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Fifth EditionWithPreface by Robert P. PulaSCIENCEANDSANITYAN INTRODUCTION TONON-ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEMS ANDGENERAL SEMANTICSBYALFRED KORZYBSKIAUTHOR, Manhood of HumanityFOUNDER. INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS- - - ~ - : - : : = = = INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS..The progress of modem science, including the flew science of man as a lime-binder,has been due uniquely to the freedomof scientists to revise their fundamemalassumptions, terminologies, undefined terms, which involve hidden assumptions, etc.,underlyingourreflections, afreedomprohibitedin 'primitivesciences' andalsoindictatorships, past and present."From Manhood ofHumanity"The aim of the work of Aristotle and the work of the non-aristolelians is similar, exceptfor the date of ourhumandevelopment andtheadvance of science. Theproblemiswhether we shall deal with science and scientific methods of 350 B.C. or of [today]. Ingeneral semantics. inbuildingupa non-aristotelian system,theaims of Aristotle arepreserved yet scientific methods are brought up to date."From the author's Introduction to the 2nd Edition"General semamics is not any'philosophy', or 'psychology', or 'logic', in the ordinarysense. It is a new extensional disciplinewhich explains and trains ushowtouse ournervous systems most efficiently. It is not a medical science, but like bacteriology, it isindispensable for medicine in general and for psychiatry, mental hygiene, and educationin particular. In brief, il is the formulation of a newnon-aristotelian systemoforientation which affects every branch of science and life. The separate issues involvedare not entirely new; their methodological formulation as a system which is workable,teachable and so elementary that it can be applied by children,is entirely new."From the author's Introduction to lhe 2nd EditionInformation on the Institute and ils programs and publications available from:Institute of General Semamics86 85th StreetBrooklyn, New York 112094208USAPhone: 7189217093Fax: 718-921-4276Email: [email protected]: www.General-Semaotics.orgLeadin A Revolution in HumanEvaluatin ISBN0-93729B-01-8"1 must stressthat I givenopanaceas, butexperienceshowsthat whenthemethods of general semanticsareapplied, theresults are usuallybeneficial, whether inbusiness, management, etc., medicine, law, education onall levels, or personal inter-relationships, be they infamily, national orinternational fields. If theyarenotapplied, but merely talked about, no results can beexpected."In general semantics we are concerned with the sanity oftherace, includingparticularlymethods of prevention;eliminating from home, elementary, and higher educationinadequatearistOlelian types ofevaluation which toooften lead to the un-sallity of the race, and building up forthefirsttime a positive theoryof sanity, asa workablenon-aristotelian system.''Thetask ahead is gigantic if weare to avoid morepersonal, national, and even international tragedies basedon unpredictability, insecurity, fears, anxieties, etc.,whicharesteadily disorganizingthe functioningof thehuman nervous system. Onlywhenwe facethese factsfearlessly and intelligently may we save for futurecivilizations whatever there is left to save, and build fromthe ruins of a dying epoch a new and saner society."Anon-aristotelian re-orientation is inevitable; the onlyproblem today is when, and at what cost."Fromtheauthor's Preface tothe ThirdEdition andIntroduction10 the Second Edition..... Korzybski was not only a bold innovator, but also abrilliant synthesizer ofavailable data intoacoherentsystem. This system, when internalized and applied, cancreate a saner and more peaceful world,justifying the titleof this book, Science and Sal/ity."From the Preface to the Fifth Edition by Robert P. PulaSCIENCEANDSANITYKORZYBSKI5THEDITION__A.__IIISTI11lTE or GJ:lIERAL SBlWTICSTHE INSTlTUTEOFGENERAlSEMANTICS was foundedin 1938 in Chicago and is now located in Brooklyn, New York.The seminar training program continues to be carried on, andan increasing number of universities, colleges, secondary andelementaryschools offer courses in general semantics, orintegrate the methodologyin the teaching of other courses.ALFRED KORZYBSKIbelonged to an old Polishfamily which had producedmathematicians, engineers,scientists, etc. forgenerations. Born in Warsawin1879, he was trainedas anengineer, and during the FirstWorldWar was attachedtothe General Staff IntelligenceDepartment of the SecondRussian Army. Later heserved in various militarycapacities in this country andCanada. Afterthepublication of Manhood of Humanityin1921, heremained inthe UnitedStalesanddevelopedthemethodology bywhich his new theory of timebinding couldbe applied. These studies culminated in Science and Sanity in1933. HewastheFounder andDirector of theInstitute ofGeneral Semantics, established in 1938 as the center fortraininginhiswork,and continuedto lecture andwrite untilhis deathin1950.ALSO BY THE AUTHORManhood of Humanity, 1921; 2ndEd.Institute ofGeneral Semantics, 1950.Time-Binding:The General Theory. Two Papers, 1924-1926."The Role of Language in the Perceptual Processes." TopicIX, Clinical Psychology Symposium 1949-1950 inPerception: An Approach to Personality. RonaldPress, New York, 1951.Alfred Konybski:Collected Writing.s. 1920-1950, Coil. &Arr. by M. Kendig. I" Ed.Institute of GeneralSemantics, 1990.INTERNATIONAL NON-ARISTOTELIAN LIBRARYINSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSSCIENCE AND SANITYInternational Non-Aristotelian LibraryFounder: Alfred Korzybski Executive Editor: Charlotte S. ReadVOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHEDPublished or Distributed by the Institute of General SemanticsMANHOOD OF HUMANITY: THE SCIENCE AND ART OF HUMAN ENGINEERING.E. P. DUTTON, NEW YORK, 1921; 2NDED.INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS (IGS), DISTRIBUTORS, 1950 by A. KORZYBSKITIME-BINDING: THE GENERAL THEORY, 1924-1926 by A. KORZYBSKISCIENCE AND SANITY. . ,.. by A. KORZYBSKISELECTIONS FROM SCIENCE AND SANITY,1948, by A. KORZYBSKI ... . .. COMPILED by G. E. JANSSENGENERAL SEMANTICS SEMINAR 1937: TRANSCRIPTION OF NOTES FROM LECTURESIN GENERAL SEMANTICS GIVENAT OLIVET COLLEGE. .. .... ... .... . . .... .. by A. KORZYBSKIPAPERS FROM THE FiRST AMERICAN CONGRESS ON GENERAL SEMANTICS, 1938..... ED. by H. BAUGHPAPERS FROM THE SECOND AMERICAN CONGRESS ON GENERAL SEMANTICS:NON-ARISTOTELIANMETHODOLOGY (ApPLIED) FOR SANITY IN OUR TIME, 1943 ED. by M.KENDIGINTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON GENERAL SEMANTICS, 1944 by FRANCIS P. CHISHOLMLEVELS OF KNOWING AND EXISTENCE: STUDIES IN GENERAL SEMANTICS. HARPER,NEW YORK, 1959; 2NDED., IGS,1973 , by HARRY L. WEINBERGWORDS AND WHAT THEY Do TO YOU: BEGINNING LESSONS IN GENERALSEMANTICS FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. ROW. PETERSON.EVANSTON, 1953; 2NDED., IGS. 1965 by CATHERINE MINTEERGENERAL SEMANTICS MONOGRAPHS III, A THEORY OF MEANING ANALYZED, 1942FOREWORD ....., . .. . . . . .. . . . .... . . . ... .... .... . . . .. by A. KORZYBSKI AND M. KENDIGTHREE SEPARATEPAPERS, .... by T. C. POLLOCK, J. G. SPAULDING AND ALLEN WALKER READGENERAL SEMANTICS MONOGRAPHS IV, SCIENTIFIC EPISTEMOLOGIC BACKGROUNDS OF GENERALSEMANTICS,1959 by MARJORIE SWANSONALFRED KORZYBSKI:COLLECTED WRITINGS, 1920-1950. 1990 COLL. AND ARR. by M.KENDIGGRADUATE RESEARCHIN GENERAL SEMANTICS, 1992 , COMP.byKENNETHJOHNSONTHINKING CREATICALLY, 1991 ED. by KENNETH JOHNSONGENERAL SEMANTICS BULLETIN:JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS ED. by JAMES D. FRENCHBy Other PublishersLANGUAGE HABITS IN HUMAN AFFAIRS: AN INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL SEMANTICS. HARPERNEW YORK, 1941; 2NDED. by SANFORD BERMAN, ED., 1994, INTERNATIONAL SOCIETYFOR GENERAL SEMANTICS (!SGS) , . .... ... .... .... . .. .. BY IRVING J. LEEPEOPLE IN QUANDARIES: THE SEMANTICS OF PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT.HARPER, NEW YORK, 1946; 7'" PRINTING, ISGS, 1996 WENDELL JOHNSONHow TO DEVELOP YOUR THINKING ABILITY.McGRAW HILL, NEW YORK,1950 KENNETH S. KEYES, JR.THE ART OF AWARENESS. WM. C. BROWN, DUBUQUE, 1966; 3RDED. 1978 ............ byJ.S. BOISTEACHING GENERAL SEMANTICS. ISGS,1969.. , ED. by MARY MORAINMAKING SENSE: EXPLORING SEMANTICS AND CRITICALTHINKING. GLOBE, NEW YORK, 1974 by ROBERT POTTERCLASSROOM EXERCISES IN GENERAL SEMANTICS. ISGS, 1980 ED. by MARY MORAINDRIVE YOURSELF SANE: USING THE UNCOMMON SENSE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS, 2NDED.,EXTENSIONAL PUBLISHING, PASADENA, 2001. by SUSAN PRESBY KODISH ANDBRUCE 1. KODISHVOLUMES IN PREPARATIONGENERAL SEMANTICSIN PSYCHOTHERAPY ED. BY ISABEL CARO AND CHARLOTTE S. READKNOWLEDGE, UNCERTAINTY AND COURAGE: SELECTED GENERAL SEMANTICS WRITINGS OF ROBERT P.PULA , ....................... ,....................... by ROBERT P. PULATHE NON-IDENTIFYING PERSON: PERSONAL SELF-RESTRUCTURING FOR THE EXTRA-PLANETARY ERA................................................................... by ROBERT P. PULATIME-BINDING: AREVOLUTIONARY ApPROACH TO HUMAN EVALUATING by JEFFREY A. MORDKOWITZSCIENCE AND SANITYAN INTRODUCTION TONON-ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEMS ANDGENERAL SEMANTICSBYALFRED KORZYBSKIAUTHOR, MANHOOD OF HUMANITYFOUNDER, INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSFIFTH EDITIONWith Preface by ROBERT P. PULAand revised and expanded index____.A.. _INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSInternational Non-Aristotelian LibraryINSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSBrooklyn, New York, USACopyright.1933, 1941, 1948 by Alfred KorzybskiCopyright,1958 by Charlotte Schuchardt ReadDiagrams on Pages: 388,391,393,396,398,414,427,471 Copyright 1924,1926,1933,1941,1948 by Alfred KorzybskiCopyright, 1958 by Charlotte Schuchardt ReadPreface to Fifth Edition and Index to Fifth Edition Copyright Institute of General Semantics, 1994All International Rights ReservedFirst Edition 1933Second Edition 1941Third Edition1948Fourth Edition 1958Fifth Edition1994Second Printing 2000ISBN 0-937298-01-8Information on the Institute of General Semantics and itsprograms and publications available from:Institute of General Semantics86 85th StreetBrooklyn, New York 11209-4208USAPhone: 718-921-7093Fax: 718-921-4276Email: [email protected]: www.General-Semantics.orgLeading A Revolution in Human EvaluatingLibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number 58-6260TOTHEWORKSOF:ARISTOTLE CASSIUSJ. KEYSERERIc T. BELL G. W. LEIBNITZEUGENBLEULER J. LoCKENIELS BOHR JACQUES LoEBGEORGE BOOLE H. A.LoRENTZMAX BORN ERNSTMACHLoUIS DE BROGUE J.C. MAxWELLGEORGCANTOR ADoLF MEYERERNST CASSIRER HERMANNMINKOWSJaCHARLES M. CHILD isAACNEWTONC.DARWIN IVANPAVLOVRENEDESCARTES GIUSEPPEPEANOP. A.M. DIRAC MAXPLANCKA. S. EDDINGTON PLATOALBERT EINSTEIN H. POINCAREEUCLID G. Y.RAINICHM. FARADAY G. F. B.RIEMANNSIGMUNDFREUD JOSIAHROYCEKARL F.GAUSS BERTRAND RUSSELLTHOMASGRAHAM ERNESTRUTHERFORDARTHUR HAAS E. SCHRODINGERWM. R.HAMILTON C. S. SHERRINGTONHENRY HEAD SoCRATESWERNERHEISENBERG ARNOLD SOMMERFELDC. JUDSON HERRICK OSWALD VEBLENE. V. HUNTINGTON WM. ALANSON WHITESMITH ELY JELUFFE ALFREDN. WHITEHEADLUDWIGWITTGENSTEINWHICHHAVECREATLYINFLUENCEDMYENQUIRY,THISSYSTEM ISDEDICATED" A. Tmy alighting, Iwassurrounded with acrowd of people;but those.t\. who stood nearest seemed to be of betterquality. They beheldmewithall