Some aspects on the Arctic energy budget and climatology

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Some aspects on the Arctic energy budget and climatology. Nils Gunnar Kvamst ( Nils.Kvamsto@gfi.uib.no ) Input from Asgeir Sorteberg, Igor Ezau, Vladimir Alexeev and yvind Byrkjedal. OUTLINE OF THIS WEEKS LECTURES. Arctic Climatology 1 Arctic Climatology 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Some aspects on the Arctic energy budget and climatology Nils Gunnar Kvamst (Nils.Kvamsto@gfi.uib.no) Input from Asgeir Sorteberg, Igor Ezau, Vladimir Alexeev and yvind Byrkjedal</p></li><li><p>OUTLINE OF THIS WEEKS LECTURESArctic Climatology 1Arctic Climatology 2Sea Ice role, variability, mechanismsArctic climate variability and climate change</p></li><li><p>ps0ztop0FRAMEWORK ENERGY CONTENT IN AN ATMOSPHERIC COLUMNHartmann (1994) Ch 6</p></li><li><p>RTOARS, QH+QS[uAE][uAE+d(uAE)]CHANGE OF ENERGY WITH TIME</p></li><li><p>soLi +SiOCEANIC ENERGY BUDGETTERRESTRIAL ENERGY BUDGETL Latent heat; S sensible heat</p></li><li><p>The Arctic energy budget70NAtmosphere:Net radiation at top of atmosphereLateral transportSurface fluxes (radiation, turbulence)</p><p>Ocean:Surface fluxes (radiation, turbulence)Lateral transport (water)Latent heat (freezing/melting)Ice transport</p><p>Land Surface:Surface fluxes</p><p>Fresh water run off</p></li><li><p>Annual means:dAE/dt =0,Fsfc = 11 Wm-2Rtop=-110Wm-2F = 100Wm-2Residual 1Wm-2</p><p>AE/t </p></li><li><p>Residuals space and time dependencySerreze et al (2007)00Annual cycle contd</p></li><li>F cosists mostly of dry static energy!Fq PrFsfc = Rs + QE + QH, Rs dominatesOften QH </li><li><p>Assessment of ERA40 comparison with sat.- and obs Data F well constrained (similar to NCEP)Fsfc is in the upper range (2.5 11) (1Wm-2 = 0.1m sea ice in 1 yr!!)Fsfc too high. Inaccurate cloud properties in ERA40Excessive Rtop too high content of sensible heatRemember satellite data are inaccurate as well </p><p>Serreze et al (2007)</p></li><li><p>Energy flux from surface to atmosphere during winter Largest fluxes from open ocean QH QE Nearly 0 over land (QE into sfc [inversion] LW out) Energy flux from atmosphere to surface during summer. Largest over open ocean (SW and low albedo) QE downward (melting ice &amp; permafrost deepening active soil layer)Fsfc in ERA40 are higher than in other datasets. Indication of systematic error. But, the active soil layer may have increased (tawing) over the last decades =&gt; more heat stored larger fluxes.Serreze et al (2007)</p></li><li><p>Serreze et al (2007)Mean transport</p></li><li><p>Time series of total transportPronounced annual cycleWeaker interannual cycleand low frequency variability.</p><p>Trends?</p><p>Serreze et al (2007)</p></li><li><p>ANNUAL ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY TRANSPORTAndresen and Sorteberg (2009)</p></li><li><p>Zonally averaged long term circulation mean meridional circulationFerrel cellPolar cellPoleward transport by mean meridional circulation =vuDeviations from mean matters as well eddiesWallace and Hobbs (2006)</p><p>*</p><p>Mean height of 500 hPa surface January Hartmann (1994) Ch 6ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT BY EDDIES</p><p>*</p><p>Total poleward heat tr = (tr by MMC) + (tr by qs eddies) + (tr by high freq eddies)ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT</p><p>*</p><p>Annual average northward energy fluxunits in 1015 W</p><p>*</p><p>Zonally averaged northward flux of heat by eddiesHartmann (1994) Ch 