The conservation of parks and gardens in Italy

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  • This article was downloaded by: [Newcastle University]On: 21 December 2014, At: 11:27Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: MortimerHouse, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    The conservation of parks and gardens in ItalyMargherite Azzi Visentini a & Lionella Scazzosi ba University of Padova ,b Polytechnic University of Milan ,Published online: 24 Feb 2007.

    To cite this article: Margherite Azzi Visentini & Lionella Scazzosi (1987) The conservation of parks and gardens in Italy,Landscape Research, 12:2, 3-9, DOI: 10.1080/01426398708706224

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  • The Conservation of Parks and Gardens in Italy

    Margherite Azzi Visentini, University of PadovaandLionella Scazzosi, Polytechnic University of Milan

    1. Legislation and itsimplementation

    Concern for the conservation ofhistoric gardens and parks in Italydates to 1912 when a state lawprovided for the protection of'parks, villages and gardens ofhistoric interest'. 1913 and 1922saw the first partial inventories of'villas with gardens'. Subsequently,two statutes enacted in 1939 atndwhich still constitute the basicreference for the protection ofcultural estates and surrounds inItaly, radically alter the agenda.Statute 1089 of 1939, 'Protectionof objects of artistic and historicinterest' relates to villas, parks andgardens 'which have artistic andhistoric interest, and statute 1497of 1939, 'Protection of naturalbeauty', with its specific referenceto the countryside, extendsprotection to properties 'whichstand out on account of theirunusual beauty'; here 'unusualbeauty' refers to the importance ofthe flora or the space itself,particularly if it provides anattractive green zone within a city'slimits'.

    Although these two statutes havebeen subjected to much criticismand demands for revision in recentyears, it is nevertheless importantto recognize the breadth of the fieldthey can be made to cover ifopportunely applied: not only greenspace as an adjunct ( annoyingat times to developers!), but greenspace in its own right, not onlyproperties of artistic interest and/orhistoric importance, but also ofnatural interest; ie planted areas instreets and squares in addition tohistoric parks and gardens. In thisrespect Italy perhaps stands in amore favoured position to that ofother countries where space is notaccorded protection in its own rightbut only as an adjunct to anhistoric building2.

    Increased interest in Italy in greenspace today parallels the growth ofinternational concern. This wasapparent in the 1970s whenICOMOS sponsored the'International conference on theconservation and restoration of

    historic gardens', (Fontainebleau,1971), followed by a series offurther conferences at periodicintervals, at which many problemsof protection, maintenance,restoration and administration wereaddressed. In 1981 ICOMOS,together with IFLA proposed an'International Charter for theRestoration of Historic Gardens'(Charter of Florence, 1981). InItaly, the appearance of thisCharter heralded an acceleration oftheoretical discussion aboutprotection strategies, both by publicadministration and by centres forresearch and study.

    The Charter generated muchdebate among Italian scholars,especially as to what constitutes'restoration' and what is implied byrestoration to the 'original state*. Aspecifically Italian Charter wasdrawn up (Florence, 12 September,1981) and is discussed below.

    The definition of historic gardenused by the Italian Charter3, linkedto the legislation of 1939 goesfurther than the concept set out inthe International Charter, whichattributes value and historic interestonly to the green space adjoiningvillas and palaces. The Italiandocument refers to 'green spacearound dwellings' and the 'greenspace of historic town centres'.This recently introduced notion of'green architecture', takes invarious categories of landscapefeatures: 'historic villas andgardens; historic urban publicparks; squares, public walks, tree-lined urban streets, green spacearound public buildings and otherbuildings used by the public, suchas hospitals, schools, barracks,churches and cemeteries,commemorative monuments, baths,stations, . . .; roadside plantingoutside towns; archaeological sites;suburbs and city gardens'4.

    This theoretical discussion of thenature of restoration and thedefinition of green space was alsouseful because it produced a spateof new historic garden studieswhich in turn have inspired otherpublications5, as well asconferences where ideas are

    exchanged (the internationalconferences of 1984 and 1985 atPalermo and 1985 in Rome;exhibitions like that on Jappelli inPadua, etc.), and the establishmentof research centres, devoted todocumenting the history of gardens(Pietrasanta, Palermo).

    Strategies for the conservation ofhistoric green space are becomingincreasingly important, althoughattention is still focused more ongardens and parks than on otherforms of green architecture: publicbodies at different administrativelevels state, regional, provincial,municipal and also a number ofinstitutions are engaged in activitieswhich address the whole gamut ofprotection, from identifying andcataloguing valued landscapes tostandardizing legislation (theregions), to administration andutilization, to maintenance,conservation and restoration. Allthis is supported by workconducted by the universities,research bodies and associations.

