task 2 photography terminology

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  • 1. Unit 57: Photography and Photographic Practice TerminologyP1, P2, M1, M2Photographic TerminologyLouise Maher

2. Shutter SpeedShutter speed refers to the length of time the shutter on the camera is open in orderto expose light into the camera sensor, allowing photographers to create dramaticeffects such as freezing motion or blurring it. A slow shutter speed will result inblurred motion in which the moving object will appear blurred and as a resultcommunicate a sense of movement to the person viewing the image. Whereas whenusing a fast shutter speed the moving object will be frozen within the image.In order to demonstrate how changing the shutter speed setting on a cameracan affect an image I took several photos using different shutter speedsettings, the photo on the right was taken using a fast shutter speed of 1/400a second, therefore the motion within the image has froze, whereas the photoon the left was taken using a slow shutter speed of 1/10 a second and as aresult the motion within the image has been blurred. 3. ISOThe ISO setting on a camera determines the level of sensitivity of a camera tothe light available, which means the lower the ISO setting the less sensitive thecamera will be to the available light whereas the higher the ISO setting the moresensitive the camera will be to light. Therefore a higher ISO setting allows you totake photographs in darker conditions without using a flash, however it can alsocause visual distortion therefore reducing the image quality.ISO-100After taking a number of the same photographswith different ISO settings to demonstrate howchanging the ISO setting affects an image, it isclear from the photo to the left that by using a lowerISO setting of ISO-100 resulted in a much darkerimage due to the fact that the camera is lesssensitive to the light that was available whenshooting. 4. ISO-800ISO-3200The image on the left was taken with theISO setting ISO-800. This created a muchbrighter and clean image.The image on the left was taken using thesetting ISO-3200 , as you can see due tothe high ISO setting the camera was muchmore sensitive to the light availabletherefore creating an overly exposedimage. Also due to the high ISO settingthere is a lot of noise within the imagetherefore reducing the image quality.In conclusion I feel that taking intoconsideration the amount of light thatwas available when shooting thesephotos, ISO-800 was the best setting touse. 5. Aperture & Depth of FieldAperture is measured in f-stops and by changing the f stop setting it determines thesize of the opening in the lens which opens when you press the shutter releasebutton therefore the larger the hole, the more light gets into the camera whereas thesmaller the hole, the less light gets into the camera, however on a camera thesmaller the f-stop number the bigger the aperture opening and the larger the f-stopnumber the smaller the aperture opening therefore this can cause confusion forphotographers.A prime example of aperture is the 2 photos Ihave taken on the left. The top image wastaking using the f-stop setting f/8 thereforethe opening in the lens is much smallertherefore reducing the amount of light gettinginto the camera, resulting in a darker image,whereas the photo on the bottom was takenusing the f-stop setting f/4 therefore meaningthe opening in the lens was much larger,therefore allowing more light into thecamera, resulting in a much brighter image. 6. Aperture & Depth of FieldDepth of field refers to the range of distance within and image which is sharpand in focus in contrast to the rest of the image which will appear more blurryweather that is the foreground or background. Aperture plays a large part insuccessfully achieving depth of field within an image along with shutter speedand iso, depth of field can be achieved by using a fast shutter speed settingalong with a small aperture setting.As you can see above, the photo on the right was taken using a fast shutterspeed of 1/200sec and using the smaller f-stop setting of f/2 and as a resultthe main subject is sharp and in focus, in contrast to the wall in thebackground which is blurred. Whereas the photo on the left was taken usingthe same shutter speed 1/200sec however I changed the f-stop setting to f/4and therefore it resulted in an image where the subject isnt in focus and thebackground is a lot less blurred that the image on the right. 7. White BalanceBy changing the white balance setting on a camera it will change the colour balancewithin an image depending on the type of light available when shooting.As you can see from the images below, each of which I took using a different whitebalance setting, due to the fact that a camera records things exactly how they arethis can result in a colour cast over the image and in order to correct this aphotographer must use the correct white balance setting depending on the type oflight available when shooting. 8. Rule of thirdsRule of thirds is a well known principle of photographic composition which involvesbreaking an image into thirds both horizontally and vertically so that there are 9 partsto the image. By using this principle a photographer is able to capture a variety ofwell balanced and interesting images. The theory behind the rule of thirds principle isthat if the points of interest within the image is in the intersecting lines the image willbe more balanced and it will allow the person viewing the image to view it morenaturally.When taking the photo on the right,I kept in mind the rule of thirdsprinciple, ensuring that the subjectsface, in particular the subjects eyesand nose were within theintersecting lines, therefore makingthis the point of interest. 9. Analogous colours& complementary coloursAnalogous colours This refers to usingcolours within an image which are next toeach other on the colour wheel, for example ifa photographer was going to capture an imageyellow flowers against a green field, this wouldbe the use of analogous colours. Using ananalogous colour theme within an image cangive photographs flow and harmony.Complementary colours This refers tousing colours within an image which areopposite each other in the colour wheel forexample if the two dominate colours withinan image was blue and orange this wouldbe use of complementary colours thereforecreating a great contrast and moreappealing image, however usingcomplementary colours does have thepotential to clash