themarksandcircumstancesof wonder, neither, indeed,was Imuch in their debt;having never, till then, seen arace of mortalssosingular intheir shapes, habits, andcountenances. Their heads wereallreclined either to the right or the left; one of their eyes turned inward, andthe other directly up to the zenith. Their outward garmentswere adornedwith the figures of suns, moons, and stars, interwoven with those of fiddles,flutes, harps, trumpets, guitars, harpsicords, andmanyother instrumentsofmusic, unknown tousinEurope. I observed, hereandthere, manyinthe habit of servants. with ablown bladderfastenedlikeaflail totheendof a short stick. which they carried in their hands. In each bladder was asmall quantityof driedpease, or littlepebbles (as I was afterwards in-formed). With these bladdersthey now and then flappedthemouthsandears of those who stood near them, of which practiceI could not then con-ceive the meaning; it seems, the minds of these people are so taken up withintense speculations, that theyneither canspeak, nor attendto the dis-coursesof others. without beingrousedbysomeexternal tactionupon theorgans of speechandhearing; for whichreason, thosepersons, whoareabletoaffordit always keep aflapper (the original isclimenole) in theirfamily, as oneof their domestics, nor ever walkabroad., or makevisits,without him. Andthebusinessof thisofficeris, whentwoor threemorepersons are in company. gently to strike with his bladder the mouth of himwhoistospeak, andtheright ear ofhimorthemtowhomthespeakeraddresseth himself. Thisflapperislikewiseemployed diligentlytoattendhismasterin his walks, and, upon occasion, to give him asoft flapon hiseyes, because he is alwaysso wrappedupincogitation thatheisin mani-festdanger of fallingdownevery precipice,andbouncing hishead againsteverypost; andin thestreets, ofjostling others, orbeingjostled himself,into the kennel.It was necessary to give the reader this information, without which hewould be atthesame losswith me, tounderstand theproceedingsof thesepeople. as they conducted me up the stairs to the top of the island, and fromthenceto theroyalpalace. Whilewewereascending, theyforgot severaltimes what they were about, and left me to myself, till their memories wereagainrousedbytheir flappers; for theyappearedaltogether unmovedbythesight ofmyforeignhabit andcountenance, andbytheshouts of thevulgar. whose thoughtsand mindsweremoredisengaged. Andalthough theyaredextrousenoughuponapiece of paperinthe management of the rule, the pencil, and the divider, yet, in the commonactions andbehaviour of life, I have not seena moreclumsy, awkward,andunhandypeople, nor soslowandperplexedintheirconceptionsuponall othersubjects,except those of mathematicsandmusic. Theyareverybad reasoners, and vehemently given to opposition, unless when they happento be of the right opinion, whichisseldom theircase. Imagination,fancy,andinventiontheyarewhollystrangersto, nor haveanywords intheirlanguage by which those ideas can be expressed; the whole compass of theirthoughts and mind being shut up within the two forementionedsciences."JONATHANSWIFT(Gulliver'sTravels, AVoyagetoLaputa)CONTENTSPAGEANOTEONERRATA xiiPREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION1993 by ROBERT P. PULA xiiiPREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION1958 by RUSSELL MEYERS, M.D. xxiiiBIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE, 1958 xxixPREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION1948 xxxiINTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION1941SECTIONA. Recent Developments and the Founding of the Institute of GeneralSemantics xxxviiB. Some Difficulties to be Surmounted xxxix1. ATIITUDES OF 'PHILOSOPHERS'. ETC. .................. xxxix2. PERPLEXITIES IN THEORIES OF 'MEANING' .............. xlii3. INADEQUACY OF FORMS OF REPRESENTATION AND THEIR STRUCTURALREVISION xlv4. IDENTIFICATIONS AND MIS-EVALUATIONS ............... xlvi5. METHODSOFTHEMAGICIAN.................... xlviiiC. Revolutions and Evolutions xlviiiD. A Non-aristotelian Revision (Tabulated). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. IiiE. New Factors:The Havoc They Play with our Generalizations . . . . .. IvF. Non-aristotelian Methods Ivii1. NEUROLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF EXTENSIONALIZATION...... Ivii2. NEURO-SEMANTIC RELAXATION ................... lix3. EXTENSIONAL DEVICES AND SOME APPLICATIONS. . . . . . . .. Ix4. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE. . . . . . . . . . . IxiiG. ~ defined Terms IxivH. The Passing of the Old Aristotelian Epoch Ixix1. 'MAGINOTLINEMENTALITIES' .. " ................Ixix2. WARS OF AND ON NERVES ..............Ixxi3. HITLER AND PSYCHO-LOGICAL FACTORS IN HIS LIFE ..... Ixxiii4. EDUCATION FOR INTELLIGENCE AND DEMOCRACY ..... IxxvI. Constructive Suggestions IxxviiCONCLUSION IxxxSUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY IxxxiiiPREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION1933 IxxxixBOOK IA GENERAL SURVEY OF NON-ARISTOTELIAN FACTORSPART IPRELIMINARIESCHAPTER1.II.PAGEAIMS, MEANS AND CONSEQUENCES OF A NON-ARISTOTELIAN REVISION7TERMINOLOGY AND MEANINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19SECTIONA. On Semantic Reactions 19B. On theUn-speakable Objective Level 34C. On'Copying' in our Nervous Reactions 36xm.XIV.XV.XVI.XVIT.viii CONTENTSCHAPTER PAGEill. INTRODUCTION 38PARTllGENERAL ON STRUCTUREIV. ONSTRUCTURE 55V. GENERAL LINGUISTIC 66VI. ONSYMBOLISM 76VIT. LINGUISTIC REVISION 85PART illNON-ELEMENTALISTIC STRUCTURESvm. GENERAL EPISTEMOLOGICAL 101IX. COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOUR IIIX. THE 'ORGANISM-As-A-WHOLE' 123SECTIONA. I/lustrationsfrom Biology 123B. I/lustrationsfrom Nutrition Experiments 126C. I/lustrationsfrom'Mental' and Nervous Diseases 128PARTlVSTRUCTURAL FACTORS INNON-ARISTOTELIANLANGUAGESXI. ONFUNCTION 133xn. ONORDER 151SECTIONA. lJndejinedTerms 152B. Order and the Nervous System 157C. Structure, Relations, andMulti-dimensional Order 161D. Order and the Problems ofExtension and Intension 171ONRELATIONS 188ONmENOTIONOF INFINITY 204THE 'INFINITESIMAL' AND 'CAUSE AND EFFECT' 214ONmEEXISTENCE OF RELATIONS 220ON mENOTIONS OF 'MATTER', 'SPACE', 'TIME' 223SECTIONA. Structural Considerations 224B. The Neurological Function ofAbstracting 235C. Problems ofAdjustment 239D. Semantic Considerations 241CONTENTSPART VON THE NON-ARISTOTELIAN LANGUAGE CALLED MATHEMATICSixCHAPlER PAGEXVIII. MATIlEMATICS AS ALANGUAGE OF ASTRUCTURE SIMILARTO TIlE STRUCTURE OF TIlE WORLD 247XIX. MATIlEMATICS AS ALANGUAGE OF ASTRUCTURE SIMILAR TO TIlESTRUCTURE OF TIlE HUMANNERVOUS SYSTEM 268SECTIONA. Introductory 268B. General 275C. The Psycho-logical Importance ofthe Theory ofAggregates and the Theory ofGroups 280D. Similarity in Structure ofMathematics and the HumanlVervousSysrem 287xx.XXI.xxn.XXIII.PART VION THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGYGENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 315ONCONDITIONAL REFLEXES 326ON 'INHrnmoN' 341ONCONDITIONAL REACTIONS OF HIGHER ORDERS AND PSYCHIATRY . 358BOOK IIA GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO NON-ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEMSAND GENERAL SEMANTICSPART VIION THE MECHANISM OF TIME-BINDINGXXIV.XXV.XXVI.XXVII.XXVIII.XXIX.XXx.ONABSTRACTING 371ON THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIAL 386ON 'CONSCIOUSNESS'AND CONSCIOUSNESS OF ABSTRACTING 412HIGHER ORDERABSTRACTIONS , 426SECTIONA. General 426B. MultiordinalTerms 433C. Confusion ofHigher Orders ofAbstractions 443ON TIlE MECHANISMOF IDENTIFICATIONAND VISUALIZATION 452ONNON-ARISTOTELIAN TRAINING 469IDENTIFICATION, INFANTILISM, AND UN-SANITY VERSUS SANITY 491SECTIONA. General 491B. Consciousness ofAbstracting 499C. Infantilism 508D. Constructive Suggestions 526x CONTENTSCHAPTER PAGEXXXI. CONCLUDINGREMARKS 537BOOK IIIADDITIONAL STRUCTURAL OATA ABOUT LANGUAGESAND THE EMPIRICAL WORLDPREFATORYREMARKS 565PART VIIION THE STRUCTURE OF MATHEMATICSxxxn.XXXIll.XXXIV.ONTIlE SEMANTICS OF TIlE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 573SECTIONA. Introductory 573B. On the Differential Calculus 5741. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 5742. MAXIMA AND MINIMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5883. CURVATURE 5904.VELOCITY 591C. On the Integral Calculus 592D. Further Applications 5941.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 5942.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5953.METHODS OF APPROXIMATION 5964.PERIODIC FuNCTIONS AND WAVES 597ONLINEARITY 603ONGEOMETRY 615SECTIONA. Introductory 615B. On the Notions a/the'Internal Theory a/Surfaces' 621C. Space-Time 626D. The Application a/Geometrical Notions to CerebralLocalization 630PART IXON THE SIMILARITYOF EMPlRlCAL AND VERBAL STRUCTURESXXXV. ACTIONBYCONTACT 637XXXVI. ONTIlE SEMANTICS OF TIlE EINSTEIN THEORY 648XXXVll. ONTIlE NOTIONOF 'SIMULTANEITY' 659XXXVIII. ONTIlE 'WORLD' OFMINKOWSKI 665XXXIX. GENERAL REFLECTIONS ONTIlE EINSTEIN THEORY 673PART XON THE STRUCTURE OF 'MATTER'XL. THE OWER 'MATTER' 685CONTENTS xiCHAPTER PAGE)CLI. 698SECTIONA. Introductory 700B. The Nature ofthe Problem 702C. Matrices 705D. The Operator Calculus 711E. The New Quantum Mechanics 714F. The Wave Mechanics 720G. Structural Aspects ofthe New Theories 724SUPPLEMENT ITHELOOICOFRELATIVITY. BYRD. CARMICHAEL 729IITHE THEORY OF TYPES. By PAUL WEISS 737IIIASYSTEMAND ITS FOR RIGOUR IN AND PHYSICS. By ALFRED KORZYBSKI 747 763BIBLIOGRAPHY 767ABOUT THE FIRST 783INDEX 791INDEX OF DIAGRAMS 824Xli CONTENTSA Note on ErrataWearegrateful tosharp-eyedHameedKhan, Stuart A. MayperandJeffrey A. Mordkowitz for noting some errors in Science and Sanity. Inthis Fifth Edition (first and second printing) errors are identified with anasterisk in the margins of the text where they appear and are explainedbelow:Pagexxvlxxxix112112210211257318502668678686703771CorrectionLine 12 "commensurate wth" should be: "with."Quotation from "e. E. Coghill" should be "G. E. Coghill."Name should be Ostwald."Half an acre" should be - 5.93 acres.Tristram Shandy Paradox is stated incorrectly; while "No day ofhislitewould remainunwritten,"writingupeachdayaugmentsthenumber of unwritten days by 364 or 365; the autobiography is never"completed."Theprobabilityof anM-event foranaudience of 2 ina townof1,000 isI in20x1120.3; for3,multiplyagainby1120.8; for4,again by 1121.2; of5 again by 1121.7, etc. (The probabilities dependon the size of the town; repeating 1120 for each step assumes its sizeis infinite.) (It is not known whether the miscalculation wasKorzybski's or whether he simply accepted it from Reference 203.)Some missing zeros: 409610 = 10000000000002 [=212].Name should be Minbwski.line should read "... semantic shock cannot produce a neurosis."Formula for t' has a misplaced parenthesis. It should readt ' = ~ ( t -vx/c2). momNFormula should read: VI -V2/C 2Hydrogen + ion does not have 2 atoms; H20splits into H+ and OR.Expressions (2), (3), (4) should have dots over left-hand side xh'sand over all q's outside derivatives. (No dots within thederivatives.) Third paragraph should have dots also over the q's inthe first expression; no dots in the second expression. The finalqjshouldalsobedotted. Notethat thesuperscript 2after it is areference (to Bibliography item 204), not an exponent.Misprint in Reference172. Should be "superstition."PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION, 1993Six decades have passed since this book appeared in 1933. In the interimmany thousands, in varying degrees of breadth and depth, have interacted withthe formulations fIrst presented herein. As of these hours of writing, peopleineverycontinent (save, perhaps, Antarctica) arestudyingandapplyinggeneral semantics.Those who have been attracted to and worked with Korzybski' sformulationshavelargely come from the evaluationally energetic and self-selecting segment ofour populations. They have tended to be leaders or thosetraining to be leaders in a broad range of interests and disciplines. Throughtheir efforts as teachers, managers, researchers, etc., Korzybski' s formulationshave explicitly and implicitly reached many thousands more.Some aspects of generalsemantics have so permeated the(American)culture that behaviors derived from it are common; e.g., wagging fIngers in theair to put 'quotes' around spoken terms which are deemed suspect. Originalkorzybskian terms are seen used without attribution, as ifpart of the generalvocabulary; e.g., a paragraph-long explanation of "time-binding" appearing ina high school social studies text.Some ofKorzybski's coinages, particularly "neuro-linguistic," are nowcommon coin and have extended the subset of English with the "neuro" prefIx.