separation and identification of cations - uni-jena.de separation and identification of cations...

Separation and identification of cations - uni-jena.de Separation and identification of cations Author Eni Generalic Subject Qualitative inorganic analysis - Separation and identification
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  • www.periodni.com

    4.0026

    2

    20.180

    10

    14.007

    7

    1817

    18.998

    9

    15.999

    8

    12.011

    6

    C10.811

    B5

    Al13

    Si14

    P15

    S16

    He

    NeN

    ArCl

    FO

    IVA VA VIA VIIA

    VIIIA

    13 14 15 16 17

    18

    IIIA

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1.0079

    1

    6.941

    Li3

    9.0122

    Be4

    22.990

    Na11

    24.305

    Mg12

    39.098

    K19

    40.078

    Ca20

    85.468

    Rb37

    87.62

    Sr38

    132.91

    Cs55

    137.33

    Ba56

    (223)

    Fr87

    (226)

    Ra88

    H

    IA

    IIA

    1

    2

    138.91

    La57

    174.97

    Lu71

    140.12

    Ce58

    140.91

    Pr59

    144.24

    Nd60

    (145)

    61

    150.36

    Sm62

    151.96

    Eu63

    157.25

    Gd64

    158.93

    Tb65

    162.50

    Dy66

    164.93

    Ho67

    167.26

    Er68

    168.93

    Tm69

    173.05

    Yb70

    Pm

    (227)

    Ac89

    232.04

    Th90

    231.04

    Pa91

    238.03

    U92

    (262)

    103

    (237)

    93

    (244)

    94

    (243)

    95

    (247)

    96

    (247)

    97

    (251)

    98

    (252)

    99

    (257)

    100

    (258)

    101

    (259)

    102

    LrNp Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No

    44.956

    Sc21

    88.906

    Y39

    IIIB3

    Tc

    BhRf Db Hs Mt

    39.94835.453

    83.798

    36

    131.29

    54

    (222)

    86

    26.982 28.086 30.974 32.065

    47.867

    Ti22

    50.942

    V23

    51.996

    Cr24

    54.938

    Mn25

    55.845

    Fe26

    58.933

    Co27

    58.693

    Ni28

    63.546

    Cu29

    65.38

    Zn30

    69.723

    Ga31

    72.64

    Ge32

    74.922

    As33

    78.96

    Se34

    79.904

    35

    91.224

    Zr40

    92.906

    Nb41

    95.96

    Mo42

    178.49

    Hf72

    180.95

    Ta73

    183.84

    W74

    (98)

    43

    126.90

    I53

    101.07

    Ru44

    102.91

    Rh45

    106.42

    Pd46

    107.87

    Ag47

    112.41

    Cd48

    186.21

    Re75

    190.23

    Os76

    192.22

    Ir77

    195.08

    Pt78

    196.97

    Au79

    200.59

    Hg80

    204.38

    Tl81

    207.2

    Pb82

    208.98

    Bi83

    (209)

    Po84

    (210)

    At85

    114.82

    In49

    118.71

    Sn50

    121.76

    Sb51

    127.60

    Te52

    Kr

    Xe

    Rn

    Br

    IVB VB VIB VIIB IB IIBVIIIB

    54 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    (272)

    107

    (267)

    104

    (268)

    105

    Sg(271)

    106

    (277)

    108

    (276)

    109

    (281)

    Ds110

    (280)

    Rg111

    (285)

    Cn112

    Uut Fl Uup(...)

    113

    (287)

    114

    (...)

    115

    (291)

    Lv116

    (...)

    Uus117

    (...)

    Uuo118

    Cd

    PbHg

    Cr

    BaK

    1550 C

    520 C

    300 C

    1560 C

    1450 C

    1540 C

    Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. , No. 11, (2009) 2131-2156)81

    Pb , Ag , Hg , Hg , Bi , Cu , Cd , As , As , Sb , Sb , Sn , Sn , Fe , Fe , Cr , Al , Co , Ni , Mn , Zn , Ba , Sr , Ca , Mg , Na , K , NH2+ + 22+ 2+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 5+ 3+ 5+ 2+ 4+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + +

    4+

    Hg , Bi , Cu , Cd , As , As , Sb , Sb , Sn , Sn , Fe , Fe , Cr , Al , Co , Ni , Mn , Zn , Ba , Sr , Ca , Mg , Na , K , NH2+ 3+2+ 2+ 3+ 5+ 3+ 5+ 2+ 4+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + +

    4+

    Fe , Fe , Cr , Al , Co , Ni , Mn , Zn , Ba , Sr , Ca , Mg , Na , K , NH2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + + 4+

    Co , Ni , Mn , Zn , Ba , Sr , Ca , Mg , Na , K , NH2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + + 4+

    Ba , Sr , Ca , Mg , Na , K , NH2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + + 4+

    Sb , Sn3+ 2+

    NaNO +2 rhodamine B

    Zn-uranyl acetate

    HCl + HgCl2

    Sb S2 3 Sb S2 5SnS2

    CrO , Al OH42-

    4-( )

    HAc + Pb(Ac)2 NH Cl4

    NH SCN4

    Fe OH( )3

    brown ppt.

    PRECIPITATE

    MnSpink ppt.

    ZnSwhite ppt.

    CoSblack ppt.

    NiSblack ppt.

    CoS

    black ppt.

    NiS

    black ppt.

    Co , Ni2+ 2+

    Mn , Zn2+ 2+

    MnO2brown ppt.

