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DESCRIPTIONShort Story. Learning Procedures. Warming-Up: Story Chaining The Basics of Short Story. Story Chaining. simultaneous, humiliate, dread, apron, linger frown, eagle, abnormal, UFO, socks, futile faint, safe and sound, friends and foes, cuddle, sob, beard, rice cooker, bikini - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Short Story Terms
Learning ProceduresWarming-Up: Story ChainingThe Basics of Short StoryStory Chainingsimultaneous, humiliate, dread, apron, linger frown, eagle, abnormal, UFO, socks, futile faint, safe and sound, friends and foes, cuddle, sob, beard, rice cooker, bikinistare, conceited, scold, beach, Superman What is a Short Story?A brief, imaginative narrative containing few characters, simple plot, conflict, and suspense which leads to a climax and a swift conclusion.
Key ElementsTypically short story has four key elements Character(fewer is better),Setting(brief but poetic and vivid),Plot(as interesting as possible),andTheme(relating to majority of readers).CharacterCharacter Any personalities who are involved in the plot of the story (people, animals, fantasy characters)
Usually less than 6 in a short storyCharacterTypes of Characters:Round- fully developed, has many different character traitsFlat- stereotyped, one-dimensional, few traitsStatic Does not change Dynamic Changes as a result of the story's eventsCharacterizationHow the author develops the characters, especially the main character. This is done through:what the character does or sayswhat others say of and to the characterauthors word choice in descriptive passages
CharacterizationDirect characterizationThe author directly states what the characters personality is like. Example: cruel, kind
Indirect characterizationShowing a characters personality through his/her actions, thoughts, feelings, words, appearance or other characters observations or reactionsPROTAGONISTUsually the good guy or hero in the storyThe main character that we followThe character that strives to solve the conflict
ANTAGONISTThe bad guy or villain in the storyUsually creates conflict for the main character Types of antagonists:peoplenaturesociety
SettingThe time and place of the storys action includes the following:The geographical locationFor example: London, Cairo, VancouverThe time periodFor example: 1865, during WWII, todayThe socio-economic characteristics of the locationFor example: wealthy suburbsThe specific building, room etc.For example: a log cabin, a bus, a military base
Lets play a game.Imagine a room. Take a moment to form a mental picture of this room.Okay, now what if I tell you that the room is a restaurant kitchen? Did your mental picture just change?What if I tell you that the restaurants closed for the night, and the kitchen is dark except for the streetlamp shining in the back window. Did your mental picture just change again?Using specific details in your writing will guide the readers imagination, helping the reader to imagine a scene the way you have imagined it yourself.
A nurse guided us to a room where my best friend, my grandpa, was lying on a bed. My father was sitting sadly beside grandpas bed.A nurse guided us to a room. After a long week gap I saw my grandpa my best friend. Grandpa was sleeping peacefully on hospital bed. There were many small TV and radio alike boxes with tiny lights. Few boxes were making beep-beep sound in rhythm. I knew that the sound was fading heart beats of my best friend my grandpa. Then I saw my father, with red and swollen eyes, sitting closure to grandpas bed.
What is the Plot?Plot is how the author arranges events to develop his/her basic idea. It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle and end.
IntroductionIntroduces the reader to:SettingCharacters involvedNarrative Hook: question or statement that grabs the readers attentionInciting IncidentThe first major action in the story that sets the story in motion (gets the ball rolling).
Rising ActionIncidents which carry the plot along. It often includes the following:ForeshadowingFlashbackConflictSuspense 18FORESHADOWINGA technique for hinting at events that may occur later in the plot.
music19FLASHBACKThe insertion of an earlier event into the time order of a narrative.
ConflictIt is what prevents the main character from getting what he or she wantsThe plot is driven by climax and it is THE MOST IMPORTANT FEATURE OF THE STORYThere are two types of conflicts: Internal and External
Plot: Types of ConflictInterpersonal ConflictHuman vs. HumanHuman vs. NatureHuman vs. SocietyInternal ConflictHuman vs. Self
SUSPENSEThe feeling of excitement and curiosity that keeps the reader turning the pages; created by making the readers wonder how the conflict will be resolved
ClimaxThe turning point in the story: the high point of interest and suspenseRising Action or ComplicationsFalling ActionClimaxFalling ActionAll events following the climax or turning point in the story. These events are a result of the action taken at the climax.
ResolutionThe end of the central conflict: it shows how the situation turns out and ties up loose ends
Point of ViewVantage point from which the writer tells the story.First person- One of the characters is actually telling the story using the pronoun IThird person- Centers on one characters thoughts and actions.Omniscient- All knowing narrator. Can center on the thoughts any actions of any and all characters.
ThemeTheme is the main idea or central message of the story. It usually contains some insight into the human condition telling something about humans and life.The theme can be stated directly or implied by the events and actions in the story.
SummaryCharacter (flat, round, static, dynamic)SettingPlot (Introduction/Exposition, Inciting incident, Rising action, Climax, Falling Action, Resolution) Rising action (foreshadowing, flashback, conflict, suspense) Theme