(The Random House Dictionary ofthe English Language, 2nd Edition, p.1291, mistakenly gives "1 %0-65" as the dates of origin for "neuro-linguistic"and the offspring terms, "neuro-linguistics" and "neuro-linguist.")During the depth of the recent "Cold War" an interview aboutKorzybski's work was broadcast by Harry Maynard and Wladyslaw Marth toPolandover Radio Free Europe. Anewstudy by a Polish scholar, KarolJanicki, credits Korzybski with being a precursor of what Janicki calls Non-Essentialist Sociolinguistics.l&ience andSanity has by now spawned a whole library of works by otherlime-binders. Some of them have been listed in previous editions. Since thepublication of theFourthEdition, this 'parenting' hascontinued. Books,doctoral dissertations, masterstheses, scholarlypapers, essaysand journalurticles abound. The primary journals for on-going discussion anddevelopment of general semantics are the General Semantics Bulletin,publishedbytheInstituteof General Semantics, and ETC.: AReview of(leneral Semantics, published by the International Societyfor General&:mantics. Other journals, popular and scholarly, publish general semanticsmaterials, pro and con.For a sampling of books dealing with general semantics published since1970, soc the Bibliographic Note.2My choices do not reflect my evaluationsXIIIXlV PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITIONof thebookslisted. Theyareincludedtoindicatethecontinuedgrowth,discussion of and influence of general semantics. Books critical ofKorzybskilgeneral semantics are included. They are tagged thus: (critique).I consider Korzybski' s Collected Writings1920-1950 perhaps the mostimportant publication in general semantics since Science and Sanity.3 Thisbook brings together all ofKorzybski's known published writings other thanhis major books and a set of seminar lectures given at Olivet College in 1937.The940page book is a'must' foranyone undertakinga serious study ofgeneral semantics.Three works scheduled for publication in 1993 and 1994 include those ofSusan Presby Kodish and Bruce I. Kodish, Drive Yourself Sane! Using theUncommon Sense of General Semantics, Robert P. Pula, Knowledge.Uncertainty and Courage: The Collected General SemanticsWritings ofRobert P.Pula, and General Semantics in Psychotherapy, edited by IsabelCaro and Charlotte S. Read.The Institute ofGeneral Semantics remains the primary center for trainingin general semantics. Seminar-workshops, weekend seminars and colloquiacontinue. AnAdvancedStudies andTeacher CertificationProgramfortraining leaders and teachers in general semantics has been established.Thedistinguishedannual AlfredKorzybskiMemorial Lectureseries,begun in1952, continues to present highly regarded speakers whose workdirectly reflects or complements korzybskian orientations. These lecturershavebeenoutstandingin thefieldsof anthropology, philosophy, physics,chemistry, physiology, embryology, medicine, neurology, surgery, education,sociology, linguistics, psychology, management, library science, law, ... etc.4Their participation bespeaks the growing regard for Korzybski' s contributionsand the importance of general semantics as a major twentieth century system.TheIndexto this Fifth edition has been enhanced to facilitategeneralstudy and formulation searches. Grateful thanks are due to Bruce I. Kodishand Milton Dawes for their work in updating the Index, and to Bruce I. Kodishand Stuart Mayper for creating the Index of Diagrams. Grateful thanks alsoaredue to MaIjorie ZeIner, Executive Secretary of the Institute of GeneralSemantics, for her work as production editor of this Fifth Edition.This briefly reviews the activities in the field of generalsemantics andshows that, as with any system that represents a challenge to its own culture,thereremains muchworktobedone, but alsothat this workproceedsvigorously.Inthesixty years since Korzybskioffered the first(not the last) non-aristoteliansysteminScienceand Sanitypublicreactionhasbeenbothenthusiastic and critical. What about Korzybski' s work continues to generatesuch interest and activity? If it were so, as some critics have asserted, that 'all'he did wall to organize llCatlercd insights, fOIIDulotions and data into a system.PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION xvthat alone would have constituted a major achievement worthy of the gratitudeof succeeding time-binders for centuries to come. Korzybski did that. Heenunciated a system, incorporating aspects of but going beyond itspredecessors, and proposed a methodology for making his system a living tool:general semantics(the name he selected), the first non-aristotelian systemapplied and made teachable.In addition, I can list here the following selected formulations and pointsofview, emphases, etc., which I consider to be original with Korzybski.51. Time-binding; time-binding ethics. Rejecting both theological andzoological definitions, Korzybski adopted a natural science, operationalapproach and defined humansby what they can be observed doingwhichdifferentiates them fromother classes of life;he defined themasthe time-binding class oflife, able to pass on knowledge from one generation to anotherover 'time. '6Derivedfromthisdefinition, whichevaluateshumans asanaturallycooperative class of life (the mechanisms of time-binding are descriptivelysocial, cooperative), Korzybski postulated time-binding 'ethics' - modes ofbehavior, choices appropriate to time-binding organisms.2. Korzybski recognized that language (symbolizing in general)constitutes the basic tool oftime-binding. Others before him had noted thatlanguage, in the complex human sense, was one of the distinguishing featuresofhumans. What Korzybskifulo/ recognized was the central, defining role oflanguage. No language, no time-binding. If so, then structures oflanguagesmust be determinative for time-binding.3. The neurologically focused formulation of the process ofabstracting. No one before Korzybski had so thoroughly and unflinchinglyspecified the process by which humans build and evolve theories, do theirmundaneevaluating, thrill to'sunsets', etc. Korzybski's formulatingofabstracting, particularlyin the human realm, can constructively serveasaguide to on-going neuroscientific research.4. As a function of the above, but deserving separate mention with therigorouslyformulated notionoforders ofabstracting, is the concurrentadmonition that we should not confuse (identify) them. Given the hierarchical,sequential character of thenervoussystem(allowing, too, forhorizontallyrelated structtu'es and parallel processing), it is inevitable that results along theway should manifest as (or' at') differing orders or levels of abstracting. Theseresultsare inevitable. That they would be formulated at a given historicalmoment isnotinevitable. Korzybski didit inthe 1920's,publishing hisdescriptions in their mature form in 1933.5. Con.,ciousness ofabstracting. Ifhuman organisms-as-a-whole-cum-nervous systemslbrains ab.,tract as claimed ahove and described herein (pp.369-451and pa.,slm), surely of these events must he crucial forXVi PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITIONoptimumhuman fimctioning. Animals (non-time-binders) abstract; but, so faras we know (1993), they do not /mow that they abstract. Indeed, many humansdon't either - but they have the potentiality to do so. Korzybski recognizedthis, realized that consciousness ofabstracting is essential for "fullyfunctioning"humans, and made of ita primarygoalof general semanticstraining.6. Thestructureof language. AmongKorzybski's most originalformulationswas the multiordinal character of many of the terms we mostoften use. He insisted that, with multiordinal terms, the 'meaning'is strictlya fimction ofthe order or level of abstraction at which the term is used and thatits 'meaning' is so context-driven that it doesn't 'mean'anything definite untilthe context is specified or understood.7. Structure as the only'content' ofknowledge. This represents theheight/depth of non-elementalism; that what used to be designated as 'form'(structure) and 'content' are so intimately related as to be, practically speaking,fused, that structure and 'content'are fimctions of 'each other'. Further, andmore deeply, all we can ever knowexpresses a set or sets of relationships and,mostfimdamentally, a relationship ('singular') between the 'known'and theknowing organism: the famous joint product ofthe observer-observedstructure. "Structureistheonly'content' of knowledge"mayqualifyasKorzybski's deepest expressionofanti-essentialism. We cannot know'essences', things inthemselves; all wecanknowis what weknowasabstracting nervous systems. Although we can on-goingly know more, wecan not 'transcend' ourselves as organisms that abstract.8. Semantic reactions; semantic reactions as evaluations. Growing outofhis awareness ofthe transactive character of human evaluating and wishingto correct for the elementalistic splitting involved in such terms as 'meaning','mental', 'concept', 'idea' andalegion of others, Korzybski consciously,deliberately formulated the term semantic reaction. It is central to his system.9. The mathematical notionof function as appliedtothe brain-language continuum. Boldlygraspingthe neurophysiologyofhis day,Korzybski formulated what research increasingly finds: language is a functionof (derives from, is invented by) brain; reciprocally, as a function offeedbackmechanisms, brainis afunctionof (ismodifiedbytheelectro-chemicalstructuring called) language.10. Neuro-semantic environments as environments. The neuro-semantic environment constitutes a fundamental environmental issue uniqueto humans.II. Non-aristotelian system as system. Korzybski had non-aristotelianpredecessors, as he well knew. What distinguishes his non-aristotelian stanceis thedegreeof formulational consciousne.uhe brought to it, andthePREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION XVllenergetic courage with which he built it into a system - offered to his fellowhwnans as a better way to orient themselves.12. The Structural Differential as a model ofthe abstracting processand a summary of general semantics. Korzybski realized the importance ofvisualization for hwnan understanding. He knew, then, that