Skeleton Frameworks for Writing

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<p>Skeleton Frameworks for Writing</p> <p>Discussion Text</p> <p>Discussion text* presents arguments and information from different viewpoints</p> <p>* for and against</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>Discussion organisation 1IntroductionStatement of issue to be discussed</p> <p>for* point + elaboration</p> <p>against* point + elaboration</p> <p>**</p> <p>**</p> <p>Summary + (perhaps) recommendation</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Discussion organisation 2Introduction Arguments for: *</p> <p>When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write one paragraph for (or one paragraph per point for) and one paragraph against (or one paragraph per point against). Then write the conclusion</p> <p>** etc Arguments against:</p> <p>** * etc Conclusion</p> <p>Discussion organisation 3Introduction Point 1: for(including outline of points to be discussed)</p> <p>When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction.Then write a paragraph about point one, a paragraph about point two, etc.</p> <p>againstPoint 2: for</p> <p>againstPoint 3: for against Conclusionetc., etc</p> <p>Then write your conclusion</p> <p>Discussion language features* present tense * abstract nouns Things that you cannot see or touch e.g answer</p> <p>* third person * logical connectives* discussion conventions (see page 9)</p> <p>justice</p> <p>trust belief hopedespair</p> <p>* complex sentences</p> <p>Discussion conventions* Dont take sides say what people think * Keep it balanced, e.g On the one hand Some people say Others argue Smokers would claim that Non-smokers reply</p> <p>On the other hand* Dont be too definite use conditionals</p> <p>It could be claimed This might mean possibly</p> <p>perhaps</p> <p>Discussion text* *</p> <p>** *</p> <p>** *</p> <p>For/against speech bubbles</p> <p>Against zoosoriginally for people to see animals now have TV, video catch, transport, cage zoochosis just for entertainment Not cruel</p> <p>For zooszoos educational</p> <p>Dont need anymore</p> <p>**</p> <p>TV not as good as real life</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>increase peoples interest in animals endangered species breed in zoos scientists can research in zoos</p> <p>Conservation</p> <p>Cruel</p> <p>well planned enclosures</p> <p>Text</p> <p>Explanation Text</p> <p>Explanation text* explains how or why something happens * cause and effect * often in time order</p> <p>(sequential)</p> <p>Explanation organisation 1Simple explanation: a series of logical steps Probably</p> <p>labelled diagram(s)</p> <p>leading to</p> <p>leading to</p> <p>leading to</p> <p>possibly---other causes or effects at each stage</p> <p>When you have made your flow-chart skeleton, each section of the flow chart can become one paragraph or section of writing.</p> <p>Explanation language features* present tense (except historical explanations) Ifthen</p> <p>* causal language* sequential connectives * impersonal language (see page 8) * technical vocabulary when</p> <p>The reason thatso</p> <p>This results in</p> <p>This causesTherefore</p> <p>impersonal language* third person * passive voice</p> <p>* usually formal vocabulary(e.g placed as opp put, known as as opp. called)</p> <p>This is known as</p> <p>* formal connectives(e.g Furthermore, However, Therefore, Consequently)</p> <p>The sides are covered in</p> <p>Explanation text</p> <p>Cycle</p> <p>Back to original</p> <p>3 kg</p> <p>53 cm</p> <p>6 kg</p> <p>60 cm</p> <p>8 kg</p> <p>68 cm</p> <p>9 kg</p> <p>72 cm</p> <p>Newborn</p> <p>3 months</p> <p>6 months</p> <p>1 year</p> <p>All different sizes</p> <p>suck milk</p> <p>no teeth</p> <p>tummy stronger</p> <p>sits up, plays</p> <p>some teeth</p> <p>stands</p> <p>teeth</p> <p>cant chewsome hard food + mush + milk cut up food</p> <p>milk + mushy food</p> <p>Contains oxygen (O ) Breathe in aircapillaries capillaries</p> <p>O</p> <p>Air sacs LUNGS</p> <p>cells</p> <p>O </p> <p>HEART</p> <p>BODY cells</p> <p>Air sacs</p> <p>Breathe out CO </p> <p>capillaries</p> <p>CO </p> <p>CO </p> <p>capillaries</p> <p>Text</p> <p>Instruction Text</p> <p>Instruction texttells how to do or make somethingin time order (sequential/chronological)</p> <p>Instruction organisationTitle: whats to be achievedMaybe labelled diagrams</p> <p>What you need ---------------------------------------------------------------------</p> <p>What to do, one step at a time</p> <p>Instruction language featuresSimple clear language Imperative verbsSee also third person instructions</p> <p>Second person (usually)See also third person instructions</p> <p>Feed and exercise your dog..</p> <p>Necessary detail onlyNumber and/or time connectives</p> <p>Third person instructionsWhen more than one person involved, e.g. a game</p> <p>*third person * present tenselabels</p> <p>* provide names orThe batting side The fielding side</p> <p>Writing Instructions*Do the activity ( or act it out).</p> <p>Make brief notes as you go*Make *list of What you need *flow chart of what to do *diagrams if necessary *Turn flow chart into written instructions.</p> <p>What to do, one step at a time</p> <p>Persuasion Text</p> <p>Persuasion text makes</p> <p>a case for a particular point of view one</p> <p>or more points, perhaps with elaboration</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>Persuasion organisation 1point</p> <p>point</p> <p>point</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>elaboration</p> <p>elaboration</p> <p>elaboration</p> <p>and so on.</p> <p>Persuasion organisation 2What? Who? Where? When?