the franco-prussian war 1870
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DESCRIPTIONThe Franco-Prussian War 1870. Patricia Barry 2014. Franco-Prussian Relations. The aggressive attitudes of Prussia were causing many difficulties in Europe. There were very deep anti-French feelings towards Prussia following the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
La guerre franco-prussien 1870
The Franco-Prussian War 1870Patricia Barry 2014.
Franco-Prussian RelationsThe aggressive attitudes of Prussia were causing many difficulties in Europe.There were very deep anti-French feelings towards Prussia following the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s. This hostility increased in France under the Second Empire and Emperor Napoleon IIINapoleon III
Prussia At this time, Germany as a country did not exist. It was a collection of about one hundred German states, of which Prussia was the largest.
Map showing Prussian expansion from 1700 to 1871 During the 19th century, the Prussian army had become the most powerful in Europe. The French philosopher, Voltaire, commented: Prussia isn't a country with an army; its an army with a country.The Prussian armyA desire for unificationBismarck, the Prussian Chancellor, wanted to unify all the German states. However, he foresaw that to do this, he would somehow need to consolidate German unity.One way of doing this could be a victorious war against France.
Bismarck An opportune momentIn 1870, Bismarck saw that the time was rightThe French army was not prepared for war:Its artillery was weakIts tactics were old-fashioned and unsuited to modern warfareThe generals were old and lacked courage.
A pretext for war.However, in the end it was the French who declared war! The Spanish throne had become vacant. William II, the king of Prussia, proposed a Prussian candidate his cousin.
The King of Prussia: William IINo to a Prussian candidate.Obviously, the prospect of having Prussian neighbours both to the North and the South (in Spain) was totally unacceptable to the French. http://www.ict.griffith.edu.au/wiseman/Alternate/Alternative-Europe
SpainThe declaration of war. The French called the proposal of a Prussian candidate a provocation. On 19th July 1870, they declared war against Prussia, thanks to a controversial leaked telegram in which the punctuation had been tweaked.
Source: wikipediaThe combat The conditions for embarking on war were unfavourable for the French. The country was diplomatically isolated, andHad a badly organised army, which was inferior in number to the Prussians.
The war.Defeats for the French were numerous The French had to withdraw their troops from Alsace. The Prussians invaded France
Defeat at Sedan.
Even worse, at Sedan in Lorraine, Emperor Napoleon III was taken prisoner by the Prussians and interned. The defeated Emperor with victorious BismarckSedanHis army had to surrender. It was the fall of his (the Second) Empire.
The Prussians arrive at Paris The Prussian armies marched on Paris. By 18th September 1870, about 400,000 Prussians had arrived before Paris.
The siege begins.By the next day, 19th September, 1870, the city was surrounded, in spite of fierce resistance. The Siege of Paris had commenced.
The siegeParis The city was too proud to surrender to the enemyThe siege lasted from 20th September 1870 to 28th January 1871
Siege statistics.The PrussiansCOMMANDANTMarchal Helmuth von MoltkeFORCES PRESENT206 000 foot soldiers34 000 cavalry898 campaign artillery240 siege enginesin all 240 000 menLOSSES10 000 killed and wounded2 000 missing The FrenchCOMMANDANTGnral Louis TrochuFORCES PRESENT355 000 foot soldiers5 000 cavalry1 964 canonsin all 400 000 menLOSSES16 000 killed and wounded8 000 missing Lartillerie prussienne
The city of Paris was defended by two sizeable rings of fortifications which included 94 forts.Von Moltkes troops occupied the high ground around the capital, and installed their artillery there. They then began to shell the City walls and houses which terrified Parisians. In the city.For three months no-one could enter or leave the city, except by hot air balloon! During the siege, the only means the city had to communicate with the outside world was through using these balloons.
ICRC / F. Boissonnas / hist-01774-09aHot air balloons.This was the first aerial war. Microfilms were used for the first time, permitting the transmission (and conservation) of huge amounts of official documentsMicrofilm was also used to transfer private mail into Free France.
