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  • The Baroque Era1600-1750

  • Baroque CultureDefinitionsPortuguese for irregularly-shaped pearl

    Geographical CentersEnglandFranceGermany

  • The TimesScienceSir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)Laws of gravityCalculusSir Isaac Newton

  • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

    Movement of the planetsFoundation of astronomy

    Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

    Johannes KeplerGalileo Galilei

  • Ren Descartes (1596-1650)

    Analytical geometryApplied scientific principles to philosophyApplied methods of mathematics to the study of what humans think and feelBelieved that human emotions could be classified in the same way scientific phenomena are classified (Doctrine of Affections)

    Ren Descartes

  • William Gilbert (1544-1603) Properties of electricitySir William Harvey (1578-1657) Circulation of the bloodRobert Boyle (1627-1691) Chemistry

  • Inventions

  • Politics Age of Absolute MonarchsCharles II of EnglandFrederick II of PrussiaLouis XIV of FrancePhillip IV of Spain

  • ReligionRoman CatholicProtestantNew ReligionsDeismInfluenced by the advances in scientific knowledgeOperated on reason alone without supernatural manifestationsEthan Allen, Thomas Payne, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison

  • Everyday life in the Baroque

    Institutions with powerCourtChurch

    Aristocratic Life

    Middle and Lower Class Life

  • Visual ArtsArchitectureIn the Renaissance: simple, straight lines and detail

    Bramante St. Peters CathedralBrunelleschi Florence Cathedral

  • In the Baroque: ornate, extravagant, showy

    St. Peters Basilica, VaticanPalace of Versailles, Paris

  • Painting

    Emotionally chargedDramatic subjectsContrast; play between light and shadow

  • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)Self-PortraitAssumption of the Virgin

  • Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)Self-PortraitThe Night Watch

  • SculptureStrong light and dark contrastsDramatic tensionSubjects are never still but moving, struggling, twisted

    Gian Lorenzo BerniniSelf-PortraitApollo and DaphneLouis XIVEcstasy of St. Theresa

  • Age of Paradox/ContrastsChurch StateMonarchy BourgeoisieAristocracy Affluent Middle ClassImportance of Religions Rise of SecularScientific Research Superstition, WitchcraftImportance of humanity Religious Persecution

  • Musics Response to Paradox/Contrast

    Vocal Instrumental8 Church Modes Tonality (Major, minor)Sacred Music Secular MusicPolyphonic Texture Homophonic Texture

  • The Composers LifePatronage SystemChurch CourtDeterioration of the Patronage SystemOther Music Achievements:Audience of the common peopleDevelopment of music for its own sake

  • Music of the BaroqueDoctrine of AffectionsElements of MusicMelodyLong, instrumental in conceptionUse of sequencesMonothematicUse of ornamentation

  • HarmonyTonalUse of Major and minor scalesRhythmMetricMotoricTextureHomophony and Polyphony equal in importance (Late Baroque)Thorough Bass or Basso Continuo

  • FormBinaryTernaryFugueRitornelloDynamicsTerracedNot written into the scoreTimbreVocalInstrumental

  • Keyboard InstrumentsPipe OrganPainted Organ PipesHarpsichord

  • String InstrumentsViol FamilyLuteStradivarius ViolinsGuarnerius ViolinComposite of String Instruments

  • Woodwind InstrumentsRecorder FamilyWood FluteEarly ClarinetsOboe da Caccia

  • Brass InstrumentsLong TrumpetTrombones

  • Percussion InstrumentsKettledrums

  • Vocal GenresOperaBegan as court entertainments in ItalyIncludes a story (libretto), solo singing, choral singing, dancing, costumes and setsForms: recitative, aria , chorus

    Claudio Monteverdi(1567-1643)Orfeo, 1607Tu se morta

  • CantataShort, unstaged operas (secular and sacred)Used operatic forms (recitative, aria, chorus)Sacred cantatas often based on a choraleJohann Sebastian Bach(1685-1750)Cantata 140: Wachet Auf, 1731Awake, A Voice is Calling Us

    First Movement: Chorus and Orchestra Fourth Movement: Tenor Chorale

  • Wachet Auf

  • OratorioA sacred, large-scale operaAlways based on a biblical storyNo staging or constumingLarger role for the chorusUses opera forms (recitative, aria, chorus)George Frideric Handel(1685-1759)Messiah, 1741 Recitative: The Voice of Him Aria: Every Valley Shall Be Exalted Chorus: Hallelujah

  • Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah (1741)

    Perhaps one of the worlds most famous choral pieces

    Text is from the Revelation of St. JohnHallelujah!For the Lord God Omnipotent reignethThe kingdom of this world is become the Kingdom of our Lord and of His ChristAnd he shall reign for ever and everKing of Kings and Lord of LordsHallelujah!

    Combines monophonic, polyphonic and homophonic textures

  • Instrumental GenresDance SuiteOriginally a series of dances played for dancingBy the Baroque, suites became independent instrumental pieces no longer intended for dancingUsually contained four dancesOften unified by keyDiffered by tempo and international backgroundUsed binary formJ.S. BachSuite No. 3 in D Major, 1729-1731AirBoureGigue

  • SonataOriginally a sound piece for one instrument Became a chamber music genre in the Baroque (from 2 to 6 players)Four movements: fast, fast, slow, fastTrio sonatas were popular

    Arcangelo Corelli(1653-1713)Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10 (1689) First Movement

  • Concerto Grossofriendly contentionContrasts a larger ensemble (ripieno or tutti) with a solo group (concertino)Three movements: fast, slow, fastOften uses ritornello form

    Antonio Vivaldi(1678-1741)Spring Concerto The Four Seasons, 1725 First Movement: Allegro

    Spring has come, and joyfully,The birds greet it with happy song.And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes,Flow along with a sweet murmur.Covering the sky with a black cloak,Thunder and lightning come to announce the season.When these have quieted down, the little birdsReturn to their enchanting song.

  • Ritornello Form

  • Vivaldi - Spring Concerto, Allegro

  • Keyboard MusicOrgan and harpsichordOften paired a free piece with a contrapuntal fugue [Prelude and Fugue]Toccata: added elements of virtuosic touch keyboard technique

    J.S. BachThe Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, 1722 Prelude and Fugue in c minor

  • J.S. Bach Fugue in g minor, BWV 578

  • ComposersJohann Sebastian BachGeorge Frideric HandelAntonio VivaldiHenry PurcellBarbara Strozzi (1619-1677)Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre (1667-1729)

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