seed, seed types and seed quality

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Seed Definition, Seed types, germination, classed of seed, seed quality

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  • 1.Seed: Types and QualityDr. Tauqeer Yasir

2. What is seed? In broad sense Seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose. scientifically Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is called seed or it is a propagating material. Technological point of view Seed is a fertilized ripened ovule consisting of three main parts namely seed coat, endosperm and embryo, which in due course gives rise to a new plant. It also refers toPropagatingmaterialsofhealthyseedlings, tuber, bulbs, rhizome, roots, cuttings, setts, all types of grafts and vegetatively propagating materials used for production purpose. 3. Basic Parts of a Seed 1. 2. 3.Embryo Endosperm Seed CoatThe embryo is the baby plant. It consists of plumule, radicle and cotyledon. The embryo is the young multicellular organism before it emerges from the seed. The endosperm is a source of stored food, consisting primarily of starches. It is the structure that has been formed to provide nutrition for embryo in germination. The seed coat consists of one or more protective layers that encase the seed. The seed coat is tough and waterproof. It covers and protects the embryo and the food supply 4. Germination The emergence and development from the seed embryo of those structures which seed indicate the ability to produce a normal plant. Conditions Necessary for Germination Water Air Temperature LightModes of Germination Seeds present two modes of germination based on the behavior of the cotyledons or storage organs. Epigeal Germination Hypogeal Germination 5. Types of Seeds MONOCOTS Embryo with single cotyledon Usually endospermic Germination usually hypogeal (Except in onion) Flower parts in multiples of three Major leaf veins parallel Stem vacular bundles scattered Roots are adventitious Secondary growth absentDICOTS Embryo with two cotyledons Usually non-endospermic (Except Castor seed) Germination usually epigeal (except in pea, gram) Flower parts in multiples of four or five Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vascular bundles in a ring Roots develop from radicle Secondary growth often presentGrains, (wheat, corn, rice, millet) sugarcane, banana, ginger, Legumes (pea, beans, lentils, peanuts) mint, lettuce, tomato, onions, grass oak, tree, etc. 6. 1.Epigeal Germination The cotyledons come out above the soil surface and generally turn green and act as first foliage leaves. This type of germination present in groundnut, bean, cotton, sunflower and cotton seeds. 7. 1.Hypogeal Germination The cotyledons do not come above the soil surface. This type of germination is found in wheat, barley, maize and pea. 8. Classes of Seed 1. 2. 3. 4.Breeders Seed Pre-basic seed Basic Seed Certified Seed1. Breeders seed Progeny of nucleus seed Directly supervised by a breeder Genetically and physical pure Not available for commercial distribution 2. Pre-basic seed Progeny of breeders seed Handled so as to maintain specific genetic purity and identity Produced in the defined regions Must be approved by the Federal Seed Certification Department. White label with diagonal violet line 9. Classes of Seed 3. Basic seed Progeny of pre-basic seed Produced on extension farms ,research farms and by progressive farmers Must be certified by the FSCD white label 4. Certified seed Progeny of basic seed Produced by registered growers of seed producing agencies Quality is controlled by the FSCD Certified Seed-I has Blue label and certified seed-II (improved seed) has red label 10. Information on the Label a. Species (botanical name) b. Cultivar name c. Category d. Reference number e. Date of issue of certificateANALYSIS TAG A-1 Seed Co. Location, USA Variety & Kind Lot No. Pure seed Inert matter Other crop seed Weed seed Noxious weeds Germination Hard seed Date tested Net weightVernal Alfalfa 307-98 98.90% 01.05% 00.00% 00.05% 00.00% 90.00% 05.00% Jan. 2001 60 lbs. 11. Seed Quality Seed quality is the sum of all properties contributing to seed performance. The quality of seed can decide whether a farmers crop will be good, bad or indifferent. Seed quality is determined by the following characteristics:1. Physical Attributes 2. Physiological Attributes 3. Genetic Attributes4. Storability 12. Seed Quality 1. Physical Attributes A minimum of damaged seed A minimal amount of weed seed or inert matter A minimum of diseased seed Near uniform seed size2. Physiological Attributes Germination Percentage or Viability The germination percentage or viability is an indicator of the seeds ability to emerge from the soil to produce a plant in the field under normal conditions Seed Vigour Seed vigour is the capacity of seed to emerge from the soil and survive under potentially stressful field conditions and to grow rapidly under favourable conditions 13. Seed Quality 3. Genetic Attributes Seed of the same variety Adapted to the local conditions Pest and disease tolerance High yielding ability4. Storability Moisture content Temperature of the environment Seed treatment