study guide: appendicular skeleton
Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?
What bones make up the shoulder girdle?
• The clavicle, scapula, and the manubrium of the sternum
WHERE DOES THE SHOULDER GIRDLE ARTICULATE WITH THE AXIAL SKELETON?
Where does the shoulder girdle articulate with the axial skeleton?
• At the sternoclavicular joint
– Where the sternum connects with the clavicle
EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAL, AXILLARY, AND SUPERIOR BORDERS OF THE SCAPULA?
Explain how you can tell the difference between the vertebral, axillary, and
superior borders of the scapula?
• Vertebral border:
– Located along the side of the scapula that runs alongside the spine
• Axillary border:
– Located along the side of the scapula that is nearest to the armpit
• Superior border:
– The top border of the scapula
TRUE OR FALSE: THE AC JOINT IS MADE UP OF THE ACROMION PROCESS AND THE CLAVICLE
True or false: the ac joint is made up of the acromion process and the clavicle
– AcromioClavicular joint
IS THE SCAPULAR SPINE LOCATED ON THE ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR SIDE OF THE SCAPULA?
Is the scapular spine located on the anterior or posterior side of the
scapula? • Posterior side
WHERE DOES THE HUMERUS ARTICULATE WITH THE SCAPULA?
Where does the humerus articulate with the scapula?
• The glenoid fossa
WHY IS THE AREA OF THE HUMERUS JUST BELOW THE TUBERCLES REFERRED TO AS THE SURGICAL NECK?
Why is the area of the humerus just below the tubercles referred to as the
• This area is the most common location for fractures in the humerus.
DESCRIBE HOW YOU COULD LOCATE THE INTERTUBERCULAR GROOVE ON THE HUMERUS.
Describe how you could locate the intertubercular groove on the
• First find the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal portion of the epiphysis.
– The groove is the divot between these two tubercles.
WHERE IS THE DELTOID TUBEROSITY LOCATED ON THE HUMERUS?
Where is the deltoid tuberosity located on the humerus?
• Along the outside portion of the diaphysis of the humerus.
– Basically a small notch
HOW COULD YOU TELL IF YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE THE LEFT HUMERUS OR THE RIGHT HUMERUS?
How could you tell if you are looking at the the left humerus or the right
• Identify the head of the humerus, the olecranon fossa (posterior side), and the medial epicondyle (largest of the two epicondyle)
EXPLAIN HOW THE HUMERUS IS INVOLVED WITH KEEPING YOU FROM HYPEREXTENDING YOUR ELBOW.
Explain how the humerus is involved with keeping you from hyperextending
• The olecranon fossa acts as a “catch” for the olecranon process of the ulna. It stops the arm from over extending.
IF SOMEONE HAD A GUN TO YOUR HEAD, HOW COULD YOU QUICKLY IDENTIFY THE TROCHLEA OF THE HUMERUS?
If someone had a gun to your head, how could you quickly identify the
trochlea of the humerus?
• It is a deep groove that looks similar to a pulley on the distal epiphysis of the humerus.
EXPLAIN HOW THE OLECRANON FOSSA, SEMILUNAR NOTCH, CAPITULUM, TROCHLEA, AND OLECRANON PROCESS ARE INVOLVED WITH THE ELBOW.
Explain how the olecranon fossa, semilunar notch, capitulum, trochlea, and olecranon process are involved
with the elbow #essaywarning
–Describe the location of each area
– Explain how each articulates with the other
THE GUY WITH THE GUN IS BACK…..HOW CAN YOU FIND THE ULNA BEFORE ITS TOO LATE?
The guy with the gun is back…..how can you find the ulna before its too
late? • The ulna is always located on the pinky side of
LIST THE DISTAL ROW OF CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.
List the distal row of carpal bones, starting from the thumb and moving
toward the pinky.
• Hamate » ***Be sure to review the bones around each bone as it
could be a description on a question
LIST THE PROXIMAL ROW OF THE CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.
List the proximal row of the carpal bones, starting from the thumb and
moving toward the pinky.
WHAT IS MISLEADING ABOUT THE BONES OF THE HAND IF YOU JUST LOOK STRICTLY AT THE SKELETON?
What is misleading about the bones of the hand if you just look strictly at the
skeleton? • Looking at the skeleton it appears as though
the carpal bones make up the palm of the hand. This is not the case as the metacarpals make up the majority of the palm of the hand.
HOW MANY MIDDLE PHALANGES ARE ON THE HAND?
How many middle phalanges are on the hand?
• The thumb is only made up of a proximal and distal phalanx.
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE PELVIC GIRDLE?
What bones make up the pelvic girdle?