    The Ministero peri Beni Culturali eAmbientali (BBCCeAA) hasinitiated its own protectionschemes, which, since 1983, havebeen particularly useful to theofficial 'Committee for the Studyand Protection of HistoricGardens', which unites multi-disciplinary skills and encouragesthe involvement of the moreimportant associations for theprotection and improvement ofcultural heritage. Until now theactivity conducted by theCommittee has mainly concernedisolated gardens and parksbelonging to villas6. In addition toadopting the Charter of ItalianRestoration, as already stated, theCommittee has begun a count of allestates, as defined by the 1939statute (there is as yet no single up-to-date inventory of these), isconducting an investigation into theproblems of administration,maintenance and use of all landedestate gardens, and intendspublication of two manuals, one atechnical history, the other dealingwith the maintenance of historicgardens.

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  • The decentralized levels ofgovernment the regions display considerable variety ofapproaches to the question ofgarden protection. The PiedmontRegion has direct control ofoperations, from maintenance torestoration, improvement andadministration of the few, large-scale, classified landscapes undertheir jurisdiction, in particular theSacri Monti, and residences withparks and the hunting groundsaround Turin, such as Stupinigi.

    The Region of Tuscany, on theother hand, has almost completedan inventory of all the villa gardenswithin its boundaries, andconsideration is already being givento expanding and modifying thescope of the investigation7.However, a fully orchestratedpolicy for maintenance operationshas yet to be initiated.

    The Regions of Venice andCampania enjoy the benefit ofspecific 'Regional Institutes forVillas' (Venetian and Campanian),which take direct action, byacquisition and conservation, orindirect action, by providing adviceto private owners. However, theirfocus of operation has mainly beenon the buildings themselves, whilegardens and parks have takensecond place.

    The Lombardy Region collaborateswith the Milan Faculty ofArchitecture which has produced areport assessing the current outlookfor the protection and conservationof green architecture in Italy8.

    The compiling of inventories is themost important of practicalprotection activities beingconducted in Italy at the moment.A number of researchers aretesting the method proposed byICCD (Central Institute forCataloguing and Documentation),the technical and scientific organ ofthe Ministry for BBCCeAAS. Allthis inventory work is moving inthe direction of widening the field ofconcern, whether in the temporalsense by extending the research totake in contemporary landscapework, or involving architecturaltypologies which include allhistorical green architecture parks, gardens, squares, streets,national monuments, isolated or ingroups, protected historiclandscapes, . . . The Regions ofTuscany, Liguria, Sicily, Emilia-Romagna, the Municipalities ofRome, Turin, Padua, and the

    Provinces of Trento and Bolzano,and the Province of Milan areactive in this work of listingdifferent categories of greenarchitecture.

    The nationally co-ordinated ItalianFaculties of Architecture are mainlyengaged in research andcataloguing nineteenth centurygardens, which to date havereceived insufficient attention10.

    The growing recognition of thehistoric value of the whole body ofgreen architecture poses quite newproblems of conservation strategyand maintenance both on accountof the number of items involved which form quite a considerablepart, quantitatively andqualitatively, of the entire Italianlandscape heritage and onaccount of their differentcharacters, classification, location,utilization, state of conservation,ownership etc.

    2. Restoration,rehabilitation, maintenanceand useThere are not many sites in Italyinvolving the complex restorationworks required by the gardens andsurrounds of the CarthusianMonastery of San Lorenzo atPadua near Salerno, the SacriMonti in Piedmont or the PucciniGarden at Pistoia.

    Some great parks are in a state ofpartial dereliction or haveexperienced temporary neglect suchas the park at Pratolino nearFlorence, the gardens of VillaRegina in Turin and the BreraBotanic Gardens in Milan. Placessuch as these are benefiting fromshort-term remedial attention, whilestudies and projects for complicatedrestoration are still in progress.

    There are many more cases wherejust a little rehabilitation is required,such as for the cascades in thepark at Reggio di Caserta, orgrottoes in Tuscany and Liguria.This work is absorbed into regularmaintenance programmes as withthe Boboli Gardens in Florence,Capodimonte Park in Naples, thePisani Villa park at Stra-Padua andthe well-known estates on thenorthern lakes.

    Italy has a very meagreendowment of public green spaceand consequently there aredemands on historic green spacefor recreation and sporting activitieswhich ought really to be

    accommodated in other, specificallyadapted, areas. There are manyinstances of degradation andunsympathetic modification that failto take into account the historiccharacter of the property inquestion (Sempione Park in Milan,a nineteenth century public park,Villa Silva Park at CiniselloBalsama, the first example of anEnglish-style Italian park, thenineteenth century layout of tree-lined streets in Milan, Turin . .'.).