</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>* Point 1</p> <p>* Point 2 * Point 3ConclusionSumming up</p> <p>When you have planned your points, you can choose whether to write one paragraph per point or group them together</p> <p>Persuasion language features</p> <p>** * *</p> <p>Present tense</p> <p>Persuasive devicesLogical connectives Connectives showing the move from one point to another finally Ifthen</p> <p>Elaborating a pointMake your point clearly, in a sentence.</p> <p>elaboration would it help to: give your reasons for thinking that?</p> <p>*</p> <p>point</p> <p>add further detail to make it clear?</p> <p>give examples e.g For example, For instance,?</p> <p>Persuasive devices* emotive language e.g strong adjectives deliberate ambiguity e.g probably the best perhaps, maybe * Rhetorical question Are we expected to..? How will..? * * Turning opinion into truth The fact is.. The real truth is..Always ask yourself is it </p> <p>*</p> <p>dare you to disagree! e.g Clearly,.. Surely,.. Obviously,.. Everyone knows that..</p> <p>FACT or OPINION ?</p> <p>Persuasion organisation</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>Point + evidence chartpoint evidence</p> <p>Mary is trouble she has betrayed us if plots succeed Spain takes over</p> <p>* * *</p> <p>thrown out of Scotland religious probs, war</p> <p>forced to abdicate, imprisonedgiven home, paid for not paid back</p> <p>constantly plottingclaims the crown. Supported by Phillip II would be Ps puppet England falls to Spain</p> <p>Persuasion Text</p> <p>Recount text* retells events * in time order</p> <p>(chronological)</p> <p>Recount organisationevents in time orderwhen? where?what happened in the end?</p> <p>introduction</p> <p>conclusion</p> <p>who?</p> <p>why was it significant?what?</p> <p>neat last line</p> <p>When you have made your time-line skeleton, use another colour to chop it into paragraphs.</p> <p>Recount language features* past tense * named people, places, things * first or third person * time connectivesLook out also for conjunctions like when, while, as, after.</p> <p>Then</p> <p>MeanwhileSeveral weeks later</p> <p>Within hours</p> <p>Impersonal recounts* newspaper report * magazine article</p> <p>Audiencegeneral reader with some interest in the subject</p> <p>* non-fiction book * biography</p> <p>Purposeto inform and entertain</p> <p>Personal recounts* letter</p> <p>Audienceknown reader or self (or posterity)</p> <p>* diary or journal* write-up of a trip or activity</p> <p>Purposeto record, reflect, entertain</p> <p>Lively recount writingTry using:</p> <p>* powerful verbs</p> <p>* vary your - sentence length - sentence openings - sentence type</p> <p>(use occasional questions or exclamations)</p> <p>* quotations</p> <p>* try to link your last line back to the introduction.</p> <p>Watch out for these and other recounts in the texts you read</p> <p>Recount text</p> <p>Recount organisation</p> <p>Flow chart</p> <p>Cards on a washing line</p> <p>Recount organisationname</p> <p>age</p> <p>born1 2</p> <p>Baz born</p> <p>Y1 Mrs Bennett</p> <p>chicken pox 3 4 5 6introduction</p> <p>family where she was</p> <p>St Marys Hospital</p> <p>started playgroup met Hannah</p> <p>Y2 Mr Long</p> <p>started school Mrs Robinson</p> <p>Text</p> <p>(personal)rubber, bamboo, spices, coconuts, pineapple</p> <p>what</p> <p>who8.00am</p> <p>trip round tropical biome Video Making of Eden</p> <p>return journey shop 2 3.30</p> <p>arrivesee biomes</p> <p>intro</p> <p>breakfast on journey</p> <p>lunch</p> <p>School</p> <p>car park</p> <p>Exhibition centre</p> <p>Talk - cocoa, chocolate</p> <p>home</p> <p>wherewhen</p> <p>trip roundcooler biome</p> <p>oranges, lemons, grapes, olives</p> <p>(impersonal)</p> <p>Cornwall Y5arrive at Eden Project lunch warm temperate afternoon and outside activities journey home</p> <p>Intro</p> <p>long bus journey</p> <p>tropical biome</p> <p>Eden Project</p> <p>Last Friday</p> <p>Text</p> <p>Report Text</p> <p>Report text* describes what things are like (or were like)</p> <p>* not in time order</p> <p>(non-chronological)</p> <p>Report organisation 1simple report</p> <p>information organised in categoriesTopic</p> <p>Main points in categoryMore detail if necessary</p> <p>Report organisation 1IntroductionWho-What-Where-When</p> <p>Paragraph Section Paragraph Section</p> <p>}1 }2</p> <p>etc.When you have made your spidergram skeleton, each spider leg gives you one paragraph (or subheaded section) in your writing</p> <p>Report language features* present tense (except historical reports) * factual description</p> <p>* general nouns (not particular people, animals, things) * third person</p> <p>* technical words and phrases</p> <p>* often formal, impersonal language</p> <p>Planning report text* BRAINSTORM what you know</p> <p>(and find out more if necessary).</p> <p>* ORGANISE it into categories. * Make the SPIDERGRAM.Write the topic in the middle, and one category on each leg.</p> <p>Report text</p> <p>Lee Park hopscotch map games quiet area 198 pupils 7 classes</p> <p>Longton, near York</p> <p>Introbuilt 1967 summer - play</p> <p>infants</p> <p>playgroundjuniors football netball</p> <p>Our School</p> <p>fieldwinter usually no play snow - play</p> <p>hallassembly, lessons gym drama lunch packed lunch</p> <p>school lunch front-tables (cupboard)</p> <p>back</p> <p>Spidergramcoiled proboscis Lepidoptera scaly body/wings insect features scales/veins wings</p> <p>definitioninsect</p> <p>characteristicsdont need much for short life span</p> <p>male/female differences</p> <p>Butterfliesreproduction</p> <p>feedingnectar over-ripe fruit proboscis</p> <p>3,000 max eggs leaves 1/100 survive</p> <p>lifecycle</p>