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Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

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Page 1: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Page 2: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?

1

Page 3: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What bones make up the shoulder girdle?

• The clavicle, scapula, and the manubrium of the sternum

Page 4: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHERE DOES THE SHOULDER GIRDLE ARTICULATE WITH THE AXIAL SKELETON?

a)

Page 5: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Where does the shoulder girdle articulate with the axial skeleton?

• At the sternoclavicular joint

– Where the sternum connects with the clavicle

Page 6: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAL, AXILLARY, AND SUPERIOR BORDERS OF THE SCAPULA?

2

Page 7: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Explain how you can tell the difference between the vertebral, axillary, and

superior borders of the scapula?

• Vertebral border:

– Located along the side of the scapula that runs alongside the spine

• Axillary border:

– Located along the side of the scapula that is nearest to the armpit

• Superior border:

– The top border of the scapula

Page 8: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

TRUE OR FALSE: THE AC JOINT IS MADE UP OF THE ACROMION PROCESS AND THE CLAVICLE

3

Page 9: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

True or false: the ac joint is made up of the acromion process and the clavicle

• True

– AcromioClavicular joint

Page 10: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

IS THE SCAPULAR SPINE LOCATED ON THE ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR SIDE OF THE SCAPULA?

4

Page 11: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Is the scapular spine located on the anterior or posterior side of the

scapula? • Posterior side

Page 12: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHERE DOES THE HUMERUS ARTICULATE WITH THE SCAPULA?

5

Page 13: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Where does the humerus articulate with the scapula?

• The glenoid fossa

Page 14: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHY IS THE AREA OF THE HUMERUS JUST BELOW THE TUBERCLES REFERRED TO AS THE SURGICAL NECK?

6

Page 15: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Why is the area of the humerus just below the tubercles referred to as the

surgical neck?

• This area is the most common location for fractures in the humerus.

Page 16: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

DESCRIBE HOW YOU COULD LOCATE THE INTERTUBERCULAR GROOVE ON THE HUMERUS.

7

Page 17: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Describe how you could locate the intertubercular groove on the

humerus.

• First find the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal portion of the epiphysis.

– The groove is the divot between these two tubercles.

Page 18: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHERE IS THE DELTOID TUBEROSITY LOCATED ON THE HUMERUS?

8

Page 19: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Where is the deltoid tuberosity located on the humerus?

• Along the outside portion of the diaphysis of the humerus.

– Basically a small notch

Page 20: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

HOW COULD YOU TELL IF YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE THE LEFT HUMERUS OR THE RIGHT HUMERUS?

9

Page 21: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

How could you tell if you are looking at the the left humerus or the right

humerus?

• Identify the head of the humerus, the olecranon fossa (posterior side), and the medial epicondyle (largest of the two epicondyle)

Page 22: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

EXPLAIN HOW THE HUMERUS IS INVOLVED WITH KEEPING YOU FROM HYPEREXTENDING YOUR ELBOW.

10

Page 23: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Explain how the humerus is involved with keeping you from hyperextending

your elbow.

• The olecranon fossa acts as a “catch” for the olecranon process of the ulna. It stops the arm from over extending.

Page 24: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

IF SOMEONE HAD A GUN TO YOUR HEAD, HOW COULD YOU QUICKLY IDENTIFY THE TROCHLEA OF THE HUMERUS?

11

Page 25: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

If someone had a gun to your head, how could you quickly identify the

trochlea of the humerus?

• It is a deep groove that looks similar to a pulley on the distal epiphysis of the humerus.

Page 26: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

EXPLAIN HOW THE OLECRANON FOSSA, SEMILUNAR NOTCH, CAPITULUM, TROCHLEA, AND OLECRANON PROCESS ARE INVOLVED WITH THE ELBOW.

12

Page 27: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Explain how the olecranon fossa, semilunar notch, capitulum, trochlea, and olecranon process are involved

with the elbow #essaywarning

–Describe the location of each area

– Explain how each articulates with the other

Page 28: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

THE GUY WITH THE GUN IS BACK…..HOW CAN YOU FIND THE ULNA BEFORE ITS TOO LATE?

13

Page 29: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

The guy with the gun is back…..how can you find the ulna before its too

late? • The ulna is always located on the pinky side of

the arm.

Page 30: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

LIST THE DISTAL ROW OF CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.

14

Page 31: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

List the distal row of carpal bones, starting from the thumb and moving

toward the pinky.

• Trapezium

• Trapezoid

• Capitate

• Hamate » ***Be sure to review the bones around each bone as it

could be a description on a question

Page 32: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

LIST THE PROXIMAL ROW OF THE CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.

15

Page 33: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

List the proximal row of the carpal bones, starting from the thumb and

moving toward the pinky.

• Scaphoid

• Lunate

• Triquetrum

• Pisiform

Page 34: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT IS MISLEADING ABOUT THE BONES OF THE HAND IF YOU JUST LOOK STRICTLY AT THE SKELETON?

16

Page 35: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What is misleading about the bones of the hand if you just look strictly at the

skeleton? • Looking at the skeleton it appears as though

the carpal bones make up the palm of the hand. This is not the case as the metacarpals make up the majority of the palm of the hand.

Page 36: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

HOW MANY MIDDLE PHALANGES ARE ON THE HAND?

17

Page 37: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

How many middle phalanges are on the hand?

• 4

Page 38: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHY? a)

Page 39: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Why?

• The thumb is only made up of a proximal and distal phalanx.

Page 40: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE PELVIC GIRDLE?