    We are at the stage in Italy whereregions and state, research workersand associations are particularlyanxious to promote an awarenessthat guarantees investigation of thequality of maintenance andrestoration strategies, pursuesmaximum propriety in theadaptation of some gardens andparks to new uses, and re-utilizesthose which, once private, are nowbeing turned into public spaces.The acquisition of historicmonuments, buildings and gardensby the government is quite asignificant recent phenomenon.

    Parallel with this promotionalactivity, research is beingconducted to find practical ways ofassessing the character of an area,weighing up the pros and cons ofvarious uses, and modifications, andsetting up strategies formaintenance, conservation andrestoration appropriate to the twinobjects of preserving the past andensuring a positive future. We nowexamine the practice of historicgarden and park conservation inItaly by reference to the PratoDelia Valle in Padua andMiramare, Trieste.

    Prato della Valle, Padua11

    The proposal to restore this intra-urban space dates back to 1775.Occupied in Roman times bynotable public buildings, itsubsequently became a formless,marshy space, deserted andinsalubrious but used for occasionalpublic meetings. For centuries thesite had been under the jurisdictionof the Monastery of SantaGiustina, which looks out over it,but from 1767 it became municipalproperty.

    The proposed scheme wasconceived by the eminent governorof Padua, the Venetian, AndreaMemmo, while its execution wasentrusted to Domenico Cerato, anarchitect from Vicenza. It was

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  • based on the construction of asmall island at the centre of thedrained, roughly triangular spaceencircled by a moat and connectedto the rest of the town beyond byfour small bridges.According to the initial planinspired by enlightened ideas frombeyond the Alps, the space was tobe used by the public for variousfunctions, thereby preserving themulti-purpose character it hadalways had. (Figure 1) Theportable stalls and shops, lining theinside perimeter of the island andseparated by intersecting avenues,gave the place a commercialcharacter, it was also to be a placefor walking in, for recreation andpleasure, with benches for sitting,and fountains and coffee-houses. Inshort, it was to be a place forshopping, meeting and beingentertained. As special attractionsthe traditional Barbary horse racescontinued and were run around theperimeter of the main piazza. Theembellishment of the surroundingarea echoes the Engish PleasureGarden, not only on account of itsbenches, urns, fountains andkiosks, but also by virtue of themany statues (today numbering78) of local celebrities, donated bythe citizens and set along the twobanks of the surrounding moat.This "temple of Paduan worthies"recalls British precedents atChiswick and Stowe.

    In a design of this kind plantingwas necessarily restricted to lawns,

    he thought, sufficient sponsorshipand donations especially byforeigners fired with enthusiasm bythe enterprise, a lack of financegreatly delayed the works. WhenMemmo left Padua in the summerof 1776, the project fell intoabeyance. Statues had been setalong both banks of the moat butthe central space was still baresimply divided into four by the twointersecting streets. The Prato thusbecame a dreary, faded image ofthe brilliant Memmo-Ceratoconcept.

    At this point, when it was obviousthat the idea of implementingMemmo's design was unachievable,the problems resulting fromplanting tall-trunked trees emergedwhich still constitute a controversialissue in the Prato della Valle today.

    A suggestion for planting suchtrees was first put forward byTrezza at the end of the eighteenthcentury in a design which featuredan unbroken line of trees along theouter edge of the moat. (Figure 2)This idea of including tall-trunkedtrees on the island was made areality at the beginning of thenineteenth century.

    If the tree of liberty, planted by theFrench the day after their entry intothe city in 1797 had a short life (it was cut down a few monthslater by the Austrians) we knowfor certain that in 1815 a quantityof trees was planted, probablyalternating planes and tulip trees.Initially the presence of these treesdid not appear to create problems,in spite of their large number,probably some 28 planes and 70tulip trees. Difficulties began topresent themselves about ten yearslater, after the replacement of thetulip trees by more planes. (Figure3) In 1836 a commission ofexperts was set up, which wasentrusted with making a decisionabout the future of the planting inthe Prato. After much debate theydecided to retain the trees as theywere, that is, 'too many too closetogether', a situation brought aboutby the pecularities of the place,which was not simply a piazza, inwhich case the planes would have

    Fig. 1, above. D. Cerato L. Sachetti: The new marketin the Prato della Valle,c.l 775-6.Fig. 2, left. L. Trezza: ThePrato della Valle and thechurch ol S. Giustina withthe new facade of c. 1796.Fig. 3, below. P. Chevalier:11 Prato della Valle diPadova; from Memoriearchitettoniche sui principalsedilici di Padova, Padua1831, p. 42.

    box hedges and, at the most,scattered urns with flowers and afew shrubs. In fact they had to bekept fairly low, to afford fullvisibility from the outside to theinside and vice versa.