6</p></li><li><p>ATMOSPHERIC HEAT TRANSPORT MMC - MEAN MERIDIONAL CIRCULATIONSE - STATIONARY EDDIESTE - TRANSIENT EDDIESHEAT TRANSPORT ACROSS 60N </p><p>Largest portion below 500hPa </p><p>Max in 800-900hPa (1200-2500m)</p><p>Not much in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer</p></li><li><p>The seasonal in/out flow of energy is longitude dependentBoth quasistationary waves and eddies contribute.Strong signatures from quasistationary waves in figureW and E of N. American throughTransport below 3000m -&gt; N.Atl more pronounced hereLONGITUDINAL DEPENDENCE OF F</p></li><li><p>3 neglected 2,4,5,6 -&gt; observed =&gt; 1 residual5 ice drift in the fram strait4 estimated from model runs. Sum out/inflow Fram, Bering, Barents, Can Arc(may be dependent on comp method) Ocean budget (+ atmosphere over ocean area only)Serreze et al 2007</p></li><li><p>S0/OETransport terms are steady =&gt; Annual cycle generated by Fsfc</p><p>Seasonal cycle comes mostly from Barents sea.Large heat content on Nov due to adv This contributes to secondary max in Li in Dec</p><p>Cycle gets lagged with depth</p></li><li><p>ARCTIC CLIMATOLOGY</p><p>QUALITY CHECKED ARCTIC STATIONSFORCLIMATE STUDIESPolyakov, 2003START YEAR </p></li><li><p>EXAMPLES OF SOME DRIFITING STATIONS FRAM (1893-1896) MAUD (1922-1924) T-3 (1952-1971) NP-STATIONS (1952-1993) RUSS. PATROL SHIPS (1952-1983) DARMS (1958-1975)</p><p>Example: Pol (1953-1959, 1972)Example: NP-22 (1973-1982)Arctic Climatology Atlas, 2002Russ. Drifting Automatic Radiometeorological Stations</p></li><li><p>2m temperatureArctic Climatology Atlas, 2002JANUARYAPRIL</p></li><li><p>2m temperature Arctic Climatology Atlas, 2002JULYOCTOBER</p></li><li><p>TEMPERATURES AT SVALBARD</p><p>Diagram1</p><p>19101910191019101910</p><p>19111911191119111911</p><p>19121912-1.608742138419121912</p><p>19131913-1.601823899419131913</p><p>19141914-1.57691823919141914</p><p>19151915-1.513773584919151915</p><p>19161916-1.391132075519161916</p><p>19171917-1.195031446519171917</p><p>19181918-0.928113207519181918</p><p>19191919-0.613773584919191919</p><p>0.43285714291920-0.291194968619201920</p><p>0.40192857141921-0.003710691819210.7280392157</p><p>0.357714285719220.214276729619220.8050980392</p><p>0.299428571419230.346037735819230.8814705882</p><p>0.231642857119240.395974842819240.9557843137</p><p>0.165428571419250.387421383619251.027745098</p><p>0.117519260.355283018919261.0978431373</p><p>0.105071428619270.335786163519271.1667647059</p><p>0.139357142919280.355723270419281.2328431373</p><p>0.220642857119290.425031446519291.2920588235</p><p>0.338714285719300.536477987419301.3380392157</p><p>0.476785714319310.671006289319311.3651960784</p><p>0.616714285719320.806792452819321.3708823529</p><p>0.742714285719330.925911949719331.356372549</p><p>0.841642857119341.016729559719341.3254901961</p><p>0.901519351.0715094341.07728571431.281372549</p><p>0.911071428619361.08433962261.05021428571.2231372549</p><p>0.862714285719371.05050314470.99464285711.1452941176</p><p>0.758357142919380.97062893080.90914285711.0412745098</p><p>0.613857142919390.8545911950.79964285710.9114705882</p><p>0.457714285719400.72188679250.68050.7700980392</p><p>0.322285714319410.59660377360.57035714290.6445098039</p><p>0.231519420.49830188680.4850.565</p><p>0.192142857119430.43591194970.43064285710.5508823529</p><p>0.194928571419440.40723270440.40342857140.6004901961</p><p>0.222714285719450.40345911950.39450.6917647059</p><p>0.26107142860.46978494620.41591194970.39678571430.7933333333</p><p>0.30357142860.48774193550.43981