to make some ofthe higher order, overarching relationships of his system accessible, visible,he must make a diagram, a model, a map, that people could see and touch.Thus the Structural Differential, a device for differentiating the structures ofabstracting. As far as I know, this is the first structurally appropriate modelof the abstracting process.13. Languages,formulational systems, etc., as maps and only maps ofwhat they purport to represent. This awareness led to thethree premises(popularly expressed) of general semantics:the map is not the territoryno map represents all of 'its'preswned territorymapsare self-reflexive, i.e., we can mapour maps indefinitely. Also,every map is at least, whatever else it may claim to map, a map of themap-maker: herlhis asswnptions, skills, world-view, etc.By 'maps' we shouldunderstand everything and anythingthat hwnansformulate- includingthisbookandmypresent contributions, but alsoincluding (to take a few in alphabetical order), biology, Buddhism,Catholicism, chemistry, Evangelism, Freudianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism,Lutheranism, physics, Taoism, etc., etc., ... !14. Allness/non-allness as clear, to be dealtwith,formulations. Ifnomap can represent all of 'its'presumed territory, we need to eschew habitualuse of theterm'all' anditsancientphilosophical correlates, absolutes ofvarious kinds.IS. Non-identityand its derivatives, correlates, etc. At every turn inKOI7.)'bski's formulating we encounter his forthright challenge to the heart ofuristotelianism- andits non-Western, equallyessentialist counterparts."Whatever you say a thing is, it is not." This rejection of the 'law of identity'('everything is identical with itself) may be Korzybski's most controversialll.lI1llUlation. After all, Korzybski' s treatment directly challenges the 'Laws ofThought', revered for over two thousand years in the West and, differentlyexpressed, in non-Western cultures. Korzybski's challenge is thus planetary.We 'Westerners' can't (as some have tried) escape to the 'East'.Identifications, confusions of orders of abstracting, are common to all humannervous systems we know of.16. F.xtensionof Ca"siusKeyser's "Logical Fate ": frompremises,conclullionll follow, inexorably. Korzybski recognized that conclusionsconlltitutc conuquence". doings, andthat thesearenot merelyInKical dcrivativcll but p.ycho-/ogical inevitahilities. If we want to changexviii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITIONbehaviors, we must first changethe premises which gave birthtothebehaviors. Korzybski'sstrongversionof Keyser'srestrictedly 'logical'fonnulation was first adumbrated in Korzybski's paper, "Fate and Freedom"of 1923 and received its full expression in the "Foreword" (with M. Kendig)to ATheory ofMeaning Analyzed in 1942, both available in the CollectedWritings. Both expressions well antedate Thomas Kuhn's "paradigm shifts"and, morepointedlythanKuhn, fonnulatethebehavioral implicationsoflogical and philosophical systems.17. The circularity of knowledge (spiral-character-in- 'time').Korzybski noted that our most' abstract' fonnulations are actually about non-verbal processes/events, and that how we fonnulate about these at a given date,howwe talk to ourselves, through neural feedbackmechanisms, relativelydetermines how we will subsequently abstract-fonnulate: healthfully if ourabstracting is open, non-fmalistic (non-absolute); pathologically if not.18. Electro-colloidal (macro-molecular-biological) and relatedprocesses. Korzybskiemphasizedawarenessof theseas fundamental forunderstanding neuro-linguistic systems/organisms.19. Non-elementalism applied to human organisms-as-a-whole-in-an-enviromnent. Some ofKorzybski 's predecessors in the study of language andhuman error may have pointed to what he labeled'elementalism' (verballysplitting what cannot be split empirically) as a linguistically-embedded humanhabit, but none I knowofhad so thoroughly built against it and recommendedreplacing it with habitual non-elementalism. Korzybski's practical insistencethat adoptingnon-elementalistic procedures andterms wouldbenefit thehumans (including scientists) who adopt them is original and, for him, urgent.20. Extensions of logics (plural) as subsets of non-aristotelianevaluating,including the limited usefulness(but usefulness) of aristotelian10gic.721. Epistemology as centered in neuro-linguistic, neuro-semanticissues. Korzybski built squarely on the neuroscience of his day and affinnedthe fim.damental importance ofepistemology (the study of how we know whatwe say we know) as the sine qua non forany sound system upon which toorganize our interactions with our children, students, friends, lovers, bosses,trees, animals, government - the 'universe'. Becomingconscious ofabstracting constitutes applied epistemology: general semantics.22. The recognition ofandformulation ofextensional and intensionalorientations as orientations. Here we see Korzybski at his most diagnosticand prognostic. Realizing that a person's epistemological-evaluational style,aperson'shabitual way withevaluatingdetermineshowlifewill go, herecommendsadoptionof anextensional orientation, withitsemphasison'facts'. Ifa personisover-committedtoverbal constructs, definitions,fonnulac, 'conventional wisdom' , etc., that person may he!lO trapped in thosePREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION XIXa priori decisions as to be unable to appropriately respond to new data fromthenon-verbal, not-yet-anticipated world. By definition,the extensionallyoriented person, while remaining as articulate as any of her/his neighbors, ishabitually open to new data, is habitually able to say, "I don't know; let'ssee."As an aid toward this more healthy orientation, Korzybski formulated the"extensionaldevices"explainedin hisIntroductiontotheSecond Editionherein.23. Neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic factors applied topsychotherapeutic procedures and to the prevention of psycho-logicalproblems.24. Mathematics. Korzybski's use of mathematical formulationsandpoint ofview qualifies as one of his most daring contributions.25. Science and mathematics as human behaviors. Perhaps showingsome korzybskian influence (much of it has come to be 'in the air'), writers onscience and mathematics are increasingly addressing the human being whodoes science and/or mathematics. But Korzybski seems the first, to the degreethat he did, to point to understanding these human behaviors as a necessaryprerequisite or accompaniment to fully understanding science and mathematicsas such. As Gaston Bachelard observed,The psychological and even physiological conditions of anon-Aristotelian logic have been resolutely faced in thegreat workofCount AlfredKorzybski, Science andSanity.s26. Limitations of subject-predicate languages (modes ofrepresentation) when employed without consciousness of abstracting.Korzybski addresses this central formulation fully in his book.27. Insistence on relative 'invariance under transformation'. Korzybskiwas concerned that invariance of relations not be confused with 'invariance'of processes.28. General uncertainty(all statementsmerelyprobableinvaryingdegrees) as an inevitable derivative ofkorzybskian abstracting, non-identity,etc. Korzybski, drawing partly on his Polish milieu, anticipated and exceededHeisenberg's mid-nineteen-twenties formulation of (restricted) uncertainty.29. The mechanism/machine-ism distinction. This may seem too simpleto list as an 'original' or even major point. Yet it is vital, indicating as it doesKorzybski's strongcommitment tofindingout howsomethingworks asopposed to vague, 'spiritual' explanations.Korzybski andsomeof his Institutesuccessorswhohaveworkedtopresent korzybskiangeneralsemantics have sometimes met this resistance:"I'm not a machine!" People trained in the myriad 'intellectual', 'mystical' invlU)'ing degrees systemsltraditions they bring to seminars often react as if theyreM to loHC their 'humanity' by being asked to consider the mechanisms whichxx PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITIONWlderpin or constitute their functioning. Korzybski took pains to explain thatmechanismshould not beconfused with'machine-ism'. Hisconcern forinvestigations at this level was bracing and central to his approach.30. 'InfInite' -valued evaluating and semantic methods of science (not'content' ofscience or non-professional behavior of scientists at a given date)as methods for sanity. Thus the title of his book. General semanticists areobligedto evaluate, to analyze, criticize and sometimes reject the products of'science' at a given date. The approach is scientifIc, not scientistic.31. Predictability as the primary measure of the value ofanepistemologicalformulation. Korzybski was by no means an 'anti-aesthete'.Hewasdeeplysensitiveto(andknowledgeableabout) music, marriedaportrait painter, read literature (Conrad was a favorite) including poetry, andeven liked to relax with a good detective story. But he insisted that, for lifeissues, beauty or cleverness or mere consistency (logical coherence, etc.) werenot enough.Korzybski offered his non-aristotelian system with general semantics asits modus operandi as an on-going human acquisition, negentropic, orderingand self-correcting through and through, since it provides, self-reflexively, forits own reformulation, and assigns its users responsibility to do so should theneed arise.The above considerations have led me to the conclusion that Korzybskiwas not only a bold innovator, but also a brilliant synthesizer of available datainto a coherent systern. This system, when internalized and applied, can createa saner and more peaceful world, justifying the title of this book, Science andSanity.Robert P. PulaSeptember 1993ENDNOTES1. Karol, Janicki, Toward Non-Essentialist Sociolinguistics. Berlin and NewYork: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990.2. Bibliographic Note: sample of books since 1970.J. Samuel Bois, Breeds ofMen:Toward the Adulthood ofHumankind,Harper and Row, 1970Lee Thayer, ed., Communication: General Semantics Perspectives,Spartan/Macmillan, 1970 (critique)WilliamYOWlgren, Semantics. Linguistics. andCriticism, RandomHouse, 1972 (critique)Kenneth G. Johnson, ed., ResearchDesigns inGeneral Semantics,Gordon and Breach, 1974PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION XXIDonald E. Washburn and Dennis R.Smith, eds., Coping With IncreasingComplexity: Implications of General Semantics andGeneralSystems Theory, Gordon and Breach, 1974Kenneth G. Johnson, Lineamenti di Semantica Generale, Roma: EditoreAnnando Annando, 1978Ross Evans Paulson, Language, Science, andAction: Korzybski'sGeneral Semantics - A Study in Comparative Intellectual History,Greenwood Press, 1983 (critique)Harold L. Drake, General Semantics Views, Millersville, PA: MillersvilleState College,I 983Mary Morain, ed., Bridging Worlds Through General Semantics,International Society for General Semantics,1984; and EnrichingProfessional Skills Through General Semantics, InternationalSociety for General Semantics,1986Gerard 1. Nierenberg, Workable Ethics, Nierenberg and Zeif, 1987Sanford 1. Bennan, ed., Logic and General Semantics:Writings ofOliverReiser and Others, International Society forGeneral Semantics,1989Karol Janicki, Toward Non-Essentialist Sociolinguistics, Berlin: Moutonde Gruyter, 1990Kenneth G. Johnson, ed., Thinking Creitically: A Systematic,Interdisciplinary Approach to Creative-Critical