skeleton frameworks for writing

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Skeleton Frameworks for Writing

Discussion Text

Discussion text* presents arguments and information from different viewpoints

* for and against

* * *

* * *

Discussion organisation 1IntroductionStatement of issue to be discussed

for* point + elaboration

against* point + elaboration

**

**

Summary + (perhaps) recommendation

Conclusion

Discussion organisation 2Introduction Arguments for: *

When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write one paragraph for (or one paragraph per point for) and one paragraph against (or one paragraph per point against). Then write the conclusion

** etc Arguments against:

** * etc Conclusion

Discussion organisation 3Introduction Point 1: for(including outline of points to be discussed)

When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction.Then write a paragraph about point one, a paragraph about point two, etc.

againstPoint 2: for

againstPoint 3: for against Conclusionetc., etc

Then write your conclusion

Discussion language features* present tense * abstract nouns Things that you cannot see or touch e.g answer

* third person * logical connectives* discussion conventions (see page 9)

justice

trust belief hopedespair

* complex sentences

Discussion conventions* Dont take sides say what people think * Keep it balanced, e.g On the one hand Some people say Others argue Smokers would claim that Non-smokers reply

On the other hand* Dont be too definite use conditionals

It could be claimed This might mean possibly

perhaps

Discussion text* *

** *

** *

For/against speech bubbles

Against zoosoriginally for people to see animals now have TV, video catch, transport, cage zoochosis just for entertainment Not cruel

For zooszoos educational

Dont need anymore

**

TV not as good as real life

* * *

increase peoples interest in animals endangered species breed in zoos scientists can research in zoos

Conservation

Cruel

well planned enclosures

Text

Explanation Text

Explanation text* explains how or why something happens * cause and effect * often in time order

(sequential)

Explanation organisation 1Simple explanation: a series of logical steps Probably

labelled diagram(s)

leading to

leading to

leading to

possibly---other causes or effects at each stage

When you have made your flow-chart skeleton, each section of the flow chart can become one paragraph or section of writing.

Explanation language features* present tense (except historical explanations) Ifthen

* causal language* sequential connectives * impersonal language (see page 8) * technical vocabulary when

The reason thatso

This results in

This causesTherefore

impersonal language* third person * passive voice

* usually formal vocabulary(e.g placed as opp put, known as as opp. called)

This is known as

* formal connectives(e.g Furthermore, However, Therefore, Consequently)

The sides are covered in

Explanation text

Cycle

Back to original

3 kg

53 cm

6 kg

60 cm

8 kg

68 cm

9 kg

72 cm

Newborn

3 months

6 months

1 year

All different sizes

suck milk

no teeth

tummy stronger

sits up, plays

some teeth

stands

teeth

cant chewsome hard food + mush + milk cut up food

milk + mushy food

Contains oxygen (O ) Breathe in aircapillaries capillaries

O

Air sacs LUNGS

cells

O

HEART

BODY cells

Air sacs

Breathe out CO

capillaries

CO

CO

capillaries

Text

Instruction Text

Instruction texttells how to do or make somethingin time order (sequential/chronological)

Instruction organisationTitle: whats to be achievedMaybe labelled diagrams

What you need ---------------------------------------------------------------------

What to do, one step at a time

Instruction language featuresSimple clear language Imperative verbsSee also third person instructions

Second person (usually)See also third person instructions

Feed and exercise your dog..

Necessary detail onlyNumber and/or time connectives

Third person instructionsWhen more than one person involved, e.g. a game

*third person * present tenselabels

* provide names orThe batting side The fielding side

Writing Instructions*Do the activity ( or act it out).

Make brief notes as you go*Make *list of What you need *flow chart of what to do *diagrams if necessary *Turn flow chart into written instructions.

What to do, one step at a time

Persuasion Text

Persuasion text makes

a case for a particular point of view one

or more points, perhaps with elaboration

* * *

Persuasion organisation 1point

point

point

* * *

elaboration

elaboration

elaboration

and so on.

Persuasion organisation 2What? Who? Where? When?

Introduction

* Point 1

* Point 2 * Point 3ConclusionSumming up

When you have planned your points, you can choose whether to write one paragraph per point or group them together

Persuasion language features

** * *

Present tense

Persuasive devicesLogical connectives Connectives showing the move from one point to another finally Ifthen

Elaborating a pointMake your point clearly, in a sentence.

elaboration would it help to: give your reasons for thinking that?

*

point

add further detail to make it clear?

give examples e.g For example, For instance,?

Persuasive devices* emotive language e.g strong adjectives deliberate ambiguity e.g probably the best perhaps, maybe * Rhetorical question Are we expected to..? How will..? * * Turning opinion into truth The fact is.. The real truth is..Always ask yourself is it

*

dare you to disagree! e.g Clearly,.. Surely,.. Obviously,.. Everyone knows that..

FACT or OPINION ?

Persuasion organisation

* * *

Point + evidence chartpoint evidence

Mary is trouble she has betrayed us if plots succeed Spain takes over

* * *

thrown out of Scotland religious probs, war

forced to abdicate, imprisonedgiven home, paid for not paid back

constantly plottingclaims the crown. Supported by Phillip II would be Ps puppet England falls to Spain

Persuasion Text

Recount text* retells events * in time order

(chronological)

Recount organisationevents in time orderwhen? where?what happened in the end?

introduction

conclusion

who?

why was it significant?what?

neat last line

When you have made your time-line skeleton, use another colour to chop it into paragraphs.

Recount language features* past tense * named people, places, things * first or third person * time connectivesLook out also for conjunctions like when, while, as, after.

Then

MeanwhileSeveral weeks later

Within hours

Impersonal recounts* newspaper report * magazine article

Audiencegeneral reader with some interest in the subject

* non-fiction book * biography

Purposeto inform and entertain

Personal recounts* letter

Audienceknown reader or self (or posterity)

* diary or journal* write-up of a trip or activity

Purposeto record, reflect, entertain

Lively recount writingTry using:

* powerful verbs

* vary your - sentence length - sentence openings - sentence type

(use occasional questions or exclamations)

* quotations

* try to link your last line back to the introduction.

Watch out for these and other recounts in the texts you read

Recount text

Recount organisation

Flow chart

Cards on a washing line

Recount organisationname

age

born1 2

Baz born

Y1 Mrs Bennett

chicken pox 3 4 5 6introduction

family where she was

St Marys Hospital

started playgroup met Hannah

Y2 Mr Long

started school Mrs Robinson

Text

(personal)rubber, bamboo, spices, coconuts, pineapple

what

who8.00am

trip round tropical biome Video Making of Eden

return journey shop 2 3.30

arrivesee biomes

intro

breakfast on journey

lunch

School

car park

Exhibition centre

Talk - cocoa, chocolate

home

wherewhen

trip roundcooler biome

oranges, lemons, grapes, olives

(impersonal)

Cornwall Y5arrive at Eden Project lunch warm temperate afternoon and outside activities journey home

Intro

long bus journey

tropical biome

Eden Project

Last Friday

Text

Report Text

Report text* describes what things are like (or were like)

* not in time order

(non-chronological)

Report organisation 1simple report

information organised in categoriesTopic

Main points in categoryMore detail if necessary

Report organisation 1IntroductionWho-What-Where-When

Paragraph Section Paragraph Section

}1 }2

etc.When you have made your spidergram skeleton