132080.40914285710.8788235294</p><p>0.35107142860.5195161290.47446540880.43514285710.9345098039</p><p>0.40742857140.56677419350.52144654090.47992857140.9598039216</p><p>0.47528571430.62973118280.58182389940.54614285710.9615686275</p><p>0.55435714290.70569892470.65471698110.63242857140.9496078431</p><p>0.64014285710.7876881720.73559748430.73221428570.9337254902</p><p>0.72357142860.86370967740.81547169810.83414285710.9235294118</p><p>0.79178571430.91811827960.88144654090.92264285710.927254902</p><p>0.82971428570.93494623660.91861635220.98057142860.9481372549</p><p>0.82350.90209677420.91345911950.99207142860.981372549</p><p>0.76328571430.81440860220.85672955970.94592857141.0124509804</p><p>0.64621428570.67537634410.74591194970.83821428571.0202941176</p><p>0.4790.49709677420.58679245280.67457142860.982745098</p><p>0.27771428570.29854838710.3930817610.46971428570.8840196078</p><p>0.06578571430.10145161290.18433962260.24464285710.7184313725</p><p>-0.1324285714-0.0751612903-0.01911949690.02171428570.4924509804</p><p>-0.2978571429-0.2195698925-0.2010691824-0.18007142860.2229411765</p><p>-0.4200714286-0.3281182796-0.3510062893-0.3472142857-0.0655882353</p><p>-0.4952142857-0.4009677419-0.4617610063-0.4698571429-0.3429411765</p><p>-0.5210714286-0.4362365591-0.5255345912-0.5385714286-0.5761764706</p><p>-0.4939285714-0.4268817204-0.5325157233-0.5436428571-0.7345098039</p><p>-0.4108571429-0.3643010753-0.4743396226-0.4785-0.7964705882</p><p>-0.2750714286-0.2462365591-0.3519496855-0.3464285714-0.7569607843</p><p>-0.1011428571-0.0840322581-0.180754717-0.1646428571-0.6300980392</p><p>0.0840.09623655910.00930817610.0368571429-0.4465686275</p><p>0.24671428570.25983870970.18163522010.2223571429-0.2448039216</p><p>0.35635714290.37376344090.3030817610.3597142857-0.0606862745</p><p>0.39521428570.41709677420.35415094340.42878571430.0799019608</p><p>0.36471428570.38709677420.33358490570.42592857140.1656862745</p><p>0.28478571430.29973118280.25867924530.36450.1998039216</p><p>0.18685714290.1845161290.16018867920.2710.1964705882</p><p>0.10357142860.07607526880.07339622640.17792857140.1761764706</p><p>0.05878571430.00403225810.02786163520.11442857140.1597058824</p><p>0.0617857143-0.01559139780.03805031450.09707142860.1621568627</p><p>0.10578571430.01494623660.09798742140.12471428570.1891176471</p><p>0.17157142860.07655913980.18402515720.1790.2354901961</p><p>0.23528571430.14236559140.26465408810.23271428570.2885294118</p><p>0.27914285710.190.31484276730.26207142860.3351960784</p><p>0.29907142860.21290322580.32811320750.25885714290.3706862745</p><p>0.30650.22290322580.31893081760.23428571430.4020588235</p><p>0.32057142860.24155913980.3138364780.21221428570.4451960784</p><p>0.35585714290.28623655910.33547169810.21492857140.5144117647</p><p>0.41207142860.35801075270.38993710690.25021428570.612254902</p><p>0.47414285710.4413440860.46522012580.30785714290.7262745098</p><p>0.52107142860.51397849460.54056603770.36771428570.8346078431</p><p>0.53907142860.56069892470.59962264150.41235714290.9175490196</p><p>0.52950.58123655910.63886792450.43635714290.9667647059</p><p>0.50785714290.58887096770.66698113210.44692857140.9878431373</p><p>0.4950.60198924730.69742138360.45742857140.9955882353</p><p>0.50728571430.63478494620.74088050310.47992857141.0054901961</p><p>0.55078571430.69284946240.80119496860.52042857141.027745098</p><p>0.62150.77338709680.87622641510.57878571431.0647058824</p><p>0.70971428570.86887096770.96056603770.65078571431.1126470588</p><p>0.80450.97064516131.04805031450.73064285711.1655882353</p><p>Bjrnya</p><p>Hopen</p><p>Svalbard