communities: Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Adaptation </p><p>Strategies ............................................................................................................................................................. 145 </p><p>Great Lakes Observing System ....................................................................................................................... 148 </p><p>Great Lakes Restoration Initiative .................................................................................................................. 150 </p><p>Helping Michigans Farmers Understand and Adapt to the Impacts of Climate Change ..................... 153 </p><p>Identifying Climate Refugia for Moose Populations in Voyageurs National Park (VOYA) using GPS </p><p>Telemetry ............................................................................................................................................................ 156 </p><p>Incorporating Climate Change into TMDL Decisions for Lake Champlain .......................................... 158 </p><p>Integrating Climate Change into Municipal Watershed Management in Ontario .................................. 161 </p><p>Integrating Climate Change into the Planning and Operations of the Apostle Islands National </p><p>Lakeshore, Wisconsin ....................................................................................................................................... 164 </p><p>Integrating Climate Change into Water Quality Monitoring on the Fond du Lac Reservation in </p><p>Minnesota ........................................................................................................................................................... 167 </p><p>Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Combined and Separate Sewer Overflows in </p><p>Milwaukee Watersheds ..................................................................................................................................... 169 </p></li><li><p>London, Ontarios Climate Change Adaptation Strategy ........................................................................... 171 </p><p>New Yorks Climate Smart Communities Program .................................................................................... 173 </p><p>Ontario Regional Adaptation Collaborative ................................................................................................. 175 </p><p>Pennsylvania Sea Grants Climate Change Outreach and Research Projects .......................................... 177 </p><p>Planning for Climate Change in the Province of Quebec .......................................................................... 180 </p><p>Preparing for Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region ......................................................................... 183 </p><p>Project Clean Lake: Updating Clevelands Sewer Systems to Reduce Stormwater Overflows ............ 186 </p><p>Quebec Citys Environmental Services Adaptation Plan............................................................................ 188 </p><p>Quebec Regional Adaptation Collaborative ................................................................................................. 190 </p><p>Rein in the Runoff: Michigans Spring Lake Stormwater Management Project ..................................... 192 </p><p>Sustaining Lakes in a Changing Environment (SLICE): A Long-term Monitoring and Evaluation </p><p>Program .............................................................................................................................................................. 195 </p><p>The Chicago Wilderness Climate Action Plan for Nature ......................................................................... 198 </p><p>The City of Torontos Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: From Development to Implementation</p><p> .............................................................................................................................................................................. 201 </p><p>The Climate Change Response Framework: Supporting Climate-Smart Conservation and Forest </p><p>Management in the Great Lakes Region ....................................................................................................... 205 </p><p>The Michigan Climate Coalition: Enhancing Networking and Collaboration, Communication, and </p><p>Action Around Climate Change in Michigan ............................................................................................... 208 </p><p>The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Great Lakes Climate Initiatives ................ 210 </p><p>The National W...</p></li></ul>

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