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Training report of CCNA

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<ul><li> 1. Cisco Certified Network AssociateByNikita Kaushal (0178EC091055)Industrial Training Completed at the HCL CareerDevelopment Center, Bhopal as a Compulsory Requirement for the degree of Bachelor ofEngineering (Electronics and CommunicationEngineering)June 01, 2012 to June 30, 2012Department of Electronics and Communication &amp; EngineeringJai Narain College of Technology &amp; ScienceBhopal (M.P.)</li></ul><p> 2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT-2013Jai Narain College of Technology &amp; Science, Bhopal1. Name of Student :Nikita Kaushal2. University ID Number:0178EC0910553. Name of Training Place (Industry Institution, Govt. Department, etc) :HCL CDC4. Address of Training Place withTelephone No. and Email :143 ZONE 1 MP NAGAR , BHOPAL0755 40948525. Name and Designation of Training Incharge (Under whom training was completed) :AMIT SHRIVASTAV6. Training Period : June 01 June 30, 20127. Training Subject: CCNA 3. DECLARATIONThe Industrial Training on Cisco Certified network associate (CCNA)at the HCL CDC, Bhopal during June 01, 2012 to June 30, 2012 wascompleted by the undersigned. During this period, I was taught about theCCNA by an expert faculty and allowed to practice on computer with othersoftware related to design. Finally I was given a job for preparing a completenetworking . Thus, I completed the training successfully. ................ Nikita KaushalProf. Amit Sawaskade (0178EC091055 )Training Incharge 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI feel profound to attend my major training in CCNA in HCL CDC under the guidance ofMr. Amit Shrivastav who taught us networking and relevant things. He has also given us a briefknowledge in the training and also discuss various information to enhance our knowledge.I would like to thanks my training incharge Prof. Amit Sawaskade for guiding me at the time oftraining and boosting up required knowledge for training time to time. I would greatly indebted to Prof. Ashok Agrawal, Head, Department of Electronics andCommunication Engineering for his keen interest in this work and time to time guidance,encouragement and providing required facilities for training . We are grateful to Dr. MeghnaDubey, Principal, JNCTS for his guidance and critical comments which improved the quality ofthis report. Thanks are due to Dr. B D Shukla, Director, JNCTS for providing necessary helpand time to time necessary guidance in completion of this task.Then other faculty members, friends, etc, may be added accordingly in theacknowledgement to which the students want to acknowledge for their help and guidance in thetraining.Nikita Kaushal 5. 1. INTRODUCTIONAs the training arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Career Development Centre (CDC) carries forth alegacy of excellence spanning across more than three decades. HCL CDC is an initiative thatenables individuals and organizations to benefit from HCLs deep expertise in the IT space.Among the fastest growing IT education brands in India, HCL CDC offers a complete spectrumof quality training programs on software, hardware, networking as well as global certifications inassociation with leading IT organizations worldwide.Empowered with strategic alliances with leading IT organizations in India and abroad, HCLCDC training solutions cater to diverse consumer profiles including individuals, enterprises,academic institutions and Government enterprises.As the fountainhead of the most significant pursuit of human mind (IT), HCL strongly believes,"Only a Leader can transform you into a Leader". HCL CDC is a formalization of this experienceand credo which has been perfected over three decades.VISION"Together we create the enterprises of tomorrow".MISSION"To provide world-class information technology solutions and services in order to enable ourcustomers to serve their customers better".OBJECTIVE"To fuel initiative and foster activity by allowing individuals freedom of action and innovation inattaining defined objectives."PEOPLE OBJECTIVE"To help people in HCL Infosystems Ltd. share in the companys successes, which they makepossible; to provide job security based on their performance; to recognize their individualachievements; and help them gain a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment from their work."CORE VAUE We shall uphold the dignity of the individual. We shall honor all commitments. We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every endeavour. We shall be responsible corporate citizens1 6. A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or databetweenusers. The main field on which we were working was networking and the course was CCNAwhich includes all the parts of networking.In a typical LAN, there are various types of network devices available as outlined below. Hub Repeat signals received on each port by broadcasting to all the other connected ports. Repeaters Used to connect two or more Ethernet