• The coxal bones, sacrum, and the coccyx
WHAT BONES ARE FUSED TOGETHER AS A PART OF THIS?
What bones are fused together as a part of this?
WHAT PORTIONS OF THE COXAL BONES CAN BE EASILY PALPATED?
What portions of the coxal bones can be easily palpated?
• Iliac crest
EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FALSE PELVIS.
Explain the relationship between the true and false pelvis #essaywarning
• Be able to describe the invisible border where the false pelvis ends and the true begins.
• Why are the two shaped differently in males and females.
• Explain what organs are located in each area.
WHAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS FOR FEMALES?
What is important about the pubic symphysis for females?
• Since it is made of cartilage, it allows for the pelvis to expand, allowing the birth canal to widen enough for a baby to fit through.
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MARKINGS OF THE PROXIMAL PORTION OF THE FEMUR?
What are the major markings of the proximal portion of the femur?
• Greater trochanter
• Lesser trochanter
DESCRIBE THE DIAPHYSIS OF THE FEMUR.
Describe the diaphysis of the femur.
• On the posterior side, the linea aspera begins proximally and eventually divides into the supracondylar lines
HOW CAN YOU TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONDYLES AND EPICONDYLES ON THE FEMUR?
How can you tell the difference between the condyles and epicondyles
on the femur? • The epicondyles will be located superficially
on the bone. They will be bony protuberances on the distal portion of the femur. Conversely, the condyles are covered with cartilage and articulate with the lower leg bones.
WHAT IS THE LARGEST SESAMOID BONE IN THE HUMAN BODY?
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body?
WHAT ARE THE SPINES ON THE TIBIA WHERE THE ACL AND PCL ATTACH CALLED?
What are the spines on the tibia where the acl and pcl attach called?
• Intercondylar emminance
WHAT SPECIAL MARKINGS CAN YOU FEEL ON YOUR SHIN?
What special markings can you feel on your shin?
• Crest of the tibia
WHAT SPECIAL MARKING MAKES UP YOUR INNER ANKLE?
What special marking makes up your inner ankle?
• Medial malleolus
YOU JUST CAN’T GET RID OF THIS WILD GUNMAN….HOW CAN YOU QUICKLY TELL THE TIBIA AND FIBULA APART?
You just can’t get rid of this wild gunman….how can you quickly tell the
tibia and fibula apart?
• The fibula is smaller than the tibia, lateral to the tibia, and located deeper in the lower leg.
WHY IS THE FOOT CONSTRUCTED OF TWO ARCHES?
Why is the foot constructed of two arches?
• Arches are the most stable and sturdy architectural shape to support large amounts of weight.
WHAT ARE THE TWO ARCHES CALLED?
What are the two arches called?
• Longitudinal arch
– Made up of medial and lateral longitudinal arches
• Transverse arch
WHAT HAPPENS TO INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING FROM “FLAT FEET”?
What happens to individuals suffering from “flat Feet”?
• The ligaments holding the tarsal bones together weaken and the natural arches fall
• Pain in the foot and heel
• Pain radiating to the knee and eventually to the spine
WHAT ABOUT “HIGH ARCHES”, OR “CLAW FOOT”?
What about “high arches”, or “claw foot”?
• Charcot Marie Tooth disorder (CMT)
• The arches are “over – arched” causing instability in the ankle
• Common for individuals suffering from muscular dystrophy
WHAT IS ACTUALLY HAPPENING TO MOST PEOPLE THAT BELIEVE THEY HAVE FLAT FEET?
What is actually happening to most people that believe they have flat
• They are overweight, and are over pronating their feet as they walk. This movement causes undue stress on the ligaments supporting the arches and causing pain.
WHAT ANKLE BONE ARTICULATES WITH THE TIBIA?
What ankle bone articulates with the tibia?
WHAT BONE MAKES UP THE HEEL OF THE FOOT?
What bone makes up the heel of the foot?
LIST THE PROXIMAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY TOE.
List the proximal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky toe.
LIST THE DISTAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY TOE.
List the distal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky toe.
• 1-3 cuneiform bones
DISCUSS POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR A BROKEN CLAVICLE.
Discuss potential treatments for a broken clavicle #essaywarning
• Describe the injury
• Describe potential ways to set the fracture
• Describe the recovery period
HOW CAN SOMEONE WHO IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY HINDERED BY THEIR HEIGHT PERMANENTLY MAKE THEMSELVES TALLER?
How can someone who is psychologically hindered by their
height permanently make themselves taller #essaywarning
• Describe the limb lengthening process
• What bones are broken
• How are they lengthened
• Is it an easy process? Why?