reframing photography the camera & ... dslr point-and-shoot / compact digital camera slr film...

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    reframing photography

  • digital cameras

  • DSLR Point-and-shoot / compact digital camera

    SLR film camera

    rmodrak Sticky Note Here we’re looking at three different types of cameras. On the top, an SLR film camera, on the bottom-left, a digital SLR camera (SLR: Single Lens Reflex), and on the bottom-right, a point-and-shoot or compact digital camera. All are light-tight receptacles with basic components to control exposure and record the light digitally on light-sensitive chips.

    Compact cameras rely upon one or hybrid viewing systems, which may include viewfinder, rangefinder, or LCD screen systems. Digital cameras with an LCD screen show the same view as the lens so that there is no difference between the two views (a difference is called parallax error).

    DSLR cameras use a single-lens-reflex viewing system. In the SLR system, a viewer sees almost exactly what the lens sees. The lens is interchangeable, meaning that you could remove the lens and replace it with a lens that’s a different length. The lens quality is usually very good, and the sensor is larger than a point-and-shoot sensor, which allows for images printed larger to still appear sharp.

    Both types of cameras allow the operator to set the ISO number, meter the light. A DSLR allows the operator to focus the lens manually, and to choose aperture and shutter speed settings. Compact cameras will be smaller and lighter than DSLR cameras because their optics are simpler.

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  • image quality, resolution,

    & file format

  • QUALITY: 2000x1500 560x300 100x72

    JPEG – Large

    JPEG - Medium JPEG - Small


    rmodrak Sticky Note On a digital camera, set the image resolution and compression. This is usually in a menu setting called “Quality”. Cameras may offer different image amounts of compression by size. For example: large, medium and small. Or they may offer it in terms of resolution. For example, 2000x1500, 560x300, or 100x72. The greater the quality, the smoother the transition from tone to tone, the more accurate the color representation, and the greater the capacity for editing in Photoshop without affecting image quality. Within the same menu, or within a nearby menu, a DSLR camera will also offer a choice of file formats, for example JPEG and/or RAW. You may need to be in a manual mode to access the RAW formats. The file format also determines compression.

    The JPEG format compresses the file by discarding subtle shifts of color, or other information that seems too subtle for the human eye to detect. Throwing out information yields smaller files but also tends to degrade image quality. Most digital cameras allow you to choose between several levels of compression, and thereby to control (to some degree) how much information gets lost.

    RAW images are unprocessed files. The camera saves the actual pixel data that the lens and sensor see, without correcting tone, color, sharpness, or white balance. RAW files are ideal if you want higher bit depth or prefer to edit color space and white balance after the capture, in Photoshop.

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  • rmodrak Sticky Note The basic idea here is that you can choose image quality depending on what you’re going to do with the image. For example, if you know you’re going to make a large print/poster, you’d want the highest quality so your print resolution can be 300dpi. If you know the image is going on your website, you could choose lower quality.

    Question: What resolution do you use for websites/internet? Answer: 72dpi Question: What resolution do you want your image to be if you’re printing? Answer: 300dpi

    Some people shoot on high resolution all the time and just lower the resolution/make the file smaller in Photoshop if the image is going to go on the web. You could do this. But if you find yourself in a situation where your memory card is getting full, you can always switch to low quality if you know screen resolution is all you need.

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  • on a DSLR, set the color


    rmodrak Sticky Note On a DSLR, the color space is the number of possible colors available to an image. For example, the sRGB color space is a more limited palette of colors, and a good choice if you plan to project images or show them on a monitor, because those devices also use the limited color space of sRGB. The color space Adobe RGB has a larger number of possible colors for the image, a wider range than sRGB, and is a good choice for print purposes. DSLR cameras usually allow users to select from different color spaces for image capture, either sRGB or Adobe RGB. Set our color space to the largest color space - Adobe RGB - because you can always change to a smaller color space in Photoshop.

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  • the aperture

  • rmodrak Sticky Note The aperture refers to the part of the camera’s lens that widens and contracts to control the amount of light reaching the film or digital sensor. On the left, you see the aperture when it’s contracted to a small hole. On the right, it’s been opened to a large aperture size.

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  • rmodrak Sticky Note Like the iris of your eye, the aperture widens and contracts to let in more or less light. When you’re in a dimly lit room, your iris expands to the size on the right to let in more light. The the light is more intense, such as being outside in the sun, your iris contracts to let in less light.

    Another analogy is a faucet. If the water is running at a drip, that’s a small aperture. If it’s running full force, it’s a large aperture.

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  • rmodrak Sticky Note Each aperture setting is referred to as an f/stop. The standard sequence of f/stops, from wider openings to smaller ones, is: f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22.

    With aperture settings, smaller numbers (e.g., f/2.8) have wider openings, thereby letting in more light; larger numbers (e.g., f/16) have narrower openings, thereby letting in less light. The change from one aperture to the next is referred to as a stop. For example: to change from f/5.6 to f/8 would result in one stop less exposure or one stop down. Each time you give one stop less exposure, or “stop down”, you halve the amount of light reaching the film. When you give one stop more exposure, or “stop up”, you double the amount of light reaching the film. An example of giving one stop more exposure would be a change from f/5.6 to f/4.

    Question: F/22 is a small or large aperture? Answer: small Question: If I were to change from f/11 to f/8, would I be opening up or closing down a stop? Answer: Opening up. Question: When I open up from f/11 to f/8, am I letting in half as much light or twice as much light? Answer: twice as much light Question: If I was on an aperture setting of f/4 and anted to let in less light, what should I do? Answer: close down to f/5.6 which lets in half as much light.

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  • rmodrak Sticky Note On an SLR or DSLR camera, you can adjust the aperture from stop to stop by turning a dial on the outside of the camera, while looking through the viewfinder window or on an LCD screen to see the numerical change. On a digital camera, you would need to be in M (Manual) or AV (Aperture-priority) modes. In Automatic Mode, a digital camera will choose the aperture.

    Some digital point-and-shoot cameras provide menu options for changing the aperture. In Aperture Priority Mode (usually listed as “AV” or “A” in your mode dial) you select an f/stop and the camera chooses a corresponding shutter speed in order to get the correct exposure.

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  • the aperture &

    depth of field

  • f/22 f/2.8

    rmodrak Sticky Note We just talked about how the aperture is an adjustable hole with various sizes or stops and that this is one way to control the amount of light reaching the film or sensor. But the aperture also determines another important aspect of your image – depth of field.

    Question: Does anyone know what “depth of field” is? …. Answer: Depth of field is the area within a photograph, from near to far, that appears sharp.

    Every image has depth of field, but some images have a wide depth of field where most or every part of the image appears in focus (like the image on the left), and some images have a shallow depth of field where only part of the image appears focused (like the image on the right).

    In both images above, the photographer focused on the middle mountain, but used a different aperture size for each image, which resulted in a different amount of depth of field. This is because the aperture on the left (f/22) is so small that they produce smaller, more acute circles of light that appear to be focused even when at a distance from the focal point. While on the right, the light rays produce larger circles of light that appear out of focus