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RISHIRAJ INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, INDOREREVTI GRAM, SAWER ROAD, INDORE-453331

MINNOR PROJECT ON

E-WASTE RECYCLING IN INDIASESSION 2009-2010

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING2006-2010

RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL

GUIDED BY

H.O.D. S. B. DIGHE LECTURER R. MEHTA

SUBMITTED BYNITIN SINGH

CONTENT1.

ABSTRAC

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E-waste recycling in India

2.3. 4. 5. 6.

INTRODUCTION DEFINITION DESTINATION OF E-WASTE INDIAN SCENARIO THE STATUS BASEL CONVENTION E-TOXICS IN E-WASTE8.1. E-WASTE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

7. 8.9.

LIFE CYCLE OF E-WASTE MANAGEMENT OF E-WASTES10.1. 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION-PROCESS MODIFICATION VOLUME REDUCTION RECOVERY AND REUSE SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DESIGN RESOURCE RECOVERY RECYCLING WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES11.3.1. 11.3.2. 11.3.3. 11.3.4. 11.3.5. LANDFILL INCINERATION COMPOSTING AND ANAEROBIC DIGESTION MECHANICAL BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PYROLYSIS & GASIFICATION

10.

11.

WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS11.1. 11.2. 11.3.

12.

RECYCLING OF E-WASTE12.1. 12.2. RECYCLING/RECOVERY SYSTEM BIFURCATION OF ELECTRONIC SCRAP12.2.1. 12.2.2. 12.2.3. 12.2.4. 12.2.5. 12.2.6. 12.2.7. 12.2.8. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS (PCBS) CHARACTERISTICS OF PCB SCRAP DENSITY DIFFERENCES MAGNETIC AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY DIFFERENCES POLYFORMITY LIBERATION SIZE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY ELECTROPOSITIVITY

12.3. 12.4. 12.5.

DISASSEMBLY MECHANICAL/PHYSICAL RECYCLING PROCESS MECHANICAL APPROACHES OF RECYCLING ELECTRONIC SCRAP

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E-waste recycling in India

12.6. 12.7.

HYDROMETALLURGICAL APPROACHES EXTRACTION OF IC/ OTHER COMPONENTS FROM PCB12.7.1. 12.7.2. RECOVERY OF GOLD MONITORS 12.7.2.1. 12.7.2.2. 12.7.2.3. 12.7.2.4. 12.7.2.5. 12.7.2.6. Recovery of Glass from CRT Yoke Core, Metallic Core and Copper from Transformers Copper Extraction from Wires Manual drawing of Wires for Copper Plastic Shredding and Graining Dismantling of compressor & segregation of compressor & cooling box

12.8. 12.9.

DISPOSAL ADVANTAGES OF RECYCLING E-WASTE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY AND ROLE OF INDUSTRIES RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CITIZEN

13.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, AND CITIZEN13.1. 13.2. 13.3.

14. 15. 16.

E-WASTE POLICY FOR INDIA CONCLUSION REFERENCES

1. ABSTRACTThe production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas.This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and

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E-waste recycling in India

organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.

"E-waste" is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their "useful life. "E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain components of some electronic products contain materials that are hazardous, depending on their condition and density. The hazardous content of these materials pose a threat to human health and environment. Discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries if improperly disposed can leach lead and other substances into soil and groundwater. Many of these products can be reused, refurbished, or recycled in an environmentally sound manner so that they are less harmful to the ecosystem. This paper highlights the hazards of e-wastes, the need for its appropriate management and options that can be implemented.

