stages of the holocaust
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Anti-Semitism / Stages of the Holocaust
History of Anti-Semitism• Cultural differences made the Jews
standout• Jews generally lived in close-knit
communities• Have been demonized,
discriminated against by Christians for 2000 years
• Christianity needed Judaism as a contrast - to make Christianity look better, to act as a scapegoat
History of Anti-Semitism• 30 CE - Christ is killed.• 325 CE - Christianity becomes
official religion of the Roman Empire. Jews negatively portrayed.
• 5th-7th Centuries - Violence escalates
• Middle Ages - Jews less than human, killed in the Crusades, demonized, blamed for Black Death
History of Anti-Semitism• Renaissance/Reformation - Jews
had to wear badges or cones on head, in Italy and Germany they were separated into ghettos
• Spanish Inquisition• 17th-18th Century tensions eased
Anti-Semitism in Germany• .08% of population (~500,000)• Fully integrated into Germany
society• Supported WWI and the German
Empire• Mostly lived in large cities
Anti-Semitism in Germany• Hitler blamed Jews/Marxists for
loss of WWI• The Aryan Race - “Pure Germans”
superior• Incorrectly names Jews as a race• Struggle for world domination• History and biology changed to
match anti-Semitic views
Boycott of Jewish Businesses
• 1933 - Germany• Sets up idea that
Jews are not Germans and isolates them
SA pickets, wearing boycott signs, block the entrance to a Jewish-owned shop. The signs read: "Germans, defend yourselves against the Jewish atrocity propaganda, buy only at German shops!" and "Germans, defend yourselves, buy only at German shops!"
Two Nazi stormtroopers stand guard in front of the H. L. Heimann store in Bopfingen, to prevent would-be shoppers from violating the Nazi boycott of Jewish-owned businesses.
Nuremberg Laws• Germany - 1935• Defined who was a
Jew• Deprived Jews of
Kristallnacht• 1938 - Germany• “Night of the Broken Glass”• Organized violence against Jews
throughout Germany and Austria
The fire department only made sure the fire did not spread to the building next to the synagogue
View of the interior of the Essenweinstrasse synagogue in Nuremberg following its destruction during Kristallnacht.
Ghettos• 1939-45 - German occupied
territories• Small areas of a city where Jews
Einsatzgruppen• 1941 - Poland and Russia• Mobile Killing Squads
Deportations• 1939-1945 - Throughout Europe• Movement of Jews to ghettos and
then to camps
Jews board a deportation train at the railroad station in Würzburg.
Hundreds of Jews wait to board deportation trains at the railroad station in Würzburg. Their luggage and bed rolls are piled in the center of the platform.
Jews from the Lodz ghetto board deportation trains for the Chelmno death camp
Camps• 1939-1945 - Throughout Europe• Different types: labor camps,
concentration camps, and death camps
“Work makes one free”
Human remains found in the Dachau concentration camp crematorium after liberation. Germany, April 1945.
Liberation• 1944-45 - Throughout Europe• Allies liberate camps