    Right from the start AndreaMemmo's scheme met withopposition. Although the plan wasbased on the principle of self-financing, and would not lack, so

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  • Fig. 4, above. Padua: Latenineteenth century photo-graph of the Prato dellaVoile.

    created an obviously excessiveobstruction, but nor was it just agarden, for the embellishment ofwhich the plane trees would be anindispensable element. The Prato,a rare if not unique phenomenon,was at once both piazza andgarden. The arguments putforward in defence of the plantingended up carrying more weight.From these, the fact emerged thatthe trees did not constitute aparticular obstruction to the view,given that, since GovernorMemmo's piazza-theatre conceptno longer existed, there was nownothing to be seen from the islandlooking toward the piazza. Neitherdid the planting affect the statueswhich were smothered but notactually harmed by the profusevegetation. When the lichens thathad grown on the stone werecleaned off, recent scientificexamination revealed that theirgrowth was caused by exposureonly, and not, as many hadconjectured, by damp, shade, andlack of ventilation due to theproximity of the trees.

    From then on any plane tree thatdied was replaced, and the treesnow cause more obstruction thanever/ (Figure 4) What practicalremedy can be found for a situationthat is becoming more urgent everyday? To start with, the suggestionof returning to the original conceptof island-piazza that is, a spacedevoid of tall-trunked trees in itscentre has definitely beenshelved. In the eighteenth century,the absence of trees in the middleof the Prato was amplycompensated by the existence ofgreen space within the urban limitsof Padua most of which wassubsequently sacrificed to buildings.It has, therefore, been decided notto cut down the trees. This is notonly for sentimental and politicalreasons since the Paduans areso attached to the trees onMemmo's island but also,considering the present scarcity of

    urban planting, on ecologicalgrounds, as the trees provide thecity with 100,000 cubic metres offoliage. The three followingalternatives have been proposed:

    1. To gradually thin out theplanes, attempting at the same timeto arrest the damage caused by theinfection Ceratocystis fimbriata,which shows no sign of diminishing;

    2. To replace senile and dyingplanes with Populus alba, anindigenous species, adapted to thelocal conditions, and, moreover,free from the disease that attacksthe plane (also the trunk form andleaf colour of the poplar recallthose of the plane, and the treesare comparable in height);

    3 . To replace the planes withblack hornbeam (Ostrijacarpinifolia Scop.), a tree quitedistinctly different in size andcolour. The adult hornbeam doesnot reach more than 20 metres, asagainst the plane's approximately45 metres. This particularreplacement would thereforeinvolve the sacrifice of around50,000 cubic metres of vegetation,a loss that could be made up for byplanting other species, for instanceputting in four huge specimens ofQuercus robur at the. centre of eachof the four quarters in the middle ofthe island. Finally, the decidedlydark colour of the hornbeam'sleaves would provide a much moremarked contrast with the whitestatues than the leaves of the planetrees.

    For the moment, however, theseare only proposals. In actual fact,the plane tree diseases are beingcured, and those that are dying arebeing removed and an effort beingmade to replace them withindividual specimens selected withthe peculiarities of site and positionin mind. This in itself representssomething of an innovation in viewof the apparently quite haphazardand unsuitable choices made in thepast!

    The Park at Miramare,Trieste12

    The park at Miramare, a fewkilometres to the west of Trieste,was built along with the castle ofthe same name, by HabsburgArchduke Maximilian, brother ofFranz Joseph, and future Emperorof Mexico, on what was originallyan arid promontory with a fall ofabout 80 metres to the sea andwith views over two spectacularinlets.

    Enchanted by this picturesque site,the young Maximilian, very muchinfluenced by the natural beautiesof Sicily which he had recentlyvisited, and very taken with gardenart which his familiarity with theimperial parks of Schonbrunn andPotsdam had made him love froma tender age, decided in 1856 tocreate at Miramare a truly specialgarden. This was to be asymbiosis of the planimetric layoutof the northern parks, exemplifiedby the works of Linne and Piickler-Muskau, and the exuberant andcolourful Mediterranean flora.Miramare was, and still is, thenorthernmost landscape gardenlooking over the Mediterranean.