Thinking,"Foreword" by Steve Allen, Institute of General Semantics, 1991D. David Bourland, Jr. and Paul Dennithorne Johnston, eds., To Be orNot: AnE-PrimeAnthology, International Societyfor GeneralSemantics, 19913. Korzybski, Alfred, Collected Writings:1920-1950. Collected and arrangedbyM. Kendig. Final editing and preparation for printing by CharlotteSchuchardt Read,with the assistance of Robert Pula. Englewood, NJ:Institute of General Semantics, 1990.4. The following have delivered lectures in the series (listed chronologically):WilliamVogt, M. F. AshleyMontagu, F. 1. Roethlisberger, F. S. C.Northrop, Buckminster Fuller, ClydeKluckhohn, AbrahamMaslow,Russell Meyers (twice), Warren S. McCulloch, Robert R. Blake, HaroldG. Cassidy, Henri Laborit, Joost A. M. Meerloo, Henry Lee Smith, Jr.,Alvin M. Weinberg, Jacob Bronowski, Alastair M. Taylor, Lancelot LawWhite, Gregory Bateson,Henry Margenau, GeorgeSteiner,HarleyC.Shands, Roger W. Wescott, BenBova, ElwoodMurray, DonFabun,BarbaraMorgan, ThomasSebeok, RobertR. BlakeandJaneSrygleyMouton, AllenWalker Read,Karl 11. Pribram,GeorgeF. F. Lombard,Richard W. Paul, Jerome Rrunl.'f, William V. I laney, Warren M. Robbins,Albert Ellis, Steve Allen, and WilliamI,ul:/.. The following haveXXII PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITIONparticipated in colloquia in the series: William J. Fry, James A. VanAllen,Charles M. Pomerat, Jesse H. Shera, Allen Kent, Paul Ptacek, J. SamuelBois, EltonS. Carter, WalterProbert, KennethG. JohnsonandNeilPostman.5. For Korzybski as a system-builder, see Dr. Stuart A. Mayper, "The Place ofAristotelian Logic in Non-Aristotelian Evaluating:Einstein, Korzybskiand Popper," General Semantics Bulletin No. 47, 1980, pp. 106-110.For discussions of the continuing appropriateness of 'Korzybski'sscience', see Stuart A. Mayper, "Korzybski's Science and Today'sScience,"General Semantics Bulletin, No.5 I, 1984, pp. 61-67; BarbaraE. Wright, "The Heredity-Environment Continuum: Holistic Approachesat 'One Point in Time' and 'All Time'," General Semantics Bulletin No.52, 1985, pp. 36-50; Russell Meyers, MD, "The Potentials of Neuro-Semantics for Modern Neuropsychology" (The1985 Alfred KorzybskiMemorial Lecture), General Semantics Bulletin, No. 54, 1989, pp. 13-59,and Jeffrey A. Mordkowitz, "Korzybski, Colloids and Molecular Biology:A Viewfrom 1985,"General Semantics Bulletin, No. 55, 1990, pp. 86-89. For adetailedupdatingintheneurosciencesbyanon-general-semanticist which shows Korzybski's1933formulationsas consistentwith 1993formulations, see"Part !"of PatriciaSmithChurchland'sNeurophilosophy: Toward aUnified Science of the Mind/Brain, MITPress, 1986, pp. 14-235.)6. Korzybski, Alfred, Manhood ofHumanity.7. See Dr. Mayper's paper: "ThePlaceof AristotelianLogic inNon-Aristotelian Evaluating... ," listed above, and his earlier "Non-AristotelianFoundations: Solid or Fluid?" ETC.: A Review ofGeneral Semantics, Vol.XVIII, No.4, Feb., 1962, pp. 427-443.8. Bachelard, Gaston, The Philosophy ofNo. Translated from the French byG. C. Waterson. New York: Orion Press, 1968, p. 108.PREFACETOTHEFOURTHEDITION1958Aquarter of a centuryhas nowelapsedsince the first editionofAlfredKorzybski'sprincipal work, ScienceandSanity, appeared. Thesecond edition was published in1941 and the third was preparedin 1948,two years before the author's death. Although the second and third edi-tions providedclarificationandamplificationof certainaspects of thenon-aristotelianorientationoriginally proposedby theauthor, andwhiletheycitedimportant newdataillustratingthe rewardsaccruingtocer-tainfields of humanendeavor (e.g., psychotherapy) inconsequenceoftheutilization ofthe orientationsearnestly espousedby him,theyrepre-sented noimportantdeparturesfromthefirst edition inrespectofbasicprinciplesat theoreticandpragmaticlevels. Nor, inseriousretrospec-tion, did any such appeartohave been indicated.Consideringthat theauthorhimself, inapplyingtheformulationof'the self-reflexive map' to his own work, asserted on more than one occa-sionthat perceptiblerevisions of his formulations must beanticipatedandthat suchwouldvery likelyprovefairlycompelling within aperiodestimatedattwenty-fiveyears, it comesassomethingofasurprisethatasthe1958 reprintingof ScienceandSanitygoestopress nomajor al-terations seemas yet to be required. Inthis modernworldof rapidchange-in which Man has acquired information regarding the intra- andextraorganic realms of his Universe at an unprecedentedexponentialrate; in which the Atomic Age has come into actual being; in which con-questsof spacethat werebut fanciful dreamsonlyyesteryearhavebe-come astonishing realities; in which newspecialties, bridging freelyacross the gaps of the unknown betweenconventional scientificdisci-plines, havesprung intolifeandbecomefull-fledgedwithinamatterofmonths; and inwhichfar-seeingmen ofgoodwillhaveorganizedtheirendeavorstounifythesciences, artsandhumanitarianpursuits-at-Iargeandappear as never before determined (despite recalcitrant andreac-tionary private interests) toimplement a OneWorld such as mightbefitthe dignity of humanity in its manhood-the continuing substantiality ofKorzybski's 1933 formulations must be regarded as a tribute to his visionand integrative genius. Now that we are able to stand a little apartfromhistorical developmentsandviewhislife'sworkinsomeperspective, itcanhardlybedoubtedthat hegrasped, asfewhad done before him andcertainly none had so systematicallyand comprehensivelytreated, theahiding significance oflinguistic hahits and the communicative processes-XXIIIXXIV PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITIONin-general to all of Man's thinking-and-doing, from his loftiest metaphysi-cal, epistemological andmathematical effortstothemost casual, trivialandmundaneperformances of his everyday living.Like a skillful diagnostician, Korzybski penetrated deeply intotheetiologicandpathologicsubstratesof what heperceivedtobethemoreserious deterrents tocurrent humanendeavors andthere succeededinidentifying certaingravestricturesimposeduponMan'screativepoten-tials andproblem-solvingproclivities byone oftheleast suspected ofallpossible agencies, namely, the academically-revered and ubiquitously-exercised aristotelianformulationsof logic. This diagnostic actwas, ofcourse, theanalogical equivalent of findingapositiveWassermanreac-tionin the blood serum of some long honored and beloved patriarch. Itsdisclosurepromisedand, in point of fact, proved to benomorepopular.In this sense, Korzybski's position was wholly comparable to that ofCopernicus andGalileo,who had been impelled by theirprivate inquiriesduring the early Renaissance to challenge the popular ptolemaic cos-mologyandaristotelianmechanicsof theirday. It requiredanuncom-monpersonal integrity, anunusual brandof courageanda plenumofphysical energyto spell out the overt andcovert effects produccdbythesewidely-pervading, pathologic neuro-semanticprocessesinthecom-munityof humans. Korzybski was, as wenowknow, quiteuptothisformidabletask.To have madc the diagnosis constituted-in itself an intellectual triumph.But Korzybski didmorethanthis. Hisanalyses enabledhimtowriteeffectiveprescriptions for boththepreventionandtreatment ofthedis-orders he encountered round about and within the community of humans.Thesedisorders, includingcultural andinstitutional aswell as personalmisevaluations anddelusions, he regardedas essentiallythose of ineptsemanticreactions. Theywerefor himtheunmistakablemarksof un-sanity, however 'normal' theymight appear tobeina statistical sense.The side-effects of Korzybski's formulations were hardly less sig-nificant than the prophylactic and therapeutic devices engendered bythem. Among other things, they cast muchneededlight on thepsychol-ogyof perception, childpsychology, education, thecultural theories ofmodernanthropology, scientificmethodandoperational ethics. As ofthe time of writing this introduction, a revolution in neurology, psy-chology, psychiatryandrelatcddisciplines, comparableineverywaytothat whichbrokeuponthedisciplineof physicsintheearlyyearsofthepresellt nlltur.v. appears both immincnt and inevitable. The stirrings to-wardsnchapp('ar tohaveb('enlit-rivedlargely fromageneral semanticuril'IILltion, whidl has snflicil'ntl.v inlllll'llceCrimental Science. Presentedbeforethe PsychologySection, A.A.A.S., St. Louis, Dec., 1935. Amer. lour. ofPsychiatry. July, 1936.24. TheScience ofMan. Amer. lour. of Psychiatry. May, 1937.25. General Semantics,' Extensionalieation in Mathematics, MathematicalPhysicsandGeneral Education. Threepaperspresentedbeforeannual meetingsoftheAmer. Math. Soc., 1935, 1938, 1939. WithanintroductoryOutlineofGeneral Semantics. General Semantics Monographs No. II. InstituteofGeneralSemantics, Chicago, 1941.26. AMemorandum on the Institute of General Semantics. Apreliminary report,1940.27. General Semantics, Psychiatry, Psychotherapyand Prevention. Paper pre-sentedbefore the Amer. Psychiatric Asso., May, 1940. Amer. lour. ofPsychiatry. Sept., 1941.28. Introductionto SecondEdition, ScienceandSanity, 1941. Separatelypub-lished. Institute of General Semantics, Chicago.29. MICHIE, S. ANewGeneral Language Curriculumfor the Eighth Grade.ModernLanguage lour. Feb., 1938.30. SEMMELMEYER, M. TheApplicationof General Semanticstoa ProgramforReadingReadiness. Paper presentedbeforetheThirdAnnual Conferenceon Reading, University of Chicago, June, 1940. Institute of General Seman-tics, Chicago. An of this paper is published in the proceedingsof theconference, ReadIngandPupil Development, under thetitle, 'Pro-moting Readiness for Reading and for Growth in the Interpretation ofMeaning'. Suppl. Educ. Monographs, No. S1. October, 1940. Univ. ofChicago Press.31.A. M. General Semantics andthe Teachingof Physics. Amer.PhysicsTeacller. April, 1939.32. WEYL, HERMANN. TheMathematical WayofThinking. StudiesintheHis-tory of Science. Univ. of Pa. Press, 1941.Latest list of publicationsavailablefromInstituteof General Semantics, Lake-ville, Connecticut.PREFACETOTHEFIRSTEDITION1933Itisdifficult for aphilosophertorealise that anyonereallyisconfininghisdiscussionwithinthelimits that Ihave set beforeyou. Theboundaryis set up just where he is beginning to get excited. (573) A. N. WHITEHEADThat all debunkers must add new boshes of their own to supply the vacuacreated by the annihilation of the old, is probably alaw of nature. (22)E. T. BELLTeaching without asystem makes learning difficult. TheTalmudThelayman, the'practical' man, themaninthestreet, says, What isthat tome? Theanswer ispositive andweighty. Ourlife is entirelyde-pendent on the established doctrines of ethics, sociology, political economy,government, law, medical science, etc. This affects everyone consciously orunconsciously, themaninthestreet inthefirst place, becauseheisthemost defenseless. (280) A. K.Whennewturns inbehaviour cease to appear in theliCe of theindivid-ual its behaviour ceases to be intelligent. (106) C. E.COGBILL'Tis alesson you should heed.Tryagain;11 at first youdon't succeed,Try agam;Thenyourcourageshouldappear.For il youwiUpersevereYouwiUconquer, never lear,Try again.WILLIAMEDWARD HrCUON.The main portions of the present work have already been presentedintheformof lecturesbeforedifferent universities, technological in-stitutes, teachers' and physicians' associations, and other scientificbodies. Thegeneral outlinewaspresentedfor thefirst timebeforetheTnternational Mathematical Congress in Toronto in 1924, and