The Missing Loonie Riddle. Sources of Evidence for Evolution 1.Fossil Evidence 2.Biogeography Evidence 3.Anatomy Evidence 4.Embryology Evidence 5.DNA

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<p>Lamarck Vs. Darwin</p> <p>The Missing Loonie Riddle</p> <p>Sources of Evidence for EvolutionFossil EvidenceBiogeography EvidenceAnatomy EvidenceEmbryology EvidenceDNA Evidence</p> <p>How do we know that evolution occured?2</p> <p>1. Fossil Evidence</p> <p>As new rock is formed, the older rock layers become deposited under the new rock layers. </p> <p>Creates a geological time scale</p> <p>65 million years ago to recent (Cenozoic)250 mya to 65 mya (Mesozoic)540 mya to 250 mya (Paleozoic)3</p> <p> In each of the layers of rock, different fossils can be found according to major extinction events.</p> <p> Comparing fossils at various depths, one can compare fossil records 4Fossil Records: In SummaryFossils found in young layers of rock (closer to the surface) are similar to species alive today than the ones found in older (deeper) layers of rock.Fossils appear in chronological order in rock layers.Transitional FossilsTransitional Fossils a fossil that shows the intermediary links between two groups of organisms with slight different features.</p> <p>?</p> <p>Eusthenopteron to Tiktaalik to Acanthostega</p> <p>6</p> <p>Transitional Fossils Evidence of Evolution</p> <p> The modern day whale evolved from an aquatic species Dorudon which contained a hind limb.</p> <p> Dorudon evolved from terrestrial species which had a function for the hind limbs.Transitional Fossils8</p> <p>Fossil evidence suggests that modern toothed whales evolved from a terrestrial ancestor.Modern toothed whaleRodhocetus kasrani had small hindlimbsAmbulocetus natans likely walked on landPakicetus attocki lived on land</p> <p>Dorudon and Basilosaurus (not shown)Whale Evolution Summarized</p> <p>2. BiogeographyThe study of the past and present geographical distribution of organismsGeographical DistributionGeographically close environments are more likely to be populated by related species than locations that are geographically separate but environmentally similar.</p> <p>Species found on islands often closely resemble species found on the nearest islands and continents.</p> <p>Animals that are found in areas close to one another are often closely related.They may however have different features due to environmental differences.E.g. Darwins FinchesClosely Related But Different Features</p> <p>13If two species live far away from one another but live in similar environments they are likely to have similar features. Environment puts selective pressure for a species to adapt to the environment. Evolved from different ancestorsDistantly Related But Similar Features</p> <p>Geographical Distribution - FossilsFossils of the same species can be found on the coastlines of neighbouring continents.Due to the fact that the world was once Pangaea.</p> <p>Closely related species are almost never found in exactly the same location or habitat.Due to competition</p> <p>153. Anatomy EvidenceHomologous structures structures that have similar structural elements and origin but may have a different function</p> <p>Analogous structures structures of organisms that do not have a common evolutionary origin but perform similar functions.</p> <p>Analogous Structures The camera type eye in vertebrates (e.g. humans) and mollusks (e.g. octopus) evolved separately but function in a similar way.</p> <p>Vestigial structures are remnants of structures that may have had important functions in ancestral species but have no clear function in some modern descendants. </p> <p>Vestigial Features in Humans</p> <p>4. Embryology</p> <p>The study of early, pre-birth stages of an organisms development</p> <p>21Embryology DevelopedEmbryos of closely related organisms often have similar stages in development.All vertebrates at some point of development possess gill pouches (eventually develops into the chin and other skull bone structures).</p> <p>All vertebrate animals have tails during development (some will continue to develop their tails while others do not)</p> <p>5. DNA EvidenceIf two species have similar patterns in their DNA, these DNA sequences must have been inherited from a common ancestor.</p> <p>Homework/In-class Questions# 1, 3, 5, 8-12 (page 340)</p>