    Among other things, the schememade provision for setting up anexperimental forestry station fromwhich to select the conifers fortransplantation to the arid slopesand an acclimatization nursery forexotic plants. Numerous species 200 varieties at least wereintroduced to Miramare after ascientific expedition around theworld in 1857 aboard the frigate,Novara. Anton Jelinek was amongother experts on board and on hisreturn he was appointed courtgardener.

    Maximilian and Jelinek makefrequent reference in their papers,(now preserved in the StateArchives of Trieste) to the searchfor particular exotic species totransplant to Miramare. Maximiliannoted, amongst other plants', a kind

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  • of pink and white geranium whichgrew luxuriantly among the rocksin Portugal, flowering profusely andcontinuously with practically nowater. Jelinek procured someindigenous specimens from hisnative Bohemia; the species hadapparently never been transplantedfrom there before.

    The winter of 1856-7 saw the finalacquisition of the 22 hectare siteand at the same time large-scaleoperations of excavating andlevelling the rocky terrain began.Paths, some broad and rectilinear,some narrow and winding, weremarked out, descending in slopingterraces to the sea. (Figure 5)

    aside for games. The whole ofMir am are was supposed to beprimarily a place of pleasure opento the public.

    Deta i l ed instruct ions fromMaximilian going back to thewinter of 1857-8 resulted in aseries of reports written by Jelinekbetween 1859 and 1864. Thesereports, of particular botanicalinterest; reached the Archdukeevery fortnight, keeping him up todate on the progress of theenterprise which was so dear to hisheart. From these we are able tofollow in detail the stages in thecreation of the park. Someambitious hopes were disappointed.

    The garden culminated in a vastparterre on the western side of thepromontory. (Figure 6) Becauseof the lack of soil, enormousquantities of fill had to be broughtin. The magnificence of the sitewas further enhanced by pavilionsand belvederes, pergolas andgroves, statues (for the most partzinc copies of famous classicalpieces made by the Geiss factory inBerlin), a lake for water-fowl andan aviary, as well as a corner set

    The harsh climate, allied to thephenomenon of the bora (a verycold NE-NW wind) led, afterseveral failures, to the shelving forthe time being, of the establishmentof an orange grove to emulatethose Maximilian so admired inSicily.

    The dramatic demise ofMaximilian, executed in Mexico in1867, and the subsequent dismissalof Jelinek did not signal the end ofthis great scheme. The House ofHabsburg carried on with the workof completing Miramare, which itconsidered its second mostimportant property afterSchonbrunn.

    Valuable information on the florapresent in 1877 is provided by F.A. Vogel, while an inventory of386 species present in 1903,compiled by Karl Moser, featuresnumerous exotic plants, some ofwhich are regarded as veritable"monuments" on account of theirrarity and beauty. (Figure 7)Among the works carried outwithin the park after it passed toItaly at the end of the First WorldWar, is a delightful little portico,built by Grignano at the western

    side of the property. The coastroad, constructed in recent times,passes under the complex in twotunnels. This is an alternative tothe roads running along the sea-shore, but creates a space notoriginally envisaged between thewater and the park.

    From 1955 the whole of Miramarebecame an Historical Museum, andis attached to the Friuli-Venezia-Giulia Department of Worksresponsible for landscape,architectural, archaeological,artistic and historical works.

    A recent international conferenceand a joint publication, edited byProf. Marco Pozzetto, of theUniversity of Trieste, have made itpossible to assess the situation,over a century after theestablishment of the park. Thefacts that emerge provide a positiveand valuable reference point forfuture works. The complex hasbeen examined from various pointsof view, beginning with thehistorical and draws on original,unpublished documents. An up-to-date inventory of the botanicalspecies present then and now hasbeen produced. Thus we have arecord of the management of theplace over the years, and thecriteria on which operations

    Fig. 5, above. Plan of thePark, Miramare, between1866 and 1868.Fig. 6, lelt. Miramare:Parterre, W. Reiche, 1868.Fig. 7, bottom lelt. Miramare:A corner of the park withSequoia.fig. 8, below. Miramare:Steps to the parterre; viewfrom the little portico, 1984.

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  • completed to date restricted forthe most part purely toconservation measures werebased, together with someproposals (or the future.

    We know, for example, that thepark is visited annually by aroundtwo million people; that 70 percentof the total area is wooded, andthat only 16 percent of the budgetallocated to the park is spent on itsmaintenance, although 40 percentwould hardly be adequate!Cleaning, tidying and'embellishments', consisting for themost part of seasonal flowers, costmore than 55 percent of the total,while 13 percent is spent on theupkeep of the gardens, and theremaining 15 percent on mowinggrassed areas.