pub-lishedintheformofabooklet. Afurther elaboration of thesystemwas read before the Washington (D. C.) Societyfor Nervous andMental Diseasesin1925, andtheWashington (D. C.) Psychopatho-logical Societyin1926, andlaterpublished. Afuller draft waspre-sented before the Congres des mathematiciens des pays Slaves, in War-saw, Poland, in1929. Aspecial andnovel aspect of the subject, inconnection with the conditionalreflexes ofPavlov,was outlined beforethe First International Congress of Mental Hygiene, Washington, D.lxxxix see page xiixc PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONc.,in1930. Otheraspectswerediscussedbefore theAmericanMathe-matical Society, October 25, 1930, and the Mathematical SectionofThe American AssociationfortheAdvancement ofScience, December28, 1931. The latter paper is printed as Supplement III in thisvolume.The generalcharacter of the present work is perhaps best indicatedbythe twofollowing analogies. Itiswell knownthat fortheworkingof any machine some lubricant is needed. Without expressinganyjudgement about the present 'machine age', we have to admit that tech-nicallyit is veryadvanced, andthat without this advancement manyscientific investigations necessitating very refined instruments would beimpossible. Let usassume that mankindnever hadat its disposal aclean lubricant, but that existinglubricants always contained emerysand, thepresenceof whichescapedour notice. Under suchcondi-tions, existing technical developments, with all their consequences,wouldbeimpossible. Anymachine wouldlast onlya fewweeks ormonthsinsteadofmanyyears, makingthepricesofmachinesandthecost of their utilization entirelyprohibitive. Technical developmentwouldthusberetardedfor manycenturies. Let usnowassumethatsomebody were to discover a simple means for the elimination of emeryfromthelubricants;at oncethepresent technical developments wouldbecomepossible, andbegraduallyaccomplished.Something similarhasoccurredinour human affairs. Technicallyweareveryadvanced, but theelementalisticpremises underlyingourhuman relations, practicallysinceAristotle, havenot changedat all.The present investigation reveals that in the functioning of our nervoussystemsa special harmful factor isinvolved, a 'lubricant withemery'sotospeak, which retards the development of sane human relationsandpreventsgeneral sanity. It turnsout that inthestructureof ourlanguages, methods, 'habitsofthought', orientations, etc., wepreservedelusional,psychopathological factors. These are in noway inevitable,as will be shown, but can be easily eliminated by special training,therapeutic in effect, andconsequently of educational preventive value.This 'emery' inthe nervous systemI call identification. It involvesdeeply rooted'principles' which are invariably falsetofactsand so ourorientationsbasedonthemcannotleadto adjustmentandsanity.Amedical analogy heresuggestsitself. We finda peculiar parallelbetween identification and infectious diseases. History proves thatunder primitive conditions infectious diseases cannot be controlled.Theyspreadrapidly, sometimeskillingoff morethanhalfoftheaf-fected population. The infectious agent may be transmitted eitherPREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITION XCIdirectly, or through rats, insects, etc. With the advanceof science,we areable tocontrol the disease, andvarious important preventivemethods, such assanitation, vaccination, etc., are at our disposal.Identificationappearsalsoassomething'infectious', for it istrans-mitted directlyor indirectly fromparents and teachers to the childbythe mechanismandstructureof language, byestablishedandin-herited 'habitsof thought', byrules for life-orientation, etc. Thereare alsolargenumbers of menandwomen whomake a professionof spreading the disease. Identification makes general sanity andcom-pleteadjustment impossible. Traininginnon-identityplays a thera-peuticrole with adults. The degree of recovery depends on manyfac-tors, suchastheageof theindividual, theseverityof the'infection',thediligenceintraininginnon-identity, etc. Withchildrenthetrain-ing in non-identity is extremely simple. It plays the role both ofsanitationandof theequallysimpleandeffectivepreventivevaccina-tion.As in infectious diseases, certain individuals, although living ininfectedterritory, are somehowimmune to this disease. Others arehopelessly susceptible.Thepresentworkiswrittenonthelevel oftheaverageintelligentlayman, becausebeforewecantrain 'childreninnon-identitybypre-ventive education, parents and teachers must have a handbook fortheirown guidance. Itis notclaimedthat amilleniumis at hand, farfromit;yet it seems imperativethat theneuro-psycho-Iogical factorswhichmake genera!sanity impossible should be eliminated.I have prefaced the parts of the workand the chapters with alarge number of important quotations. I. havedonesotomake thereaderawarethat, ontheonehand, thereisalreadyafloat inthe'uni-verse of discourse'a great dealof genuine knowledge and wisdom, andthat, ontheother hand, thiswisdomisnot generally appliedand, toalargeextent, cannot be applied as long as wefail to build asimplesys-tem basedonthecompleteeliminationofthe pathological factors.Asystem, inthepresent sense, representsacomplexwholeof co-ordinated doctrines resulting in methodological rules and principlesof procedure whichaffect theorientationbywhichweact andlive.Any systeminvolves an enormous number of assumptions, presup-positions, etc., which, in the main, are not obvious but operate un-consciously. As such, theyareextremelydangerous, because shouldit happenthat someof theseunconsciouspresuppositionsarefalse tofacts, ourwholelifeorientationwouldbevitiatedbytheseunconsciousdelusional factors, withthenecessaryresultofharmfulbehaviour andXCII PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONmaladjustment. Nosystemhaseverbeenfullyinvestigatedastoitsunderlyingunconscious presuppositions. Every systemis expressedinsomelanguage of somestructure, whichisbasedinturnonsilentpresuppositions, and ultimately reflects and reinforces those presup-positions on and in the system. This connection is very close and allowsus toinvestigatea systemtoalargeextent byalinguisticstructuralanalysis.The systemby which the white race lives, suffers, 'prospers',starves, anddiestodayisnot inastrict senseanaristoteliansystem.Aristotlehad far toomuchof the senseof actualities for that. Itrepresents, however, asystem formulated by those who, for nearly twothousand years since Aristotle, have controlled our knowledge andmethods of orientations, andwho, forpurposes of their own, selectedwhat todayappears as theworst fromAristotleandtheworst fromPlatoand, withtheir ownadditions, imposed this composite systemupon us. In thisthey were greatlyaided bythestructure oflanguageandpsycho-logicalhabits, whichfromtheprimitivedowntothisveryday have affected all of us consciouslyor unconsciously, and haveintroduced seriousdifficultieseveninscience andinmathematics.Our rulers: politicians, 'diplomats', bankers, priests of everyde-scription, economists, lawyers, etc., andthemajorityof teachers re-main at present largely or entirely ignorant of modern science, scientificmethods, structural linguistic and semantic issues of 1933, and they alsolack an essential historical and anthropological background, withoutwhich asane orientation isimpossible.* This ignorance isoften wilfulas theymostly refuse, withvarious excuses, to read modern worksdealing with such problems. As aresult a conflict is created and main-tainedbetweentheadvanceof science affectingconditions of actuallifeandtheorientationsofourrulers, whichoftenremainantiquatedby centuries, or one or twothousand years. The presentworldcondi-tions are in chaos; psycho-logically there exists a state of helplessness-hopelessness, often resulting in the feelings of insecurity, bitterness, etc.,and wehavelatelywitnessedpsychopathological massoutbursts, sim-ilar to those of the dark ages. Few of us at present realize that, as longas suchignorance of our rulers prevails, nosolutionof ourhumanproblems ts possible.* Theliteratureof these subjects isverylargeandimpossible to givehereorinmybibliography; butas primersI mayaswell suggest numbers299, 334, 492, 558, 589inmybibliography. Thesebooks inturngive furtherreferences.PREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITION XCIIIThedistinctlynovel issueinanon-aristoteliansystemseemstobethat inahuman class oflifeelementarymethodologicalandstructuralignorance about the world and ourselves, as revealed by science, isboundto introducedelusional factors, for no one canbe free fromsomeconsciousorunconscious structural assumptions. Thereal andonlyproblemtherefore seems to be whether our structural assump-tions in1933 are primitive or of the 1933 issue. The older 'populariza-tionofscience' isnot thesolution, itoftendoesharm. Theprogressofscience isdue in themaintoscientificmethodsandlinguisticrevis-ions, and so the newfacts discovered by such methods cannot beproperly utilized by antiquated psycho-logical orientations and lan-guages. Suchutilizationoftenresultsonlyinbewilderment andlackofbalance. Beforewecanadjust ourselvestothenewconditionsoflife, created inthe mainbyscience, we must first of all revise ourgrossly antiquated methods of orientation. Then only shall we beabletoadjust ourselves properly tothe newfacts.Investigations showthat theessential scientific structural data of1933 aboutthe world and ourselves areextremely simple, simpler eventhanany ofthestructural fanciesoftheprimitives. Weusuallyhavesense enough to fit our shoes to our feet, but not sense enough to reviseour older methodsof orientationtofit thefacts. Theeliminationofprimitiveidentifications, whichiseasilyaccomplishedoncewetakeitseriously,producesthenecessarypsycho-logical changetowardsanity.'Humannature' isnotanelementalisticproductofheredityalone,or of environment alone, but represents avery complex organism-as-a-whole end-result of the enviro-genetic manifold. It seems obvious,once stated, that in ahuman class of life, the linguistic, structural, andsemantic issues represent powerful and ever present environmentalfactors, whichconstitutemost important componentsofall ourprob-lems. 