    HNO + NaBiO3 3

    HCl (conc.)

    orange ppt. orange ppt.yellow ppt.yellow ppt. yellow ppt. brown ppt.

    HNO3 (conc.)

    NH3 (conc.)

    Hg Cl + Hg2 20

    grey precipitate

    HNO + H O3 2 2(6 mol/L) (3 %) HCl (0.5 mol/L)

    NaOH + H O2 2(6 mol/L) (3 %)

    (NH ) C O4 2 2 4

    Na , K ,+ + NH4+

    PbCl2white ppt.

    AgClwhite ppt.

    Hg Cl2 2white ppt.

    AgCl

    white ppt.

    Hg Cl2 2white ppt.

    Pb2+

    Ag NH( )3 2+

    PRECIPITATE

    HgS CuS CdS

    yellow ppt.

    Bi S2 3 As S2 3yellow ppt.

    As S2 5yellow ppt.

    Sb S2 3orange ppt.

    Sb S2 5orange ppt.

    SnS

    brown ppt.

    SnS2yellow ppt.

    KOH (3 mol/L)

    HCl (3 mol/L)

    HCl (6 mol/L)

    II a subgroup II b subgroup

    HgS CuS

    black ppt.

    CdS

    yellow ppt.

    Bi S2 3brown ppt.

    HNO3 (3 mol/L)

    HNO3 (conc.)

    Hg NO 2HgS( )3 2

    Bi OH( )3

    NH3 (conc.)

    NH3 (conc.)

    Bi , Cu , Cd3+ 2+ 2+

    Cu NH , Cd NH( ) ( )3 42+

    3 42+

    KCN + H S2HAc + Fe(CN)64-

    SnO22-

    AsS , AsO , SnS , SnO , SbS , SbO43-

    2-

    32-

    32-

    43-

    2-

    As S2 3 As S2 5

    As S2 3 As S2 5 SnS

    PRECIPITATE

    NH Cl + NH OH4 4

    (NH ) PO

    + NH4 2 4

    3

    (0.5 mol/L)

    (conc.)

    PRECIPITATE

    NaOH + H O2 2(6 mol/L) (3 %)

    Fe(OH)3brown ppt.

    Cr(OH)3grey-green p.

    Ba PO3 4 2( )

    white ppt.

    Ca PO3 4 2( )

    white ppt.

    Sr PO3 4 2( )

    white ppt.

    MgNH PO4 4white ppt.

    Ca (PO )3 4 2white ppt.

    Sr (PO )3 4 2white ppt.

    MgNH PO4 4white ppt.

    Sr , Ca , Mg2+ 2+ 2+

    Ca , Mg2+ 2+

    Mg2+

    Na Co(NO )3 2 6

    NaOH + quinalizarine

    PRECIPITATE

    Zn OH 3-

    ( )

    H S2

    H O2 (100 C)

    K Cr O2 2 7

    Dete

    rmin

    ed in the o

    rigin

    al solu

    tion

    Al(OH)3white ppt.

    SOLUTION

    O R I G I N A L S O L U T I O N

    SOLUTION

    SOLUTION

    SOLUTION

    SOLUTION

    FLAME COLORINGFLAME COLORING

    P E R I O D I C TA B L E O F T H E E L E M E N T SP E R I O D I C TA B L E O F T H E E L E M E N T S

    NH SCN4+ amyl alcohol

    yellow ppt. yellow ppt.

    HNO3 (conc.)

    NaAc + AgNO3

    white ppt.

    black ppt.

    HNO + HCl3 (1:3)

    SnCl2

    Cu Fe(CN)2 6reddish brown ppt.

    Bi0

    brown precipitate

    CdSyellow precipitate

    AgCl

    white precipitate

    Sb-rhodamine

    pinkish-red coloration

    Sn4+

    grey ppt. Hg Cl2 2

    PbCrO4yellow precipitate

    HgNH Cl + Hg20

    black precipitate

    black ppt.

    black ppt. brown ppt. black ppt.

    PbCrO4yellow precipitate

    Al(OH)3white precipitate

    Fe(SCN)2+

    blood red coloration

    ZnSwhite precipitate

    Ni-dimethylglyoximered precipitate

    Co(SCN)42-

    deep blue coloration

    + dimethylglyoxime

    NH3 (3 mol/L)

    MnO4-

    violet coloration

    BaCrO4yellow precipitate

    SrSO4white precipitate

    CH COOH3 (conc.)

    K CrO2 4

    CH COOH3 (conc.)

    (NH ) SO4 2 4

    CaC O2 4white precipitate

    Mg-quinalizarineblue coloration

    Na-uranyl acetatepale yellow precipitate

    K Co(NO )3 2 6yellow precipitate

    Bariumapple green

    Strontiumcrimson red

    Calciumbrick red

    Sodiumyellow

    Potassiumviolet

    Lower reduction zone

    Lower oxidation zone

    Higher reduction zone

    Higher oxidation zone(melting zone)

    Qualitative inorganic analysis

    SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CATIONSSEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CATIONS

    Separate the clear liquid from the precipitate

    Test tubes

    Bunsen burner

    Heating in the water bath

    D sownload

    Online calculators

    Periodic table of the elements

    Ag AsO3 4chocolate brown ppt.

    Copyright

    Eni G

    enera

    li,

    Split

    2

    005-2

    014

    c F

    aculty o

    f C

    hem

    istr

    y a

    nd

    Technolo

    gy,

    , C

    RO

    AT

    IA

    Nessler's reagentyellow to brown ppt.

    HgOHg(NH )2 2

    H S2(in acidic medium)

    (in basic medium)

    H S2

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