    With such a budget, which isscarcely sufficient for normalrunning costs, only reallyexceptional restoration works canbe considered, although many arenow urgent. Among these are, forinstance, reopening the vistas, oncea feature of Miramare, but now forthe most part obscured byencroaching vegetation; restoringthe former balance between statuesand planting in the parterre area byreplanting where possible cypressand palm and by pruning excessivegrowth; (Figure 8) introducingwooden screens and barriers toprevent public access to certainsensitive areas; and thinning outwooded areas that have becometoo dense.

    To increase funds for the park,consideration has been given tocharging admission. However, outof respect for Maximilian's wishes,the inhabitants of Trieste wouldhave to be exempted from this!

    In the final section of this paper wediscuss briefly one of the mostdifficult and expensive componentsof the conservation of historicgardens and parks in Italy, namely,the restoration of stone ornamentsand sculptures.

    The Restoration ofSculpture, Grottoes andother Works in Stone13

    As statues, sculptures and otherworks in stone, such asnymphaeums, artificial grottoes,fountains and cascades, play suchan important role in Italiangardens, particularly those of theRenaissance and Baroque, onewould expect that their

    maintenance and repair wouldconstitute a basic item inconservation and restorationstrategies. This has in fact beenthe case, as documents testify,since their initial fabrication.

    Amongst operations recentlyundertaken is the restoration of thecolossal statue of the Apennino inthe park at Pratolino. This uniqueand astonishing monument belongsto the wonderful sixteenth centuryvilla, situated in hilly country onthe slopes of the Apennines, 12 kmnorth-east of Florence. Highlyrenowned since its creation, it wascopied throughout Europe. ThePratolino complex had beencommissioned between 1569 and1581 by Francesco de'Medici, whoentrusted the execution of it toBuontalenti and Giambologna,amongst others.

    The programme of the Committeeof Experts, who were givenresponsibility for the restoration ofthe Apennino (begun in 1985) isnow well underway. The followingwork has been achieved with theinitial allocation of 250 million lira(about 115,000): the diagnosticresearch, consisting of photographs,surveys and archaeologicalexcavations; the physio-chemicalanalyses and archival studies of themonument, at once statue andgrotto; its history and factors thatcause damage to it; andpromotional literature, conferencesand exhibitions. It is considerednecessary, in this initial.phase, toerect temporary scaffolding tosupport the fragile structure. Theactual remedial work is still at theplanning stage.

    The restoration of valuable anddelicate structures such asnymphaeums and artificial grottoeslined inside with multicoloured glassor ceramic tesserae, calcareoussponges, shells, coral and stuccowork, requires really specializedlabour. We know that a reportabout the Medicean villa ofCastello near Florence wasprepared by Alfonso Parigi in1640, and that artists of the calibreof Cosimo Lotti and Baccio delBianco combined in the restorationof the cast garden furniture andornaments of the most famousMedicean villas; these ornamentscan be attributed to persons suchas Tribolo, Ammanati, Pierino daVinci and Giambologna. Afterstudies and conferences, therestoration of the grottoes of

    Medici and Genoese gardens isnow getting under way.