'Humannature' canbechanged, onceweknowhow. Experi-enceandexperimentsshowthat this 'changeofhumannature', whichunder verbal elementalismwas supposedtobeimpossible, canbeac-complished in most cases in afew months, if we attack this problem bythenon-elementalistic, neuyo-psycho-Iogical, special non-identitytech-nique.If the ignorance and identifications of our rulers could be eliminatedavarietyof delusional factors throughhome and school educationalandotherpowerful agencieswouldceasetobeimposedandenforceduponus, andtherevision ofour systemswouldbeencouraged, ratherthan hampered. Effective solutions of our problems would then appearspontaneouslyandinsimple forms; our'shoes' wouldfit our'feet' andXCIV PREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITIONwecould'walkthroughlife' incomfort, insteadof enduringthepres-ent sufferings.Sinceourexistingsystemsappear tobeinmanyrespectsunwork-ableandinvolvepsychopathological factors owinginthemaintocer-tainpresuppositions of thearistotelian system, and also for brevity'ssake, I call the wholeoperatingsystemiccomplex'aristotelian'. Theoutline of a newandmodern systembuilt after the rejection of thedelusional factors I call 'non-aristotelian'. Toavoidmisunderstand-ings I wish to acknowledge explicitly myprofound admiration fortheextraordinarygeniusofAristotle, particularlyinconsiderationoftheperiodin whichhelived. Nevertheless, thetwisting ofhissystemand the imposed immobilityof this twisted system, as enforced fornearly two thousand years by the controlling groups, often underthreatsof tortureanddeath, haveledandcan onlyleadtomoredis-asters. Fromwhatwe knowabout Aristotle, thereislittle doubtthat,ifalive, hewouldnot toleratesuchtwistingsandartificial immobilityof the system usually ascribed to him.Theconnectionbetweenthestudyof psychiatryandthestudyofmathematics andthe foundations of mathematics is veryinstructive.In the development of civilization and science we find that somedisciplines, for instance, the veryyoungscience of psychiatry, haveprogressedrapidly. Other disciplines such as mathematics, physics,etc., until recently progressed slowly, mainly on account of certaindogmas andprejudices. Of latesomeof theseprejudices havebeeneliminated, andsincethentheprogress of thesesciences hasbecomeextremely rapid. Still other disciplines such as 'psychology', thetraditional 'philosophy', sociology, political economy, ethics, etc., havedeveloped their principles very little in nearly two thousand yearsnotwithstanding awealth of accumulated new data.Manyreasons areresponsiblefor this curious stateof affairs, butI will suggest onlythree, intheorder oftheir importance. (1) Firstofall, thelast mentionedslowlydevelopingdisciplines aretheclosestto us humans, anda primitive man, or an entirelyignorant person'knows all about' these most complex problems in existence. This'knowit all' general tendency produces an environmental, psycho-logical, linguistic, etc., manifold, filledwithidentifications whichpro-duce dogmas, prejudices, misunderstandings, fears, andwhat not, mak-ing an impersonal, impartial scientific approach next to impossible.(2) Fewof usrealizetheunbelievabletraps, someof themofapsy-chopathological character, which the structureof our ordinary lan-guage sets before us. These also make any scientific approach orPREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITION xcvagreement on vital points impossible. We grope byanimalistic trialand error, and by equally animalistic strife, wars, revolutions, etc.These first two points apply practically to all of us, and introduceg-rcat difficultiesevenintomathematics. (3) One ofthe mainreasonswhypsychiatry hasadvancedsorapidlyin such ashort periodincon-t radistinctionto 'psychology', is that it studies relativelysimple andrelativelysingled-out symptoms. But as thesesymptomsarenot iso-lated, and represent the reactions of the organism-as-a-whole, theirpartial studyyields glimpses of thegeneral andfundamental mecha-nisms. Ifwestudymathematicsandmathematical sciencesas formsof humanbehaviour, westudyalsosimplifiedandsingled-out humanreactions of the type: 'one andone make two', 'twoand one makethree', etc., andwealsoget glimpsesofgeneral mechanisms. Inpsy-chiatrywestudysimplifiedpsycho-logical reactionsat theirworst; inmathematics and mathematical sciences we study simplified psycho-logical reactions at their best. When both types of reactions arestudied conjointly, most unexpected and very far-reaching resultsfollow which deeply affect every known phase of human life andactivity, science included. The results of such widely separated studiesdonot conflict, but supplement eachother, elucidatingveryclearlyageneral mechanismwhichoperatesinall of us. Psychiatrical studieshelpusmostunexpectedlyinthesolutionofmathematical paradoxes;andmathematical studieshelpustosolveveryimportant problemsinpsychotherapy and in prevention of psycho-logicaldisorders.History shows that the advancement of science and civilizationinvolves, first, anaccumulationof observations; second, a preliminaryformulationofsomekindof 'principles' (whichalwaysinvolvesomeunconscious assumptions) ; and,finally, as the numbers of observationsincrease, it leadstotherevisionandusuallythe rejectionof unjusti-fied, orfalsetofacts'principles', whichultimatelyarefoundtorepre-sent only postulates. Because of the cumulative and non-elementalisticcharacterofhumanknowledge, amerechallengetoa'principle' doesnot carryus far. For expediency, assumptions underlyinga systemhave (1) to be discovered, (2) tested, (3) eventually challenged,(4) eventuallyrejected, and (5) a system, free fromthe eventuallyobjectionable Postul;ltes,hasto be built.Examples of this abound ineveryfield, but the histories of thenon-euclidean and non-newtonian systems supply the simplest andmost obvious illustrations. For instance, thefifthpostulateof Eucliddid not satisfy even his contemporaries, but these challenges wereineffectivefor morethantwothousandyears. OnlyinthenineteenthXCVI PREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITIONcentury was the fifth postulate eliminatedand non-euclidean systemsbuiltwithout it. The appearanceofsuchsystemsmarkedaprofoundrevolutioninhumanorientations. Inthetwentiethcenturythe muchmoreimportant 'principles' underlyingournotionsabout thephysicalworld,such as'absolutesimultaneity', 'continuity' ofatomic processes,'certainty' of our experimentsandconclusions, etc., werechallenged,andsystemswerethenbuilt without them. Asaresult, wenowhavethemagnificent non-newtonianphysicsandworldoutlooks, basedonthe work of Einstein and the quantum pioneers.Finally, for the first time in our history, some of the most important'principles' of all principles, this time in the 'mental world', werechallengedbymathematicians. Forinstancetheuniversal validityoftheso-called'logical law{)f theexcludedthird' wasquestioned. Un-fortunately, as yet, no full-fledged systems based on this challengehavebeenformulated, andsoit remainslargelyinoperative, althoughthe possibilities of some non-aristotelian, though elementalistic andunsatisfactory'logics', are madeobvious.Furtherresearchesrevealedthat thegeneralityof the'lawof theexcludedthird' isnot anindependent postulate, but that it isonlyanelementalisticconsequenceof adeeper, invariablyfalsetofacts prin-ciple of 'identity', often unconscious and consequently particularly per-nicious. Identity is defined as 'absolute sameness in all respects', and itisthis'all' whichmakesidentity impossible. If weeliminatethis 'all'from the definition, then the 'Word 'absolute'loses its meaning, we have'samenessinsomerespects', but wehaveno'identity', andonly'simi-larity', 'equivalence', 'equality', etc. If we consider that allwe deal withrepresents constantlychangingsub-microscopic, interrelated processeswhich arenor;and cannotbe'identicalwith themselves', theolddictumthat 'everything isidentical withitself' becomesin1933aprinciplein-variably falseto facts.Someonemaysay, 'Granted, but whyfuss somuchabout it?' Myanswer would be, 'Identification is found in all known primitive peoples;in all known forms of "mental" ills; and in the great majority ofpersonal, national, andinternational maladjustments. It is important,therefore, toeliminatesuchaharmful factor fromour prevailingsys-tems.' Certainlynoonewouldcare tocontaminatehis child with adangerous germ, onceit is knownthat thegivenfactor is dangerous.Furthermore, the results of a complete elimination of identity are so far-reachingandbenefidal for thedaily .lifeofeveryone, andfor science,**Whilecorrectingthe proofs of this Preface, I readatelegraphicpress re-port fromLondonby Science Service, that Professor MaxBorn, bythe applica-PREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITION XCVIII hat such'fussing' is not onlyjustified, butbecomes one ofthe primary1;ls),s before us. Anyone who will study the present work will be('asily convinced by observations of human difficulties in life, andscience, that the majority of these difficulties arise fromnecessaryfalse evaluations, in consequence of the unconscious false to factsj,lcntifications.The present work therefore formulates a system, called non-aristotelian, whichisbasedonthecompleterejectionof identityandits derivatives, and shows what very simple yet powerful structuralfactorsofsanitycanbefoundinscience. Theexperimental develop-ment of science and civilization invariablyinvolves more andmoreI'cfmed discriminations. Each refinement means the elimination ofsomeidentificationssomewhere, but manystill remaininapartial andmostlyunconsciousform. Thenon-aristoteliansystemformulatestheI{cneral problemof non-identity, and gives childishly simple non-dementalistic means for a complete and conscious elimination ofidentification, and other delusional or psychopathological factors inall knownfields of humanendeavours, inscience, education, andallknownphasesofprivate, national, andinternational life. Thiswork,in its application to educationand psychotherapy, has been experi-mentalformore thansix years.Thevolumeis dividedintothreemaindivisions. BookI gives ageneral survey of non-aristotelian structural factors discovered byscience, which are essential in a textbook. Only such data areselected, interpreted andevaluated asarenecessaryfor afull masteryof the system. Book II presents a general introduction to non-aristote-lian systems and general semantics free fromidentity, and gives atechnique for theeliminationof delusional factors fromour psycho-logical reactions. Book IIIgivesadditional structuraldataaboutlan-guages, andalsoanoutlineof theessential structural characteristicsoftheempirical world, but onlysuchasarepertinent for traininginthenon-aristotelian discipline.Following each quotation prefacing each part and chapter, thenumber inparenthesisindicates thenumber of thebookinthebibli-ography fromwhich the quotation is taken.tionof the non--elementalisticmethodsof Einstein, has succeededinmaking;.major contributiontothe formulationof a unifiedfieldtheorywhichnowinc1udes the quantum mechanics. Should this announcement be verified in its scien-tificaspects,our understandingofthestructure of'matter', 'electron', etc., wouldbegreatlyadvanced, andwouldinvolveof coursemost important practical applications. Forthesemantic aspects oftheseproblems, seepp.378, 386f., 541, 667,698-701, andChapter XXXIX.XCVIIJ PREFACE TO TilE FIRST EDITIONI have tried toavoid footnotes as muchas possible. The smallnumbers after some wordsinthetext refer totheNotesonp. 