# surveying - module i - introduction to surveying

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• OPTC Edavanna Page 1

MODULE I: INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING

1. Define surveying?

Art/Science of determining the relative positions of points on, above or below earths

surface by means of direct or indirect measurement of distances, elevations or

directions.

2. What are the primary objects of surveying?

a) Preparation of plans / maps

b) To find horizontal distances b/w points

c) To find elevation (height) b/w points

d) To find relative and absolute directions

3. What are the primary divisions of surveying?

a) Plane survey

Curvature of earth is not considered

For small areas

b) Geodetic survey

Curvature of earth is considered

For large areas

4. Write down the cardinal principles of surveying?

a) Working from whole to part

Area to be surveyed is divided into large triangle and further divided into

small triangles (Triangulation)

A system of control points is identified and located with high precision

To prevent accumulation of errors

To control and localize minor errors

b) Locating a point with reference to two fixed points

chain survey

Traversing

offset method

compass method

5. List classification of surveying based on instrument used?

a) Chain surveying

b) Compass surveying

c) Theodolite surveying

d) Plane table surveying

e) Tachometric surveying

Orphanage Polytechnic College, Edavanna REVISION PACKAGE

Surveying - I ( Revision 2015)

• OPTC Edavanna Page 2

6. Name instruments required for chain survey?

a) Chain or tape

b) Arrows

c) Ranging rods

d) Cross staff

e) Offset rods

f) Pegs

g) Plumb bob

7. What is reconnaissance? What is its importance in chain surveying?

Before starting the actual survey, surveyor walks around the area to prepare a

reference sketch of the ground to fix best positions of survey lines and stations.

Objectives:

To check the possibility of a building / constructing road through that area

To choose best route and mark on maps

To prepare estimate and draft report

This gives the surveyor an overall idea of the land and the important features.

8. What is mean by ranging? What is direct and indirect ranging? or Write the

basic methods of ranging out survey lines?

The process of establishing intermediate points on a straight line between the end

stations is called ranging. Intermediate ranging rods are placed to maintain correct

direction. There are two methods of ranging on slopping grounds.

a) Direct ranging

b) Indirect ranging

Direct Ranging:

When the starting, ending points and intermediate stations are intervisible along a

straight line. It can be done by eye, line ranger or theodolite.

Line Ranger: The line Ranger is a small reflecting instrument used for fixing

intermediate points on the chain lines. Without going to either end, we can fix the

intermediate points.

(i) To range a point P, two ranging rods are fixed at ends A and B

(ii) Surveyor hold the line ranger near AB

(iii) The reflected rays forms imag, but may not be in same vertical line.

(iv) Surveyor moves the line ranger sideways till both images are in same

vertical line as in figure.

(v) Point P is transferred to ground with help of plumb bob

• OPTC Edavanna Page 3

Indirect Ranging:

If the end stations are not intervisible due to hill/other land features.

Also known as reciprocal ranging

9. What is mean by reciprocal ranging? Write the condition under which the

reciprocal ranging is resorted to. Explain the procedure for indirect ranging?

It is the method of fixing intermediate station points b/w two terminal points, when

they are not intervisible. This method is adopted under following situations or

conditions.

A raising ground b/w the two end points

A hill (Steeply raising ground) b/w the end points

A deep valley b/w the end points

Procedure:

1. The ranging rods are drawn vertically at A and B

2. The person carrying ranging rods C and D should be sent to the positions

that they are to be visible from A and B.

3. The initial positions of C and D are marked on the ground as C1 and D1

4. The surveyor at A will now direct the man at C1 to put his rod at C2 in line with

A and D1

5. The surveyor at B will next direct the man at D1 to put his rod at D2 in line with

B and D2

6. This process is repeated several times till the points C and D are found out in

the line AB

• OPTC Edavanna Page 4

10. Briefly explain the direct and indirect method of measuring distances, if the

ground is slopping?

There are two methods of chaining on sloping grounds,

Direct method

Indirect method

Direct method (Method of stepping or stepping method):

The horizontal distance between A and B is measured in small horizontal steps

Total horizontal distance = l1 + l2 + l3 + l4

The follower holds the zero end of the tape at A while the leader selects any

suitable length of tape and moves forward.

In case of irregular slopes, this is the only suitable method

Indirect method: Three types

a) By using clinometer

b) By applying hypotenusal allowance

Correction is applied in the field at every chain length and at every point

where the slope changes

BC Hypotenusal allowance

c) By knowing the difference of level between the points

D =

• OPTC Edavanna Page 5

11. What is well conditional triangle and ill conditional triangles?

well conditional triangle ill conditional triangle

Error is minimized due to equal

distribution

Error gets accumulated in one

angle or one length only

All angles are nearly equal to 600 Angles are 120

0

12. Explain reference sketch, Index sketch?

Index sketch Reference sketch

It is a rough sketch of the

entire area to be surveyed

It is a rough sketch showing

location/reference of a

survey station

All lines, stations,

topographical features are

shown approximately

minimum two distances are

shown w.r.t. permanent

object like building

Useful for proper selection of

stations

Used for locating a station

correctly

13. Explain the principle on which chain survey is based? Mention the different

methods generally adopted to find the areas from previously plotted plan?

Basic principle used in chain survey is triangulation. The plotted framework is

divided into number of connected triangles.

14. Explain the terms: Main line, Base line, Check line, Tie line?

Main Line: Lines joining main stations Base line : Biggest line that divides the total area almost into two parts

Check line: Lines drawn to check accuracy of survey

Tie line : Lines drawn to collect more details of object 15. Describe different types of chain used for linear measurements?

Following are the various types of chain in common use

1) Metric chains

2) Gunter` s chain or surveyors chain

3) Engineers chain

4) Revenue chain

• OPTC Edavanna Page 6

Metric chain:

Metric chains are made in lengths 20 m and 30 m.

Tallies are fixed at every 5 m length

Brass rings are provided at every one meter length except where tallies are

attached.

20 m chain has 100 links and 30 m chain has 150 links.

Length of one link is 20 cm.

Gunters or Surveyors Chain

It is 66 feet long

It is divided into 100 links

Each link is 0.66 feet long

Engineers Chain

It is 100 feet long

It is divided into 100 links

Each link is 1 feet long

Revenue Chain

It is 33 feet long

It is divided into 16 links

Each link is 2.06 feet long

16. Mention the three different operations in chain surveying?

(i) Ranging: The process of locating intermediate points on a straight line between two end points in a straight line

(ii) Chaining: The process of measuring the distance with a chain or tape. (iii) Offsetting: The process of measuring the lateral distance of the object from the

survey line to the left or right according to their positions.

17. Explain the process of setting plane table over a station?

It involves

(i) Fixing: Fixing the table on the tripod

(ii) Setting : (a) Levelling the table (b) Centering (c) Orientation

(iii) Sighting the points

18. How levelling is done in plane table survey?

For small work, levelling is done by estimation. For accurate works, spirit level is used

19. What is meant by centering?

The process of making the point correctly on paper by placing the table exactly over

the ground station point is called centering.

20. What is orientation?What are the different methods of orientation of plane table?

Orientation is the process of putting the plane table into some fixed direction so that

the line representing a certain direction on the plan is parallel to the direction on the

ground.

• OPTC Edavanna Page 7

The methods of orientation are

(i) Orientation by means of trough compass