    Notes1. Statute 1 June. 1939, no. 1089:'Protection of objects/property of artistic andhistoric interest*, and Statute 29 June, 1939,no. 1497: 'Protection of natural beauty'.Royal Decree 3 September, 1940, no. 1357:regulations for the application of Statute,1939.2. For example only in 1977 did the State ofBerlin legally recognize autonomous value ingardens, parks and other green space ofhistoric interest.3 . To quote article 1 of the Italian Charter:*A historic garden (gardens belonging tohouses, palaces, villas; parks; botanicalgardens; archaeological sites; green space inhistoric town centres etc.) is a combination ofany elements, designed by man, constructedof living materials, which occupies a zone ofhuman occupation, a natural c o n t e x t . . . anarchitectural and landscape resource . . .unique, restricted, transient, unrepeatable,having its own history (birth, growth, change,degeneration) and reflecting the society andculture that conceived, built and used i t . . .'.The complete text is quoted in manypublications, amongst others in: VincehzoCazzato, 'Versa una carlo del restauro deigiardini storicT, in A A . W . , Giardini italiani,Quaderno n. 3 del Minis ftrro per i BEeA,Rome, 1981.It is useful to underline the use in the Charterof the concept, 'architectural and landscaperesource* applied to historic green space: inaddition to specifically drawing attention tothe fact that this should not be wasted, itrefers to the need to define criteria for the useof properties as objects to be restored in thepublic interest and in compatibility with theplant components.4 . Referring (ALL 1) to the document,'Criteria for the protection, conservation,improvement, use/re-use of greenarchitecture' by the Lombardy Region, inpress. This is one of the results of theresearch (for which the Faculty ofArchitecture of the Milan Polytechnic wascommissioned by the Lombardy Region) onthe protection and conservation of 'greenarchitecture' (see Note 8).5. See, for example, G. Ragionieri (ed.), llgiardino storico italiano. Problemi diindagine. Fonti letterarie e storiche, Atti delConvegno, Firenze J98U M. L. Quondam eA. M. Racheli (ed.), Giardini italiani. Notede storia e di conservazione, Roma 1981; D.Ester, 'Giardini storici e conservazione', inBollettino di segnalazione e notiziebibliografiche. Universite'di Firenze, Facolta*di Architettura. n. 7. 1982. pp. 11-18; M.Catalano e. F. Panzini, Giardini storici.Teoria e tecniche di conservazione erestauro, Roma 1985; G. Pirrone (ed.). VillaGiulia. Storia e progetto nell'Architettura diVilla Giulia a Palermo, Palermo 1985.6. The Committee's activity is presented byits president, Isa Belli Barsali (whosadly died recently), 'Giardini Storici:Tutela e Conservazione', in Ministero per iBCeA. Notiziaro. A euro dellVtticio Studt,II. 6-7 maggio-agosto 1986.7. To date more than 580 properties havebeen assessed, excluding the Province ofFlorence, which is being investigated by theFaculty of Architecture, which has Kstedmore than 450 gardens in the province, notcounting those in the dty of Florence.8. LioneJla Scazzost, Maurizio Boriani,RappoTto sulla Tutela e la conservazionedelle "architetture vegetal!" in Italia:Confront! internazionali, le politiche delleregioni, i problemi delVinventario e dellegestione, Regione Lombardia, AssessoratoAmbiente, Ecotogia e Dipartimento diProgettazione della Facolta' di Architettura diMilano. Milan, 1987.9. Istituto Centrale per i) Catalogo e laDocumentazione (ICCD), Norme per laredazione delle schede di catalogo dei bent

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  • culturali; 3-beni ambientali e architettonici;vii-norme per la redazione delta scheda"PC", Rome, 1984.10. The research, 'The historic garden:assessment, cataloguing, importance' involvesthe universities of Milan, Genoa, Padua,Venice, Trieste, Florence, Rome, Catania,Reggio Calabria and Palermo, and is co-ordinated by Pro!. G. Pirrone of the Facultyof Architecture of Palermo.11. Manuscript works:Composizioni sopra la costruzione del Pratodelta Valle al tempo di Andrea Memmo, in IIpuro omaggio. A sua Eccellenza AndreaMemmo, Padova 1776, Padova, BibliotecaGvica, BP 16/4; A. Memmo, Vistepolitiche, Padova, Biblioteca Civica, BP2230/XL.Works in print .Raccolta di poetici componimenti sopra lanuova isoletta eretta in Padova net Pratodella Valle, ediz. accresduta, Padova 1775;V. Radicchio, Descrizione della generaU ideaconcepita (. . .) dalVeccellentissimo signorAndrea Memmo $al materiale del Prato chedenominasi della Valle, Roma 1786; A.Neumayr, IDustrazione del Prato della Valleossia della Piazza delle statue di Padova,Padova 1807; M. Brusatin, Costruzionedella campagna e delVarchitettura delpaesaggio in AA.W., La citta* di Padova,edited by C. Aymonino, Roma 1970, pp.195-300; E. Scorzon, II Prato della Valle ele sue statue, Trieste, 1975; P. Marelto,'L'urbanistica veneta del Settecento e i) Pratodella Valle', in BoHettino del C.I.S.A. A.Palladia, 27 (1976), pp. 191-206; A.Prosdodmi, II Prato della Valle, Padova1976; M. Brusatin, Venezia nel Settecento,Torino 1980, pp. 119-127; AA.VV, Pralodelta Valle, edited by U Puppi, Padova1986.12. F. A. Vogel, 'Die im Freien gezogenenNadelhodzer des K. K. Hofgartens zuMiramare* in Mitteilungen des Krainisch-huestenlaendischen Forstvereins, II Heft,Laibach 1877; E. Metlikovitz, Miramare,notizie storiche, Trieste 1902; K. Moser,Verzeichnis der Pflanzenarten des K. u K.Hofgartens vom Miramar, Trieste 1903; A.Scocchi, Miramare, visioni d'arte e di storianel gollo & Trieste, Trieste 1926; L.Gasparini, Cronaca di Miramare (1860-63),Trieste 1948; AA.VV., Un giardino in rivaal mare. II Parco di Miramare ieri edomani: vicende storiche e prospettiveculturali, edited by M. Pozzetto, with anintroduction by G. Pirrone, Trieste 1986.13. L. Zangheri, Pratolino. II giardino dellemeraviglie, Firenze 1979; L. Magnani (ed.),Tra magia, scienza e *'meraviglia" le grotteartificial'! dei giardinie genovesi nei secoliXVI e XVII, Catalogo della Mostra, Genova1984; A. Vezzosi (ed.), La lonte delle lonti.Iconologia degli artifizi d'acqua, Atti delConvego, Firenze 1985; A. Vezzosi (ed.), IIgiardino romantico, Atti del Convegno^Firenze 1986; A. Vezzosi (ed.), II ritorno diPan. Ricerche e progetti per il tuturo diPratolino, Firenze 1986; A. Vezzosi (ed.), IIgiardino d'Europa. Pratolino come modellanella cultura earopea, Catalogo della Mostra,Milano 1986; AA.W., Per la conoscenza ela conservazione delle grotte artificial!, Attidel Convegno, Firenze, 1985.

