science and sanity korzybski

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Contents Note on Errata Prefaces Preface to 5th Edition, 1993 Preface to 4th Edition 1958 Bibliographical Note 1958 Preface to 3rd Edition 1948 Introduction to 2nd Edition 1941 A. Recent developments and the founding of the Institute of General Semantics B. Some difficulties to be surmounted 1. The attitudes of 'philosophers', etc. 2. Perplexities in theories of 'meaning' 3. Inadequacy of forms of representation and their structural revision 4. Identifications and mis-evalutations 5. Methods of the magician C. Revolutions and evolutions D. A non-aristotelian revision E. New factors: the havoc they play with our generalizations F. Non-aristotelian methods 1. Neurological mechanisms of extensionalization 2. Neuro-semantic relaxation 3. Extensional devices and some applications 4. Implications of the structure of language G. Over/Under defined terms H. The passing of the old aristotelian epoch 1. 'Maginot like mentalities' 2. Wars of and on nerves 3. Hitler and psycho-logical factors in his life 4. Education for intelligence and democracy Conclusion Acknowledgements Supplementary Bibliography to 2nd Edition Preface to 1st Edition 1933 Acknowledgement Untitled Book I - A General Survey of Non-Aristotelian Factors Part I - Preliminaries 1. Aims, means and consequences of a non-aristotelian revision 2. Terminology and meanings A. On semantic reactions B. On the un-speakable objective level C. On 'copying' in our nervous reactions 3. Introduction Part II - General on structure 4. On structure 5. General linguistic 6. On symbolism 7. Linguistic revision Part III - Non-elementalistic structures 8. General epistemological 9. Colloidal behaviour 10. The 'organism-as-a-whole' A. Illustrations from biology B. Illustrations from nutrition experiments C. Illustrations from 'mental' and nervous diseases Part IV - Structural factors in non-aristotelian languages 11. On function 12. On order A. Undefined terms B. Order and the nervous system C. Structure, realtions, and multi-dimensional order D. Order and the problems of extension and intension E. Concluding remarks on order 13. On relations 14. On the notion of infinity 15. The 'infinitesimal' and 'cause and effect' 16. On the existence of relations 17. On the notions of 'matter', 'space', 'time' A. Structural considerations B. The neurological function of abstracting C. Problems of adjustment

D. Semantic considerations Part V - On the non-aristotelian language called mathematics 18. Mathematics as a language of a structure simialr to the structure of the world 19. Mathematics as a language of a structure similar to the structure of the human nervous system A. Introductory B. General C. The psycho-logical importance of the theory of aggregates and the theory of groups D. Similarity in structure of mathematics and of our nervous system Part VI - On the foundation of psychophysiology 20. General considerations 21. On conditional reflexes 22. On 'inhibition' 23. On conditional reactions of higher orders and psychiatry Book II - A General Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems And General Semantics Part VII - On the mechanism of time-binding 24. On abstracting 25. On the structural differential 26. On 'consciouness' and consciousness of abstracting 27. Higher order abstractions A. General B. Multiordinal terms C. Confusion of higher orders of abstraction 28. On the mechanism of identification and visualization 29. On non-aristotelian training 30. Identification, infantilism, and un-snaity versus sanity A. General B. Consciousness of abstracting C. Infantilism D. Constructive suggestions 31. Concluding remarks Book III - Additional Structural Data About Languages And The Empirical World Prefatory Remarks Part VIII - On the structure of mathematics 32. On the semantics of the differential calculus A. Introductory B. On the differential calculus 1. General considerations 2. Maxima and minima 3. Curvature 4. Velocity C. On the integral calculus D. Further applications 1. Partial differentiation 2. Differential equations 3. Methods of approximation 4. Periodic functions and waves 33. On linearity 34. On geometry A. Introductory B. On the notion of the 'internal theory of surfaces' C. Space-Time D. The application of geometrical notions to cerebral localization Part IX - On the similarity of empirical and verbal structures 35. Action by contact 36. On the semantics of the Einstein theory 37. On the notion of 'simultaneity' 38. On the 'world' of Minkowski 39. General reflections on the Einstein theory Part X - On the structure of 'matter' 40. The older 'matter' 41. The newer 'matter' A. Introductory B. The nature of the problem C. Matrices D. The operator calculus E. The new quantum mechanics F. The wave mechanism G. Structural aspects of the new theories Supplement I - The Logic of Relativity Supplement II - The Theory of Types Supplement III - A Non-Aristotelian System And Its Necessity For Rigour In Mathematics And Physics Notes And References