Airport</p><p>Ny-lesund</p><p>Jan Mayen</p><p>Temperature (degC)</p><p>Annual</p><p>Annual</p><p>BjrnyaHopenSvalbard AirportNy-lesundJan Mayen</p><p>1910</p><p>1911</p><p>1912-1.6087421384</p><p>1913-1.6018238994</p><p>1914-1.576918239</p><p>1915-1.5137735849</p><p>1916-1.3911320755</p><p>1917-1.1950314465</p><p>1918-0.9281132075</p><p>1919-0.6137735849</p><p>19200.43-0.2911949686</p><p>19210.40-0.00371069180.7280392157</p><p>19220.360.21427672960.8050980392</p><p>19230.300.34603773580.8814705882</p><p>19240.230.39597484280.9557843137</p><p>19250.170.38742138361.027745098</p><p>19260.120.35528301891.0978431373</p><p>19270.110.33578616351.1667647059</p><p>19280.140.35572327041.2328431373</p><p>19290.220.42503144651.2920588235</p><p>19300.340.53647798741.3380392157</p><p>19310.480.67100628931.3651960784</p><p>19320.620.80679245281.3708823529</p><p>19330.740.92591194971.356372549</p><p>19340.841.01672955971.3254901961</p><p>19350.901.0715094341.07728571431.281372549</p><p>19360.911.08433962261.05021428571.2231372549</p><p>19370.861.05050314470.99464285711.1452941176</p><p>19380.760.97062893080.90914285711.0412745098</p><p>19390.610.8545911950.79964285710.9114705882</p><p>19400.460.72188679250.68050.7700980392</p><p>19410.320.59660377360.57035714290.6445098039</p><p>19420.230.49830188680.4850.565</p><p>19430.190.43591194970.43064285710.5508823529</p><p>19440.190.40723270440.40342857140.6004901961</p><p>19450.220.40345911950.39450.6917647059</p><p>19460.260.470.41591194970.39678571430.7933333333</p><p>19470.300.490.43981132080.40914285710.8788235294</p><p>19480.350.520.47446540880.43514285710.9345098039</p><p>19490.410.570.52144654090.47992857140.9598039216</p><p>19500.480.630.58182389940.54614285710.9615686275</p><p>19510.550.710.65471698110.63242857140.9496078431</p><p>19520.640.790.73559748430.73221428570.9337254902</p><p>19530.720.860.81547169810.83414285710.9235294118</p><p>19540.790.920.88144654090.92264285710.927254902</p><p>19550.830.930.91861635220.98057142860.9481372549</p><p>19560.820.900.91345911950.99207142860.981372549</p><p>19570.760.810.85672955970.94592857141.0124509804</p><p>19580.650.680.74591194970.83821428571.0202941176</p><p>19590.480.500.58679245280.67457142860.982745098</p><p>19600.280.300.3930817610.46971428570.8840196078</p><p>19610.070.100.18433962260.24464285710.7184313725</p><p>1962-0.13-0.08-0.01911949690.02171428570.4924509804</p><p>1963-0.30-0.22-0.2010691824-0.18007142860.2229411765</p><p>1964-0.42-0.33-0.3510062893-0.3472142857-0.0655882353</p><p>1965-0.50-0.40-0.4617610063-0.4698571429-0.3429411765</p><p>1966-0.52-0.44-0.5255345912-0.5385714286-0.5761764706</p><p>1967-0.49-0.43-0.5325157233-0.5436428571-0.7345098039</p><p>1968-0.41-0.36-0.4743396226-0.4785-0.7964705882</p><p>1969-0.28-0.25-0.3519496855-0.3464285714-0.7569607843</p><p>1970-0.10-0.08-0.180754717-0.1646428571-0.6300980392</p><p>19710.080.100.00930817610.0368571429-0.4465686275</p><p>19720.250.260.18163522010.2223571429-0.2448039216</p><p>19730.360.370.3030817610.3597142857-0.0606862745</p><p>19740.400.420.35415094340.42878571430.0799019608</p><p>19750.360.390.33358490570.42592857140.1656862745</p><p>19760.280.300.25867924530.36450.1998039216</p><p>19770.190.180.16018867920.2710.1964705882</p><p>19780.100.080.07339622640.17792857140.1761764706</p><p>19790.060.000.02786163520.11442857140.1597058824</p><p>19800.06-0.020.03805031450.09707142860.1621568627</p><p>19810.110.010.09798742140.12471428570.1891176471</p><p>19820.170.080.18402515720