The first Montgolfire*postHeres a stamp which commemorates the centenary of the first air mail ! The first balloon, the Neptune, left Paris loaded up with 125 kilos of mail. After a flight of 3h 15 mins it landed 75km from the city.
* The French word for Hot Air Balloon is Montgolfire, named after its inventors, the Frres Montgolfier.Preparation of a Montgolfire.This photo shows a group inflating the balloon and getting ready before the flight. People took great risks. Firstly, it was impossible to maintain the balloons in a good condition during the siege. Once in the air, the Prussians tried to shoot them down. Even one tiny hole in the balloon would swiftly put an end to its flight!
A courageous balloonist from the era described his dangerous flight: I can hear the enemy cannon thundering at our city gates; in my imagination I can see the Prussians waiting for me, guns raised and spitting a hail of bullets into my aerial craft. An account from a balloonistResistance. Nobody and nothing could enter or leave the capital and this presented many problems. How were people going to feed themselves, defend the city and replace arms and bullets? Parisians chose not to surrender and everyone contributed to the resistance against the Prussians.
What to eat? Parisians were deprived of food and were dying from hunger. They ate cats, dogs, rate and miceand even these animals were no longer to be seen on the streets.
A Christmas dinner. The menu that follows was offered by a restaurant during the siege. It was a special menu for Christmas day. There was no more fresh meat or vegetables. People had come down to eating the animals from the Paris Zoo as no-one could feed them any more. Its clear from reading it that the chef had a sense of humour! CAF VOISIN. G. Braquessac, 261, rue Saint-Honor.99e JOUR DU SIGE le 25 dcembre 1870HORS D'UVREButter - Radishes Stuffed donkeys head -Sardines
SOUPSKidney bean pure with crotonsElephant ConsommENTREESFried pikeRoasted camel English styleKangaroo stew Roasted bear ribs in a pepper sauceROASTSLeg of wolf, with a kid sauce Cat flanked with ratsWatercress saladTerrine of Antelope with truffles Cpe Mushrooms in a Bordeaux wine sauce Petits pois in butter DESSERTS
Rice cake with jamGruyre cheese
VINSPREMIER SERVICE Xrs Mouton Rotschild 1846 Latour Blanche 1861 Ch. Palmer 1864 DEUXIEME SERVICERomane Conti 1858Bellenger frappGrand porto 1827
Caf et liqueursParisians were dying of hunger On 26th January, General Trochu asked for an armistice. On 28th January, Paris surrendered. Surrender. La Commune The post war period was marked by a dreadful insurrection called: la Commune.
La Commune The people of Paris were:Left feeling hopeless because of their deprivations, Totally exhausted because of the hardships of a long siege, Humiliated because of the surrender to the Prussians who were continually showing off Whipped up through revolutionary propaganda Exasperated by the new repressive laws passed by the National Assembly.
The CommunardsSo they joined up with the National Guard, and then the troops of Paris. They formed a revolutionary Council called the Commune de Paris.
The army of Versailles. The government retreated to Versailles With the help of an army comprising returned soldier-prisoners from Prussia, they began to put siege to the capital.
The Communards fall a statue of the Emperor. The re-taking of the ParisThe Army of Versailles entered Paris on 21st May They succeeded in taking the capital street by street. There were furious battles it was a veritable carnage during the course of a week known as the week of blood.
The defeat of the CommunardsOn 27th May, the last barricade fell. More than 30,000 Parisian communards had died.Repression A severe repression followed lasting may long months. There were 20,000 to 35,000 executions, 50,000 arrests 10,000 imprisoned and /or deported for life to Guyana or New Caledonia .
The execution of two Communards.The Peace Treaty was signed in Frankfort on 10th May 1871. France had to hand over Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia France was sentenced to pay war reparations to Prussia of 5 billion gold francs. And the end of the story?The Franco-Prussian war left a bitter heritage which would last for decades. People in France wanted to seek revenge for the humiliations that they had suffered. They wanted Alsace and Lorraine back as part of France. This war would be one of the causes of the First World War (1914 1918).Heritage.