segments of any media type, and to provide signal amplification for a segment to be extended. In a network that uses repeater, all members are contending for transmission of data onto a single network. We like to call this single network a collision domain. Effectively, every user can only enjoy a percentage of the available bandwidth. Ethernet is subject to the "5-4-3" rule regarding repeater placement, meaning we can only have five segments connected using four repeaters with only three segments capable of accommodating hosts. Bridge A layer 2 device used to connect different networks types or networks of the same type. It maps the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each segment and allows only the necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. Packet destined to the same segment is dropped. This "store-and-forward" mechanism inspects the whole Ethernet packet before making a decision. Unfortunately, it cannot filter out broadcast traffic. Also, it introduces a 20 to 30 percent latency when processing the frame. Only 2 networks can be linked with a bridge. Switch Can link up four, six, eight or even more networks. Cut-through switches run faster because when a packet comes in, it forwards it right after looking at the destination address only. A store-and-forward switch inspects the entire packet before forwarding. Most switches cannot stop broadcast traffic. Switches are layer 2 devices. Routers Can filter out network traffic also. However, they filter based on the protocol addresses defined in OSI layer 3(the network layer), not based on the Ethernet packet addresses. Note that protocols must be routable in order to pass through the routers. A router can determine the most efficient path for a packet to take and send packets around failed segments. Brouter Has the best features of both routers and bridges in that it can be configured to pass the unroutable protocols by imitating a bridge, while not passing broadcast storms by acting as a router for other protocols. Gateway Often used as a connection to a mainframe or the internet. Gateways enable communications between different protocols, data types and environments. This is achieved via protocol conversion, whereby the gateway strips the protocol stack off of the packet and adds the appropriate stack for the other side. Gateways operate at all layers of the OSI model without making any forwarding decisions.2 7. Work assigned was: To design a coaxial cable and twisted cable. To design a LAN. To design a WAN. To design a MAN. To program router. To design network. To break password of router and switches.A computer network is a connection of two or more computers through a cable or wirelessconnection. Computer network enable computer users to share hardware, resources andinformation. Aside sharing information, the computer network enables users to share internetaccess. The importance of networking two or more computers can not be overemphasized.Networking in computer is unavoidable. We need networks in most things we do in life.I wonder what the world of computer will be without computer networks. In computing,networking is a way of connecting two or more computers together. When you networkcomputers together, the computers can share information and resources with one another.Networking is a very vital and delicate area in computing.We can not really quantify the importance of networking two or more PC. Computer network isvery important for every business, no matter how small a business may be. Computer networkhelps in sharing resources. With computer network, so many computers can share one printer,scanner and some other hardware, which might be expensive for a company to acquire for everycomputer user.It is quite obvious that computer network helps to save cost for an organization. Instead ofbuying all hardware for each computer, one can just share one via the computer network Inaddition to this, let us just think of additional space that will be occupied by providing printers orscanners for each of the computers in an organization. Networking two or more computer notonly saves money but also saves space. This in addition makes the users environment friendly.Do we ignore the communication aspect? No! Networking enhances effective communicationamong members of an organization or a company. With appropriate software, each computeruser can communicate with other members or staff of an organization or company. In addition tothis, Computer network gives users the opportunity to use remote programs and remote databaseseither of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. The importance ofhaving a computer networks are really numerous.3. 8. Thus, it is a necessity for every organization or company. It makes effective communicationpossible and helps to eliminate unnecessary waste of time and duplication or resources.The desire result was obtain in every experiments and work as a result we made a successfulnetwork capable of strong communications. A network engineer handles all of the plumbingfor a companys computers, connecting offices with T1 lines, hooking them up to the Internet,and configuring all internal systems such as net routers and firewalls. This was very interestingfield and we covered a subject know as Data Communication and Network which we havestudied in 6th sem. 4. 