763if.,where the references to the bibliography are given.BookII islargelyself-containedandtherefore canbe readinde-pendentlyof theothers, afterthereader hasbecomeacquaintedwiththe short tables of abbreviations given on pp. 15 and 16, and withChapters IIandIV. I believe, however, that for thebest resultsthebook should be read consecutively without stopping at passages which atfirst are not entirely clear, and read at least twice. On the second read-ing, passages which at first were not clear will become obvious because,in sucha wide system, the beginningpresupposes the end, andviceversa.The discoveryof such important and entirely general delusionalfactors in the older systems leads to a far-reaching revisionof allexisting disciplines. Because of modern complexities of knowledgethis revisioncanonlybeaccomplishedbytheactivitiesof specialistsworking together as a group, and unified by one principle of non-identity, whichnecessitates astructuraltreatment.Tofacilitate this most urgent need, andtopresent the results ofthis work to the public at reasonable prices, an International Non-aristotelianLibraryhas beenorganized, tobeprintedanddistributedby The Science Press Printing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania,U. S. A., and Grand Central Terminal, New York City.It is also intended to organize an International Non-aristotelianSocietywithbranches inconnectionwithall institutions of learningthroughout the world, whereco-operative scientific work fortheelimi-nation of identity can be carried out, as this work is beyond the capaci-ties of anyone man.Since the scope of the Library and Societies is international, Ihaveaccepted, inthemain, theOxfordspellingandrules, whicharea happymediumbetweenthe Englishused in the United States ofAmericaand that oftherestoftheworld. IncertaininstancesI hadtoutilize someformsofexpressionswhichare notentirely customary,but these slight deviations were forcedupon me by the character of thesubject, the need for clarity, and the necessity for cautiousness ingeneralizations. The revisionof the manuscript and readingof theproofs in connection with other editorial and publishing duties has beenaverylaborioustaskforoneman, andIonly hopethat not toomanymistakes have been overlooked. Corrections andsuggestionsfromthereadersareinvited.The International Non-aristotelian Library is a non-commercial,PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION XCIXscientificventure, andtheinterest andhelpof scientists, teachers, andthose who are not indifferent to the advancement of science, civilization,sanity, peace, and to the improvement of social, economic, international,etc., conditions, will be greatly appreciated.Fromonepoint of view, this enquiryhasbeenindependent; fromanother, much materialhasbeen adapted. Insomeinstancesit isim-possible to give specific credit to an author, particularly in a text-book, and it is simpler andfairertostate thattheworks ofProfessorsH. F. Biggs, G. Birtwistle, E. Bleuler, R. Bonola, M. Born, P. W.Bridgman, E. Cassirer, C. M. Child, A. S. Eddington, A. Einstein,A. Haas, H. Head, L V. Heilbrunn, C. J. Herrick, S. E. J elliffe,C. J. Keyser, C.I. Lewis, J. Loeb, H. Minkowski, W. F. Osgood, H.Pieron, G. Y. Rainich, B. Russell, C. S. Sherrington, L. Silberstein,A. Sommerfeld, E. H. Starling, A. V. Vasiliev, H. Weyl, W. A.White, A. N. Whitehead, E. B. Wilson, L. WittgensteinandJ. W.Young have been constantly consulted.Although I have had no opportunity to use directly the funda-mental researches ofDoctor HenryHeadonaphasia, and particularlyonsemanticaphasia, mywholeworkhasbeenseriouslyinfluencedbyhis great contributions. Doctor Head's work, in connection with anon-elementalistic analysis, makes' obvious the close connection be-tween: (1) identifications; (2) structural ignorance; (3) lack ofproper evaluations in general, and of the full significance of words andphrases inparticular; and (4) the correspondingnecessary, at leastcolloidal lesions of the nervous system.I amunder heavyobligations to Professors: E. T. Bell, P. W.Bridgman, C. oM. Child, B. F. Dostal, M. H. Fischer, R. R. Gates(London), C. JudsonHerrick, H. S. Jennings, R. J. Kennedy, R. S.Lillie, B. Malinowski (London), R. Pearl, G. Y. Rainich, BertrandRussell (London), M. Tramer (Bern), W. M. Wheeler, H. B. Wil-liams, W. H. Wilmer; and Doctors: C. B. Bridges, D.G. Fairchild, W.H. Gantt, P. S. Graven,E. L.Hardy, J. A. P. Millet, P. Weiss, W.A.White, Mr. C. K. Ogden(London), and Miss C. L. Williams, forread-ingthemanuscript and/or theproofsasawhole, orinpart, andfortheir invaluablecriticism, andsuggestions.I alsoowemuchtoDoctor C. B. Bridges andProfessor W. M.Wheeler, not onlyfortheirimportant criticismsandconstructivesug-gestions, but also for their painstakingeditorial corrections and in-terest.Needless to say, I assume full responsibility for the followingpages,the more, that I did not alwaysfollowthesuggestionsmade.c PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONI wishto express mydeepappreciationtoDoctor W. A. Whiteand the staff of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, D. c., who, duringmytwoyearsof studyinthe hospital, gave me every assistance tofacilitate my research work there. I amindebted to Doctor P. S.Graven for supplyingme with his as yet unpublished experimentalclinical material, which was very useful to me.Three important terms have been suggested to me; namdy,'enviro-genetic'by Doctor C. B. Bridges, 'actional' byProfessorP. W. Bridg-man, and 'un-sane' by Doctor P. S. Graven, which debt I gladlyacknowledge.I amalsodeeplygrateful toProfessorR. D. Carmichael forwrit-ing Supplement I for this book on the Theory of Einstein, andtoDoctor P. Weiss for hiskindpermissiontoreprint as Supplement IIhisarticleontheTheory ofTypes.I warmlyappreciate thekindness of thoseauthors whogave metheir permission to utilize their works.Duringmytwelve years of researchworkinthe present subjectandpreparationof thisvolumeI havebeenassistedbyanumber ofpersons, towhomI wishtoexpressmyappreciation. Myparticularappreciationis extendedtomysecretary, Miss LilyE. MaDanwho,besides her regular work, made the drawings for the book; to MissEunice E. Winters for her genuine assistance in reading the proofsandcompilingthebibliography; andto Mr. HarveyW. Culpfor thedifficult reading of the physico-mathematical proofs and the equallydifficult preparation of the index.The technical efficiency in all departments of the Science PressPrintingCompany, andthe zealous andcourteous co-operation of itscompositors and officials, have considerably facilitated the publicationof this book, and itis my pleasant duty to extend my thankstothem.My heaviest obligations are to my wife, formerly Mira Edgerly.This work was difficult, very laborious, and often ungrateful, whichinvolvedtherenouncingof thelifeof 'normal' humanbeings, andweabandonedmuchwhichis supposedtomake'lifeworthliving'. With-out herwhole-hearted andsteadysupport, and herrelentlessencourage-ment, I neither wouldhaveformulatedthepresent systemnor writtenthebookwhichembodies it. If this bookproves of anyvalue, MiraEdgerlyis infact more tobethankedthantheauthor. Without herinterest, nonon-aristotelian system, nor theory of sanity wouldhavebeen produced in1933.A.K.NEWYORIl:, AUGUST, 1933.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTTheauthor andthepublishersgratefullyacknowledgethefollowingpermissions tomake use of copyright material in thiswork:Messrs. G. AllenandUnwin, London,for permissiontoquotefromthe works of Bertrand Russell.The publishers of the Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, forpermission to quote from apaper by W. A.White.Messrs. Blackieand Son, Londonand Glasgow, for permissiontoquote from the works of E. Schrodinger.Messrs. Gebriider Borntraeger, Berlin, for permission to utilizematerial from the work of L. V. Heilbrunn.The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, for per-mission to quote fromthe works of G. Birtwistle, A. S. Eddington,A. N. Whitehead, A. N. Whitehead andBertrandRussell.The Chemical Catalog Company, New York, for permission toquote fromColloid Chemistry, edited by J. Alexander.Messrs. J. andA. Churchill, London, for permissiontoquotefromthe work of E. H. Starling.Messrs. ConstableandCompany, London, for permissiontoutilizematerial from the works of A. Haas.Messrs. Doubleday, Doran and Company, Garden City and NewYork, for permission to quote from the work of J. Collins.Messrs. E. P. DuttonandCompany, NewYork, for permissiontoquote fromthe works ofC. J. Keyser.The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., for permissionto quotefromthe paperofG. Y. Rainichprintedin theJournaloftheFranklinInstitute.Messrs. Harcourt, BraceandCompany, NewYork, for permissionto quote fromthe workof W. M. Wheeler.Messrs. Henry Holt and Company, NewYork, for permissiontoquote from the works of C. M. Child, A. Einstein, and C. J. Herrick.Messrs. KeganPaul, Trench, Trubner andCompany, London, andMessrs. Harcourt, BraceandCompany, NewYork, for permissiontoquotefromtheworksof C. K. Ogdenand I. A. Richards, H. Pieron,and Bertrand Russell.Messrs. Macmillan and Company, London and New York, forpermissiontoquotefromtheworks of L. Couturat, W. S. Jevons, J.Royce, and S. P. Thompson.The MacmillanCompany, NewYorkandLondon, for permissiontoquotefromtheworks of E. Bleuler, M. Bacher, P. W. Bridgman,A. S. Eddington, E. V. McCollum, W. F. Osgood, andA. N. White-head.Messrs. MethuenandCompany, London, andMessrs. Dodd, MeadandCompany, NewYork, for permissiontoquotefromtheworks ofA.Einstein, H;. Minkowski, and H. Weyl.ciellPREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONMessrs. Methuen andCompany,London,andMessrs. E. P. DuttonandCompany, NewYork, for permissiontoquote fromtheworks ofM. Born, A. Haas, A. Sommerfeld, and H. Weyl.The publishers of 'Mind', Cambridge, England, for permission toreprint the article of P. Weiss.Sir John Murray, London, and Messrs. P. Blakiston's Son andCompany, Philadelphia, Pa., for permissiontoquotefromtheworkofW. D. Halliburton.The Nervous and Mental Disease PublishingCompany, Washing-ton, D. c.,forpermission toquote fromtheworksof S. E. JelliffeandW.A. White.Messrs. W. W. NortonandCompany, NewYork, for permissionto quote from the works of H. S. Jennings.TheOpenCourt PublishingCompany, Chicago, Ill., for permissionto quote fromthe works of R. Bonola, R. D. Carmichael, BertrandRussell and J. B. Shaw.The OxfordUniversity Press, Londonand NewYork, for a tendollarpermissiontoquotefromtheworksof 1. P. PavlovandH. F.Biggs.The publishers of Physical Review, NewYork, for permissiontoquote from the paper of C. Eckart.The Princeton University Press, Princeton, NewJersey, for per-mission to quote from the work of A. Einstein.Messrs. G. P. Putnam'sSons, NewYorkandLondon, for permis-sion to utilize the works of J. Loeb.TheW. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa., for permissiontoquotefromtheworksof W. T. Bovie, A. ChurchandF. Peterson,andC.J. Herrick.The Science Press, NewYorkandLancaster, Pa., for permissionto quote from the work of H.Poincare.Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, for permission toquote from the works of G.Santayana.TheUniversityof CaliforniaPress, Berkeley, Calif., for permissionto quote from the work of C. 1. Lewis.The Universityof Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., for permissiontoquotefromtheworks of W. Heisenberg, C. J. Herrick, R. S. Lillie,and J. Loeb.Thepublishers of theUniversityof WashingtonChapbooks, Seat-tle, Wash., forpermission to quote from the work of E. T. Bell.TheWilliams andWilkins Company, Baltimore, Md., for permis-sion to quote from the work of E. T. Bell.In several instances I have quoteda fewlines fromother publi-cations, without askingspecial permission. I nowwishtoexpressmygratitude to these respective publishers.In all instances the sources, fromwhich the quotations and thematerial used were taken, are explicitly indicated in the text of thebook.BOOKIA GENERAL SURVEY OFNONARISTOTELIAN FACTORSAllow me toe x p r ~ s s now, once and forall, my deep respectfor the workof the experimenter andforhisfight towring significant factsfromanin-flexibleNature, whosays sodistinctly"No"andsoindistinctly "Yes"toour theories. (5SQ) HERMANNWEYLThe firm determination to submit to experiment is not enough; there arestill dangeroushypotheses; first, andaboveall, thosewhichare tacit andunconscious. Since we make them without knowing it,we are powerless toabandon them. (417) H. POINCAREThe empiricist . . . thinks he believes onlywhat he sees, but heismuchbetter at believing than at seeing. (461) G. SANTAYANAFor aLatin, truth can be expressed only by equations; it must obey lawssimple, logical, symmetric andfittedtosatisfymindsinlo