the baroque (and rococo) 1600-1750

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The Baroque (and Rococo) 1600-1750. Action Passion Healthy Eaters. Counter Reformation was over- Catholic Church was strong again-Protestantism was on the defensive Countries at war (30 Year’s War, Hapsburg empire) Secularization of gov’t - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Baroque(and Rococo) 1600-1750ActionPassionHealthy Eaters.

  • Counter Reformation was over- Catholic Church was strong again-Protestantism was on the defensiveCountries at war (30 Years War, Hapsburg empire)Secularization of govtWorldwide markets (coffee, tea)-private wealth-buy more art!Baroque artists were far removed from science and technology unlike during the Renaissance (too complicated)Affected by the absolutist states (France, Germany, England)Rome became Baroque arts center- Popes were still largest patrons (aimed to make Rome the most beautiful city of Christendom)-ambitious artists flocked to Rome for commissions

  • Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599-16021571-1610Remote from both Mannerism and RenaissanceNew form of art called Naturalism- a sacred scene painted in contemporary low lifeStory of Matthew the tax collector-figure on the far right is JesusLight is both natural and charged with symbolic meaningReligious monumentalism would appeal to both Catholics and Protestants (later became Rembrandts influence)CHIROSCURO V. Tenebrism

  • Caravaggio, Judith, early 17th C.Strong Light, action-packed paintings

  • Artemesia Genteleschi, Judith and Maidservant, 1625Born into an artistic family which gave her an advantage over other women artistsBecame one of the leading painters and personalities of her daySubject of Judith popular during Baroque- violent and erotic sceneImmortalizes feminine courageVery theatrical, mysterious lightComplex composition

  • Carracci, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, 1597-1601Became so famous, that it was considered second only to Michelangelo and RaphaelIntricate narrative scenes surrounded by architectureSubject matter is the loves of the classical godsColor is based on the VenetiansBalance of studies from life with a revival of the classics (including the Renaissance masters)Revived interest in illusion

  • Carracci, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, 1603Pastoral mood and soft light are influenced by TitianFigures are almost inconspicuous -like northern painters (Breugal)Early example of the ideal lasndscape

  • Cortona, Glorification of the Reign of Urban the VIII, 1633-39Ceiling Frescos became more and more popular- done mostly for patronsIllusionistic-shows the sky behind the regular architectural schemeSome figures are closer to the viewer and some are farther away in the sky

  • Interior, St. Peters, showing Berninis ThroneThe decoration of the interior of St. Peters was a difficult task- to relate a vast space to a human scaleTask fell to Bernini (1598-1680) who worked on St. Peters throughout his career

  • Bernini, David, 1623Berninis David and Michelangelos David have the same relationship as classical and Hellenistic sculpture-each drew inspiration from a different part of antiquityBernini shares the Hellenistic view of unison of body and spirit, motion and emotion Implied presence of Goliath-the negative space is owned by the sculptureDuring the Baroque, sculpture merged with painting and architecture like in no other time period before

  • Bernini, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-52Sensuous visual experienceShows the moment where St. Teresa is pierced by an angels arrow and felt both emotional pain and sweetness at the same timeBecause of the lighting, the sculpture looks visionarySome outside (from above) force is blowing their clothing Sculpture is connected in this way to a fresco directly above it

  • Bernini, Throne of St. Peters, 1657-66In the Choir of St. PetersFocus is a burst of heavenly light that propels all the figures towards the viewer

  • Borromini, S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1665-67Francesco Borromini- the role of the tortured artist- died by suicideVery complex and extravagant structures-dynamic and complexPlay of concave and convex surfaces makes structure seem pulled apartMerges architecture and sculpturePlan is like a half-melted crossCombines Renaissance and Medieval structures

  • Von Erlach, St. Charles Borromaeus, 1716-37Great architect of late BaroqueCentral European (Vienna)Pantheon-like portico, columns should look familiar to you!!The power of the Christian faith to absorb and change the splendors of ancient art

  • Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, 1609-10Baroque in Flanders (the Spanish Netherlands)Peter Paul Rubens 1577-1640Helped to break down artistic barriers between north and southStudied art of the High RenaissanceArtist of major influence and education-court advisor to Spanish regent in FlandersAltarpieceMuscular figures of Italian art, lighting reflect CaravaggioDefinitely a Flemish realistTremendous dramatic force-almost bursts through the picture plane

  • Rubens, Marie de-Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles, 1622-23In the Luxembourg Palace in ParisPopularity of spectacle and wealthNot a very exciting event, but Rubens has made it so-Neptune rises from the sea (has protected her on her journey)Used oil sketches to prepare for his paintings- this was an important legacy for future artists

  • Franz Hals, The Laughing Cavalier, 1630The Utrecht School-Baroque came to Holland through RubensUtrecht was a Catholic city- most artists traveled to Rome- Influenced by CaravaggioFranz Hals 1580-1666-great portrait painterSpontaneity- twinkling eyes, SMILE!Worked in dashing brushstrokes-immediacy of design but spent a long time (lifesize!)

