skeleton frameworks for writing
Post on 30-Oct-2014
Embed Size (px)
Skeleton Frameworks for Writing
Discussion text* presents arguments and information from different viewpoints
* for and against
* * *
* * *
Discussion organisation 1IntroductionStatement of issue to be discussed
for* point + elaboration
against* point + elaboration
Summary + (perhaps) recommendation
Discussion organisation 2Introduction Arguments for: *
When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write one paragraph for (or one paragraph per point for) and one paragraph against (or one paragraph per point against). Then write the conclusion
** etc Arguments against:
** * etc Conclusion
Discussion organisation 3Introduction Point 1: for(including outline of points to be discussed)
When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction.Then write a paragraph about point one, a paragraph about point two, etc.
againstPoint 2: for
againstPoint 3: for against Conclusionetc., etc
Then write your conclusion
Discussion language features* present tense * abstract nouns Things that you cannot see or touch e.g answer
* third person * logical connectives* discussion conventions (see page 9)
trust belief hopedespair
* complex sentences
Discussion conventions* Dont take sides say what people think * Keep it balanced, e.g On the one hand Some people say Others argue Smokers would claim that Non-smokers reply
On the other hand* Dont be too definite use conditionals
It could be claimed This might mean possibly
Discussion text* *
For/against speech bubbles
Against zoosoriginally for people to see animals now have TV, video catch, transport, cage zoochosis just for entertainment Not cruel
For zooszoos educational
Dont need anymore
TV not as good as real life
* * *
increase peoples interest in animals endangered species breed in zoos scientists can research in zoos
well planned enclosures
Explanation text* explains how or why something happens * cause and effect * often in time order
Explanation organisation 1Simple explanation: a series of logical steps Probably
possibly---other causes or effects at each stage
When you have made your flow-chart skeleton, each section of the flow chart can become one paragraph or section of writing.
Explanation language features* present tense (except historical explanations) Ifthen
* causal language* sequential connectives * impersonal language (see page 8) * technical vocabulary when
The reason thatso
This results in
impersonal language* third person * passive voice
* usually formal vocabulary(e.g placed as opp put, known as as opp. called)
This is known as
* formal connectives(e.g Furthermore, However, Therefore, Consequently)
The sides are covered in
Back to original
All different sizes
sits up, plays
cant chewsome hard food + mush + milk cut up food
milk + mushy food
Contains oxygen (O ) Breathe in aircapillaries capillaries
Air sacs LUNGS
Breathe out CO
Instruction texttells how to do or make somethingin time order (sequential/chronological)
Instruction organisationTitle: whats to be achievedMaybe labelled diagrams
What you need ---------------------------------------------------------------------
What to do, one step at a time
Instruction language featuresSimple clear language Imperative verbsSee also third person instructions
Second person (usually)See also third person instructions
Feed and exercise your dog..
Necessary detail onlyNumber and/or time connectives
Third person instructionsWhen more than one person involved, e.g. a game
*third person * present tenselabels
* provide names orThe batting side The fielding side
Writing Instructions*Do the activity ( or act it out).
Make brief notes as you go*Make *list of What you need *flow chart of what to do *diagrams if necessary *Turn flow chart into written instructions.
What to do, one step at a time
Persuasion text makes
a case for a particular point of view one
or more points, perhaps with elaboration
* * *
Persuasion organisation 1point
* * *
and so on.
Persuasion organisation 2What? Who? Where? When?
* Point 1
* Point 2 * Point 3ConclusionSumming up
When you have planned your points, you can choose whether to write one paragraph per point or group them together
Persuasion language features
** * *
Persuasive devicesLogical connectives Connectives showing the move from one point to another finally Ifthen
Elaborating a pointMake your point clearly, in a sentence.
elaboration would it help to: give your reasons for thinking that?
add further detail to make it clear?
give examples e.g For example, For instance,?
Persuasive devices* emotive language e.g strong adjectives deliberate ambiguity e.g probably the best perhaps, maybe * Rhetorical question Are we expected to..? How will..? * * Turning opinion into truth The fact is.. The real truth is..Always ask yourself is it
dare you to disagree! e.g Clearly,.. Surely,.. Obviously,.. Everyone knows that..
FACT or OPINION ?
* * *
Point + evidence chartpoint evidence
Mary is trouble she has betrayed us if plots succeed Spain takes over
* * *
thrown out of Scotland religious probs, war
forced to abdicate, imprisonedgiven home, paid for not paid back
constantly plottingclaims the crown. Supported by Phillip II would be Ps puppet England falls to Spain
Recount text* retells events * in time order
Recount organisationevents in time orderwhen? where?what happened in the end?
why was it significant?what?
neat last line
When you have made your time-line skeleton, use another colour to chop it into paragraphs.
Recount language features* past tense * named people, places, things * first or third person * time connectivesLook out also for conjunctions like when, while, as, after.
MeanwhileSeveral weeks later
Impersonal recounts* newspaper report * magazine article
Audiencegeneral reader with some interest in the subject
* non-fiction book * biography
Purposeto inform and entertain
Personal recounts* letter
Audienceknown reader or self (or posterity)
* diary or journal* write-up of a trip or activity
Purposeto record, reflect, entertain
Lively recount writingTry using:
* powerful verbs
* vary your - sentence length - sentence openings - sentence type
(use occasional questions or exclamations)
* try to link your last line back to the introduction.
Watch out for these and other recounts in the texts you read
Cards on a washing line
Y1 Mrs Bennett
chicken pox 3 4 5 6introduction
family where she was
St Marys Hospital
started playgroup met Hannah
Y2 Mr Long
started school Mrs Robinson
(personal)rubber, bamboo, spices, coconuts, pineapple
trip round tropical biome Video Making of Eden
return journey shop 2 3.30
breakfast on journey
Talk - cocoa, chocolate
trip roundcooler biome
oranges, lemons, grapes, olives
Cornwall Y5arrive at Eden Project lunch warm temperate afternoon and outside activities journey home
long bus journey
Report text* describes what things are like (or were like)
* not in time order
Report organisation 1simple report
information organised in categoriesTopic
Main points in categoryMore detail if necessary
Report organisation 1IntroductionWho-What-Where-When
Paragraph Section Paragraph Section
etc.When you have made your spidergram skeleton