.1790.2354901961</p><p>19830.240.140.26465408810.23271428570.2885294118</p><p>19840.280.190.31484276730.26207142860.3351960784</p><p>19850.300.210.32811320750.25885714290.3706862745</p><p>19860.310.220.31893081760.23428571430.4020588235</p><p>19870.320.240.3138364780.21221428570.4451960784</p><p>19880.360.290.33547169810.21492857140.5144117647</p><p>19890.410.360.38993710690.25021428570.612254902</p><p>19900.470.440.46522012580.30785714290.7262745098</p><p>19910.520.510.54056603770.36771428570.8346078431</p><p>19920.540.560.59962264150.41235714290.9175490196</p><p>19930.530.580.63886792450.43635714290.9667647059</p><p>19940.510.590.66698113210.44692857140.9878431373</p><p>19950.500.600.69742138360.45742857140.9955882353</p><p>19960.510.630.74088050310.47992857141.0054901961</p><p>19970.550.690.80119496860.52042857141.027745098</p><p>19980.620.770.87622641510.57878571431.0647058824</p><p>19990.710.870.96056603770.65078571431.1126470588</p><p>20000.800.971.04805031450.73064285711.1655882353</p><p>Annual</p><p>Bjrnya</p><p>Hopen</p><p>Svalbard Airport</p><p>Ny-lesund</p><p>Jan Mayen</p><p>Temperature (degC)</p><p>Annual</p><p>Winter</p><p>BjrnyaHopenSvalbard AirportNy-lesundJan Mayen</p><p>1910</p><p>1911</p><p>1912-1.39</p><p>1913-1.37</p><p>1914-1.35</p><p>1915-1.29</p><p>1916-1.18</p><p>1917-1.01</p><p>1918-0.77</p><p>1919-0.47</p><p>1920-0.15</p><p>19210.710.151.38</p><p>19220.740.401.36</p><p>19230.760.571.35</p><p>19240.780.681.35</p><p>19250.780.741.35</p><p>19260.790.781.37</p><p>19270.820.821.40</p><p>19280.860.891.42</p><p>19290.930.971.44</p><p>19301.011.071.44</p><p>19311.091.161.41</p><p>19321.161.241.35</p><p>19331.211.291.28</p><p>19341.231.321.19</p><p>19351.231.331.251.10</p><p>19361.201.341.271.01</p><p>19371.131.321.270.91</p><p>19381.011.281.240.79</p><p>19390.851.221.190.65</p><p>19400.691.141.140.51</p><p>19410.541.051.080.38</p><p>19420.450.981.040.30</p><p>19430.420.931.010.31</p><p>19440.450.890.990.39</p><p>19450.510.860.960.52</p><p>19460.580.840.810.920.68</p><p>19470.630.830.770.870.81</p><p>19480.670.820.720.810.91</p><p>19490.700.830.690.770.96</p><p>19500.720.850.690.760.98</p><p>19510.760.890.710.780.97</p><p>19520.810.950.770.830.95</p><p>19530.861.010.840.910.94</p><p>19540.911.040.900.970.94</p><p>19550.921.030.931.010.95</p><p>19560.880.960.901.000.96</p><p>19570.790.830.800.920.96</p><p>19580.630.630.650.770.94</p><p>19590.430.410.440.570.88</p><p>19600.220.180.220.350.78</p><p>19610.02-0.020.000.120.62</p><p>1962-0.15-0.18-0.18-0.070.42</p><p>1963-0.27-0.27-0.31-0.220.19</p><p>1964-0.35-0.31-0.39-0.31-0.05</p><p>1965-0.38-0.31-0.42-0.35-0.29</p><p>1966-0.38-0.28-0.40-0.34-0.48</p><p>1967-0.33-0.22-0.35-0.29-0.62</p><p>1968-0.25-0.13-0.26-0.20-0.68</p><p>1969-0.12-0.02-0.12-0.07-0.64</p><p>19700.050.130.050.09-0.53</p><p>19710.220.290.220.26-0.37</p><p>19720.370.440.380.40-0.19</p><p>19730.460.530.480.49-0.04</p><p>19740.480.550.510.500.07</p><p>19750.420.490.460.440.13</p><p>19760.300.380.350.310.15</p><p>19770.170.230.210.160.15</p><p>19780.050.090.090.020.15</p><p>1979-0.02-0.020.00-0.080.17</p><p>1980-0.03-0.07-0.02-0.120.21</p><p>19810.01-0.060.02-0.090.27</p><p>19820.08-0.010.10-0.000.33</p><p>19830.150.050.190.100.38</p><p>19840.210.100.270.190.40</p><p>19850.230.120.300.240.38</p><p>19860.230.120.300.250.34</p><p>19870.220.110.280.230.31</p><p>19880.230.120.260.210.31</p><p>19890.270.160.270.200.37</p><p>19900.330.220.290.210.47</p><p>19910.380.290.320....</p></li></ul>

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