Scientific Method Steps Observation Hypothesis Experiment Analysis and Conclusion If wrong form new hypothesis.
Post on 20-Dec-2015
<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Scientific Method Steps Observation Hypothesis Experiment Analysis and Conclusion If wrong form new hypothesis </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Scientific Method Controlled experiment Tests effect of a single variable while keeping all other variables the same Any observed differences should be caused only by the single changed variable </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Scientific Method Observations (qualitative and quantitative) Quantitative involve numbers, counting, measuring objects. Qualitative involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted such as color or texture </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Scientific Method Hypothesis a possible explanation, a preliminary conclusion, or even an educated guess about some event in nature Theory As evidence builds up, a particular hypothesis may become so well supported that scientists consider it a theory. Atomic theory </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Chemistry Organic Compounds Carbohydrate- main source of energy for animals Monomer = monosaccharide (single suger) Polymer = Starch, Cellulose Protein- functional or structural Monomer = Amino Acid Polymer = Protein Nucleic Acid- controls inheritance Monomer = Nucleotide Polymer = DNA, RNA </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Chemistry Enzymes Biological Catalyst Speeds up chemical reactions Lowers Activation energy (energy needed to get reaction started Not used up during reaction A specialized protein functional protein </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Chemistry pH Measured on a scale of 1-14 Below 7 acid Above 7 base pH of 7 = neutral Speeds up chemical reactions Lowers Activation energy (energy needed to get reaction started </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Chemistry Reactants and Products Reactants Products </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Chemistry Solutions Solute- stuff that is dissolved Solvent the liquid that does the dissolvin </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Chemistry Chemical bonds links that hold atoms together. Two main types Covalent bonds formed by sharing electrons between two atoms Bond found in organic compounds </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Chemistry Ionic bonds- formed by transfer of 1 more electrons from 1 atom to another Ion (+) or (-) charged atom that results from gaining or losing electron </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Cells Organelles </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Nucleus- control center of cell. Contains DNA (genetic material). Found in eukaryotic cells. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Ribosome- organelle where proteins are made. Free-floating and some on Endoplasmic reticulum </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Golgi apparatus- Cells post office. Packages proteins </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Endoplasmic reticulum- Cells transport system. Help make proteins (rough E.R.) </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Lysosome- clean-up crew of cell. Contains enzymes to break down old cell parts, digest food, etc. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Cell membrane- flexible, and semi- permeable membrane surrounding cell. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Cells Cell membrane- composed of lipid bi- layer (2 layers of lipids) Lipid layer also called phospholipids </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Cells Semi-permeable- allows some things to pass through but not others Diffusion- movement from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentrations Osmosis- diffusion of water </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Cells Active transport- takes energy (endocytosis and exocytosis) Passive transport- no energy required (diffusion and osmosis) </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes- Scientists divide cells Into two groups depending on whether they have a nucleus or not. 1. Prokaryotes-no nucleus Smaller and simpler than cells of eukaryotes Do have cytoplasm and cell membrane Example: Bacteria </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Cells Eukaryotes - do contain nucleus and membrane bound organelles (includes plants, animals, fungi) Contain cytoplasm and cell membrane Contains organelles </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Cells Homeostasis- maintain constant internal conditions (example: blood sugar levels, blood pressure, shivering/sweating) </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Photosynthesis Equation Energy from sunlight converts carbon dioxide and water into high energy sugar (glucose) Takes place in chloroplast (organelle) Affected by: 1. Light intensity 2. Amount of water 3. Temperature Autotroph- Can make their own food (plants) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 light </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Cellular Respiration Heterotroph- can not make their own food. Need to eat something else to obtain energy (fungi, animals, most bacteria Equation Fermentation- still make energy when no oxygen present. Two types: alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation Mitochondria- where respiration takes place 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Cellular Respiration Series of events: Glycolysis krebs cycle electron transport ENERGY </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Cellular Respiration Compared to Photosynthesis </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Cell Division Cell cycle- series of event cell goes through as it grows and eventually divides. Interphase - When cell grows and develops, getting ready to divide again Mitosis- Division of cell nucleus (forms diploid (2N) cells) Cytokinesis- cell splits in two PMAT </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Cell Division Meiosis- cell division forming sex cells (gametes) Results in 4 genetically different cells Gametes are N ( haploid - half the number of chromosomes) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Cell Division Cell growth (cell gets bigger, volume increases faster than surface area) so has to divide </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Replication- DNA making DNA Transcription - DNA making RNA Translation - RNA making Proteins </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis DNARNA Sugar- deoxyriboseSugar-ribose Two strandedSingle strand ATCGAUCG 3 kinds of RNA DNA- double helix </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Complementary bases DNA: C-G A-T RNA: C-G A-U </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Codon- three letter word on mRNA specifying a particular amino acid codon anticodon </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Genetics homozygous same letters (TT or tt) heterozygous different letters (Tt) Genotype- the alleles (letters) i.e. Tt, TT, tt Phenotype- physical characteristics (Tall, short) </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Genetics Gamete- sex cell (N) haploid. Zygote- fertilized egg Fertilization- process when sperm and egg join </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Genetics Dominant / Recessive cross- one allele is dominant over another. I.e. T-tall (dominant) over t-short (recessive) Tt TT t t TT X tt gametes All tall offspring </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Genetics Incomplete dominance- one allele is not completely dominant over another (RR-red crossed with WW-white yields all RW-pink flowers) RW RR W W RR X WW </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Genetics Co-dominance- both alleles are dominant. RR-red hair, WW-white hair, RW-roan RW RR W W RR X WW </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Genetics Dihybrid cross- Mendels two-factor experimental results were very close to 9:3:3:1 ratio predicted by punnett square. Proved that genes that segregate independently do not influence each others inheritance. 9:3:3:1 Principle of Independent Assortment </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Genetics Multiple Alleles- ABO blood type is an example. A and B or co-dominant. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Genetics Crossing over- when legs of chromosomes cross over each other during meiosis and exchange parts of themselves. </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Genetics Non-disjunction- when chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. Resulting in missing or extra chromosomes in gametes </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Genetics Code of Life- Reading codons and the amino acids they code for Example: CGA UGC AAU Arg Cys - Asn </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Genetics Cloning Cloning- a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Human Chromosomes Human Chromosomes- body cells contain 46 chromosomes (23 from sperm, 23 from egg. Join in diploid zygote) Genetics KaryotypeKaryotype- picture of chromosomes cut out from photographs and grouped together in pairs Sex chromosomesSex chromosomes- two of 46- these determine sex of individual XX=female and XY=male autosomesautosomes- remaining 44 chromosomes </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Egg cells contain a single X chromosome. Sperm cells contain either one X chromosome or one Y chromosome. Approximately half of the zygotes are XX (female) and half XY (male) Genetics </li> </ul>
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