18

Page 41: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What bones make up the pelvic girdle?

• The coxal bones, sacrum, and the coccyx

Page 42: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT BONES ARE FUSED TOGETHER AS A PART OF THIS?

a)

Page 43: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What bones are fused together as a part of this?

• Ilium

• Ischium

• Pubis

Page 44: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT PORTIONS OF THE COXAL BONES CAN BE EASILY PALPATED?

19

Page 45: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What portions of the coxal bones can be easily palpated?

• Iliac crest

Page 46: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FALSE PELVIS.

20

Page 47: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Explain the relationship between the true and false pelvis #essaywarning

• Be able to describe the invisible border where the false pelvis ends and the true begins.

• Why are the two shaped differently in males and females.

• Explain what organs are located in each area.

Page 48: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS FOR FEMALES?

21

Page 49: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What is important about the pubic symphysis for females?

• Since it is made of cartilage, it allows for the pelvis to expand, allowing the birth canal to widen enough for a baby to fit through.

Page 50: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MARKINGS OF THE PROXIMAL PORTION OF THE FEMUR?

22

Page 51: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What are the major markings of the proximal portion of the femur?

• Head

• Neck

• Greater trochanter

• Lesser trochanter

Page 52: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

DESCRIBE THE DIAPHYSIS OF THE FEMUR.

23

Page 53: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Describe the diaphysis of the femur.

• On the posterior side, the linea aspera begins proximally and eventually divides into the supracondylar lines

Page 54: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

HOW CAN YOU TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONDYLES AND EPICONDYLES ON THE FEMUR?

24

Page 55: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

How can you tell the difference between the condyles and epicondyles

on the femur? • The epicondyles will be located superficially

on the bone. They will be bony protuberances on the distal portion of the femur. Conversely, the condyles are covered with cartilage and articulate with the lower leg bones.

Page 56: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT IS THE LARGEST SESAMOID BONE IN THE HUMAN BODY?

25

Page 57: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body?

• Patella

Page 58: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT ARE THE SPINES ON THE TIBIA WHERE THE ACL AND PCL ATTACH CALLED?

26

Page 59: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What are the spines on the tibia where the acl and pcl attach called?

• Intercondylar emminance

Page 60: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT SPECIAL MARKINGS CAN YOU FEEL ON YOUR SHIN?

27

Page 61: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What special markings can you feel on your shin?

• Crest of the tibia

Page 62: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT SPECIAL MARKING MAKES UP YOUR INNER ANKLE?

28

Page 63: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What special marking makes up your inner ankle?

• Medial malleolus

Page 64: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

YOU JUST CAN’T GET RID OF THIS WILD GUNMAN….HOW CAN YOU QUICKLY TELL THE TIBIA AND FIBULA APART?

29

Page 65: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

You just can’t get rid of this wild gunman….how can you quickly tell the

tibia and fibula apart?

• The fibula is smaller than the tibia, lateral to the tibia, and located deeper in the lower leg.

Page 66: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHY IS THE FOOT CONSTRUCTED OF TWO ARCHES?

30

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Why is the foot constructed of two arches?

• Arches are the most stable and sturdy architectural shape to support large amounts of weight.

Page 68: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT ARE THE TWO ARCHES CALLED?

a)

Page 69: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What are the two arches called?

• Longitudinal arch

– Made up of medial and lateral longitudinal arches

• Transverse arch

Page 70: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT HAPPENS TO INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING FROM “FLAT FEET”?

31

Page 71: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What happens to individuals suffering from “flat Feet”?

• The ligaments holding the tarsal bones together weaken and the natural arches fall

• Pain in the foot and heel

• Pain radiating to the knee and eventually to the spine

Page 72: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT ABOUT “HIGH ARCHES”, OR “CLAW FOOT”?

a)

Page 73: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What about “high arches”, or “claw foot”?

• Charcot Marie Tooth disorder (CMT)

• The arches are “over – arched” causing instability in the ankle

• Common for individuals suffering from muscular dystrophy

Page 74: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT IS ACTUALLY HAPPENING TO MOST PEOPLE THAT BELIEVE THEY HAVE FLAT FEET?

32

Page 75: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What is actually happening to most people that believe they have flat

feet?

• They are overweight, and are over pronating their feet as they walk. This movement causes undue stress on the ligaments supporting the arches and causing pain.

Page 76: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT ANKLE BONE ARTICULATES WITH THE TIBIA?

33

Page 77: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

What ankle bone articulates with the tibia?

• Talus

Page 78: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

WHAT BONE MAKES UP THE HEEL OF THE FOOT?

34

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What bone makes up the heel of the foot?

• Calcaneus

Page 80: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

LIST THE PROXIMAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY TOE.

35

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List the proximal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky toe.

• Navicular

• Talus

• Calcaneus

Page 82: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

LIST THE DISTAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY TOE.

36

Page 83: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

List the distal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky toe.

• 1-3 cuneiform bones

• Cuboid

Page 84: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

DISCUSS POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR A BROKEN CLAVICLE.

37

Page 85: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

Discuss potential treatments for a broken clavicle #essaywarning

• Describe the injury

• Describe potential ways to set the fracture

• Describe the recovery period

Page 86: Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

HOW CAN SOMEONE WHO IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY HINDERED BY THEIR HEIGHT PERMANENTLY MAKE THEMSELVES TALLER?

38

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How can someone who is psychologically hindered by their

height permanently make themselves taller #essaywarning

• Describe the limb lengthening process

• What bones are broken

• How are they lengthened

• Is it an easy process? Why?