    L'ltalie ItalienOn fit vraiment attention a laverdure historique italienne pour lapremiere fois en 1912, lorsqu'on apropose une loi prevoyant laprotection des "pares, des villas, etdes jardins d'interet historique".C'etait une espece de loi quientrainait, comme de semblablelegislation partout en Europe, touteune suite de problemes juridiques, administratives etpratiques. Interpretation du terme,"architecture verte".Establissement des inventaires desbiens classes. Initiatives (de la partde I'Etat, des Regions, desCommunes) de protection, deconservation, de restauration etd'entretien du patrimoine.Exposition plus detaillee dequelques-unes de ces interventions.

    Prato della Valle a Padoue histoire de la site urbaine dont lepremier projet de restauration datede 1775: concept d'AndreaMemmo d'une ile elliptique,ceinturee d'un canal, et ayant a sacentre une grande place oil setenaient les marches, les spectaclesetc. Decoration qui rappellait lesPleasure Gardens anglais.Degeneration a la fin du XVIIIesiecle. Emergence des problemesconcernant les arbres, en parliculierles platanes, qui ont ete plantes.Initiatives de restauration de laconservation proposees. Le pareMiramare, Trieste concept de1'archiduc Maximilian envisageantla construction d'un jardinremarquable sur un promontoirearide au bord de la Mediterranee.De grands travaux de nivellementet de transport du terroirsupplementaire; l'etablissement desplantes, surtout des exotiques;difficilltes de terrain, comme declimat. Bien qu'il existe desproblemes d'entretien le pare rec.oittoujours des visiteurs nombreux.Une note sur la restauration desgrottes des omements en pierre,surtout du colosse, Appennino aPratolino. Conservation des grottesartificielles tres delicates un travailspecialise.

    Das Gesetz 1912 (Massnahmenum historische Park undGartenanlagen und Villas zuschiitzen) bewies die ersteAnerkennung derGriinflachenqualitat in Italien. Mitsich bracht so ein Gesetz (wiesolche Gesetze iiberall in Europa)viele Probleme rechtliche,administrative und materielle.Interpretation des Ausdrucks"griine Architektur".Inventarisierung der klassifiziertenGiiter. Projekte (Staat, Regionen,Gemeinden), die den Schutz, dieKonservierung, die Restaurierungund die Pflege des Heimaterbesvorschlagen. Beschreibung einigerdiesen Aufgaben. Prato dellaValle (Padova) Geschichtedieser stadtischen Statte. ErsterRestaurierungsplan (von AndreaMemmo, 1775): eine elliptischeInsel, die mit einem Kanalumgeben war, in der Mitte derInsel war eine grosse Piazza(Markt- Promenade- undVergniigungsplatz). Ornamentikerinnert an die englischen PleasureGardens. Verfall am Ende des 18.Jahrhunderts. Die Baume auf derInsel, insbesondere die Platanen,wurden zum Problem. AktuellesRestaurierungs- undPflegeprogramm. Der Park beiMiramare Konzept vom HerzogMaximilian, der einenbemerkenswerten Garten auf einemMittelmeerkap anlegen wollte. DieStatte mit Pflanzen und Blumen,vor allem exotischen, bepflanzt.Terrain- und Klimaschwierigkeiten.Trotz der Pflegeprobleme, sinddiese Gartenanlagen gut besucht.Anmerhingen fiber dieRestaurierung der Grotten und derOmamentik aus Stein gemacht,insbesondere des Kolosses,Appennino (Pratolino). Die Pflegeder zerbrechlichen kiinstlichenGrotten eine spezialisierte Arbeit.

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