2. INTRODUCTIONIndustrial revolution followed by the advances in information technology during the last century has radically changed people's lifestyle. Although this development has helped the human race, mismanagement has led to new problems of contamination and pollution. The technical prowess acquired during the last century has posed a new challenge in the management of wastes. For

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E-waste recycling in India

example, personal computers (PCs) contain certain components, which are highly toxic, such as chlorinated and brominated substances, toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics and plastic additives. The hazardous content of these materials pose an environmental and health threat. Thus proper management is necessary while disposing or recycling ewastes. These days computer has become most common and widely used gadget in all kinds of activities ranging from schools, residences, offices to manufacturing industries. E-toxic components in computers could be summarized as circuit boards containing heavy metals like lead & cadmium; batteries containing cadmium; cathode ray tubes with lead oxide & barium; brominates flame retardants used on printed circuit boards, cables and plastic casing; poly vinyl chloride (PVC) coated copper cables and plastic computer casings that release highly toxic dioxins & furans when burnt to recover valuable metals; mercury switches; mercury in flat screens; poly chlorinated biphenyl's (PCB's) present in older capacitors; transformers; etc. Basel Action Network (BAN) estimates that the 500 million computers in the world contain 2.87 billion kg of plastics, 716.7 million kg of lead and 286,700 kg of mercury. The average 14-inch monitor uses a tube that contains an estimated 2.5 to 4 kg of lead. The lead can seep into the ground water from landfills thereby contaminating it. If the tube is crushed and burned, it emits toxic fumes into the air. Long-term exposure to deadly component chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) can severely damage the nervous systems, kidneys and bones, and the reproductive and endocrine systems, and some of them are carcinogenic and neurotoxin. It is a generic term used to describe old, end-of-life electronic appliances such as computers, laptops, TVs, DVD players, Mobile Phones, MP-3 players, etc., which have been disposed of by their original users. Though there is no generally accepted definition of E-waste, in most cases, E-waste comprises of relatively expensive and essentially durable products used for data processing, tile-communications or entertainment in private house-holds and businesses. Public perception of E-waste is often restricted to a narrower sense, comprising mainly of end-of life information and tile-communication equipment, and consumer electronics. However, technically speaking, electronic waste is only a sub-set of WEEE (Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment). According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD), any appliance using an electric power supply that has reached its end-of-life would come under WEEE. At macro-level, there are two ways to handle the E-Wastes: Disposal or Recycle / Refurbish.

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E-waste recycling in India

3. DEFINITIONElectronic waste includes computers, entertainment electronics, mobile phones and Other items that have been discarded by their original users. While there is no Generally accepted definition of electronic waste, in most cases electronic waste Consists of electronic products that were used for data processing, Telecommunications or entertainment in private households and businesses that are now considered obsolete, broken, or un-repairable. Despite its common classification as a waste, disposed electronics are a considerable category of secondary resource due to their significant suitability for direct reuse, refurbishing, and material recycling of its constituent raw

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E-waste recycling in India

materials. Re-conceptualization of electronic waste as a resource thus preempts its potentially hazardous qualities.

Definition of electronic waste according to the WEEE directive : Large household appliances (ovens, refrigerators etc.) Small household appliances (toasters, vacuum cleaners etc.) Office & communication (PCs, printers, phones, faxes etc.) Entertainment electronics (TVs, HiFis, portable CD players etc.) Lighting equipment (mainly fluorescent tubes) E-tools (drilling machines, electric lawnmowers etc.) Sports & leisure equipment (electronic toys, training machines etc.) Medical appliances and instruments Surveillance equipment Automatic issuing systems (ticket issuing machines etc.)

4.

DESTINATION OF E-WASTE:

The waste is imported by over 35 countries, which include India, China, Pakistan, and Malaysia etc. Fig. 1 shows the global E-waste traffic routes across Asia. The waste generated by the consumers of electronic goods gets collected by scavengers or garbage collectors, and usually gets deported to backyard stripping houses etc, where the potentially valuable substances are separated from the waste and the residue, which may still contain many hazardous (or useful) substances, is dumped or incinerated.

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E-waste recycling in India

Fig-1 Asian E-Waste Traffic5.

INDIAN SCENARIO

There is an estimate that the total obsolete computers originating from government offices, business houses, industries and household is of the order of 2 million nos. Manufactures and assemblers in a single calendar year, estimated to produce around 1200 tons of electronic scrap. It should be noted that obsolesce rate of personal computers (PC) is one in every two years. The consumers find it convenient to buy a new computer rather than upgrade the old one due to the changing configuration, technology and the attractive offers of th