  • Leyster, Self Portrait, 1630Follower of HalsPoetic quality of lifeCelebration of self

  • Rembrandt, The Night Watch, 1642Art effected by Caravaggio-sharply litPainted mostly Old Testament scenes at first and was a well-sought-after portrait painterNight Watch- a group portrait-Some people say that people were angry for being portrayed in shadow so he lost popular opinion-had financial difficulties

  • Rembrandt, Self Portrait, 1658Did many self portraits- always reflects the view of himself and his inner developmentInfluenced by Titian and Van EykeUse of light- hallmark of style

  • Willem Claesz Heda, Still Life 1634Most art buyers preferred landscapes and still lifesVanitas, Vanitas!- all is vanitydisguised symbolism is back!!!The passing of all earthly pleasures

  • Vermeer, Girl in Blue Reading a Letter, 1663-64Jan Vermeer- master of the genre paintings- but no narrativeUsually solitary, usually women-almost like still-lifesLight always filters in from an implied window-everyday world seems fresh and newMade up of rectangles, no undefined empty spacesKnow very little about his life- died when he was 43, lived in DelftGenius not recognized until 100 years ago

  • Velasquez, The Water Carrier of Seville, c.1619Baroque in Spain---did not happen natively, but through the spread of ideas from Italy and the Netherlands

    Caravaggio-esque, but focused more on genre scenesThis was done at the age of 20Moved to Madrid and became court painter- portraits of the royal family

  • Velazquez, The Maids of Honor, 1656Valazquezs style at its fullest- a self portrait, a group portrait and a genre scene Mirror in the back of the room- is it on the canvas or behind?Fascination with light and its optical mysteries-reflected and directLight creates the visual world

  • De La Tour, Joseph the Carpenter, 1645France was the most powerful state in Europe- culturally too!Art center changed from Rome to Paris because of large projects (Versailles)Also called Style of Loius XIV or the Classic style- links to other high points in cultureDe La Tour- oriented towards Caravaggio- both a religious and genre scene- intimate and tender

  • Poussin, The Rape of the Sabine Women, 1636-37Classicism reigned supremeEarliest French painter in history to gain international fameFreezes action, like statues, Roman architecture in the backgroundShows emotion but doesnt touch the viewerLogical and seriousThought that the viewer should be able to read the exact emotions of each figureNot very accessible

  • Perrault, Louvre, 1667-70All art had to be made to glorify the king- very restrictive royal styleDesign meant to link the king with Roman emperors-Roman temple front -ground floor serves as the podiumShowed victory of French royal style over Italian classicism

  • Lebrun, Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, 1678Louis XIV interested in lavish interiors rather than the exteriorEntire interior decorated by Lebrun, a painter-became the dictator of the arts in FranceAll art became for the glorification of the king- reflects Italian Baroque style (ceilings)

  • Louis Le Vau, Hardouin Mansart, Palace of Versailles, 1669-85Design grew and grew to accommodate the royal familys wishesGarden is most impressive aspect of the palace-meant to serve as the background for the Kings official appearances

  • Watteau, Delights of Life, 1717Royal Academy- new system of educating artists founded in 1648-very rigid- had a grading system for all artists including past-Greeks came first, then Raphael-Flemish ranked lowProduced no significant artists!Became an argument over drawing v. color (Poussinistes V. Rubenistes)educated v. lay Watteau was a Rubeniste-violates all academy canonsAdmitted to the academy anyway because it had lost a lot of clout by this timeSlim and graceful rather than round like Rubens

  • Fragonard, The Bolt, 1778Rococo Style- after the death of Louis XIV, people became less centralized- art made for interiors and private collectionMeans playful decorationFragonard sensual in style and subject, lacks emotional depth, gracefulStyle ends with the Revolution

  • Chardin, Still life, c.1731Rubenistes cleared way for revival of Dutch painting-Chardin is a masterSense of spatial order- each object seems very important-respect for everyday objects- symbols,