Bibliography Catalog Index






..The progress of modem science, including the flew science ofman as a lime-binder, has been due uniquely to the freedom of scientists to revise their fundamemal assumptions, terminologies, undefined terms, which involve hidden assumptions, etc., underlying our reflections, a freedom prohibited in 'primitive sciences' and also in dictatorships, past and present." From Manhood ofHumanity "The aim of the work of Aristotle and the work of the non-aristolelians is similar, except for the date of our human development and the advance of science. The problem is whether we shall deal with science and scientific methods of 350 B.C. or of [today]. In general semantics. in building up a nonaristotelian system, the aims of Aristotle are preserved yet scientific methods are brought up to date." From the author's Introduction to the 2nd Edition "General semamics is not any 'philosophy', or 'psychology', or 'logic', in the ordinary sense. It is a new extensional discipline which explains and trains us how to use our nervous systems most efficiently. It is not a medical science, but like bacteriology, it is indispensable for medicine in general and for psychiatry, mental hygiene, and education in particular. In brief, il is the formulation of a new non-aristotelian system of orientation which affects every branch ofscience and life. The separate issues involved are not entirely new; their methodological formulation as a system which is workable, teachable and so elementary that it can be applied by children, is entirely new." From the author's Introduction to lhe 2nd Edition Information on the Institute and ils programs and publications available from: Institute of General Semamics Phone: 7189217093 86 85th Street Fax: 718-921-4276 Brooklyn, New York 112094208 Email: [email protected] USA Web: Leadin A Revolution in Human Evaluatin ISBN 0-93729B-01-8

"1 must stress that I give no panaceas, but experience shows that when the methods of general semantics are applied, the results are usually beneficial, whether in business, management, etc., medicine, law, education on all levels, or personal inter-relationships, be they in family, national or international fields. If they are not applied, but merely talked about, no results can be expected. "In general semantics we are concerned with the sanity of the race, including particularly methods of prevention; eliminating from home, elementary, and higher education inadequate aristOlelian types of evaluation which too often lead to the un-sallity of the race, and building up for the first time a positive theory of sanity, as a workable non-aristotelian system. ''The task ahead is gigantic if we are to avoid more personal, national, and even international tragedies based on unpredictability, insecurity, fears, anxieties, etc., which are steadily disorganizing the functioning of the human nervous system. Only when we face these facts fearlessly and intelligently may we save for future civilizations whatever there is left to save, and build from the ruins of a dying epoch a new and saner society. "A non-aristotelian re-orientation is inevitable; the only problem today is when, and at what cost." From the author's Preface to the Third Edition and Introduction 10 the Second Edition ..... Korzybski was not only a bold innovator, but also a brilliant synthesizer of available data into a coherent system. This system, when internalized and applied, can create a saner and more peaceful world,justifying the title of this book, Science and Sal/ity." From the Preface to the Fifth Edition by Robert P. Pula




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THE INSTlTUTEOFGENERAlSEMANTICS was founded in 1938 in Chicago and is now located in Brooklyn, New York. The seminar training program continues to be carried on, and an increasing number of universities, colleges, secondary and elementary schools offer courses in general semantics, or integrate the methodology in the teaching of other courses. ALFRED KORZYBSKI belonged to an old Polish family which had produced mathematicians, engineers, scientists, etc. for generations. Born in Warsaw in 1879, he was trained as an engineer, and during the First World War was attached to the General Staff Intelligence Department of the Second Russian Army. Later he served in various military capacities in this country and Canada. After the publication of Manhood of Humanity in 1921, he remained in the United Sta