9. 2. TRAININGNetworking are Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications.. A connection oriented communication has the following characteristics: A session is guaranteed. Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if the sender does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires, the packet is retransmitted. Phrases in a connection-oriented service involves Call Setup, Data transfer and Call termination. All traffic must travel along the same static path. A failure along the static communication path can fail the connection. A guaranteed rate of throughput occupies resources without the flexibility of dynamic allocation. Reliable = SLOW (this is always the case in networking).In contrast, a connectionless communication has the following characteristics: Often used for voice and video applications. NO guarantee nor acknowledgement. Dynamic path selection. Dynamic bandwidth allocation. Unreliable = FAST. The layer which is important for networking are2.1 OSI Model:The OSI model is a layered model and a conceptual standard used for defining standards topromote multi-vendor integration as well as maintain constant interfaces and isolate changes ofimplementation to a single layer. It is NOT application or protocol specific. In order to pass anyCisco exam, you need to know the OSI model inside and out.The OSI Model consists of 7 layers as follows: 5. 10. Layer Description Device Protocol Provides network access for applications, flow control and error recovery. ProvidesNCP, SMB, communications services to applications bySMTP, FTP,Applicationidentifying and establishing the availability of GatewaySNMP, other computers as well as to determine ifTelnet, sufficient resources exist for communicationAppletalk purposes. Performs protocol conversion, encryption and data Gateway and NCP, AFP,Presentation compression redirectors TDI Allows 2 applications to communicate over a network by opening a session and synchronizingSessionthe involved computers. Handles connection GatewayNetBios establishment, data transfer and connection release Repackages messages into smaller formats, NetBEUI,Transportprovides error free delivery and error handlingGatewayTCP, SPX, functions and NWLink Handles addressing, translates logical addressesIP, IPX,Router andNetworkand names to physical addresses, routing andNWLink,brouter traffic management. NetBEUI Packages raw bits into frames making it transmitable across a network link and includes a cyclical redundancy check(CRC). It consists of the LLC sublayer and the MAC sublayer. TheSwitch,**Data MAC sublayer is important to remember, as it is bridge andNoneLink responsible for appending the MAC address of the brouter next hop to the frame header. On the contrary, 11. LLC sublayer uses Destination Service AccessPoints and Source Service Access Points to createlinks for the MAC sublayers.Physical layer works with the physical media fortransmitting and receiving data bits via certain MultiplexerPhysicalencoding schemes. It also includes specifications None and repeaterfor certain mechanical connection features, suchas the adaptor connector. Table 2.1- OSI ModelHere is an easy way to memorize the order of the layers:All People Seem To Need Data Processing. The first letter of each word corresponds to the firstletter of one of the layers. It is a little corny, but it works.The table above mentions the term "MAC Address". A MAC address is a 48 bit address foruniquely identifying devices on the network. Something likes 00-00-12-33-FA-BC, we call thisway of presenting the address a 12 hexadecimal digits format. The first 6 digits specify themanufacture, while the remainders are for the host itself. The ARP Protocol is used to determinethe IP to MAC mapping. And of course, MAC addresses cannot be duplicated in the network orproblems will occur. For more information about ARP and related protocols, read Guide ToARP, IARP, RARP, and Proxy ARP.Data encapsulation takes place in the OSI model. It is the process in which the information in aprotocol is wrapped in the data section of another protocol. The process can be broken down intothe following steps:User information -&gt; data -&gt; segments -&gt; packets/datagrams -&gt; frames -&gt; bits. 7. 12. When discussing the OSI model it is important to keep in mind the differences between"Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications. A connection orientedcommunication has the following characteristics: A session is guaranteed. Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if the sender does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires, the packet is retransmitted. Phrases in a connection-oriented service involve Call Setup, Data transfer and Call termination. All traff...</p>