Reading Terms Things that every fifth grader should know know. Things that every fifth grader should know know.

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Sequence of eventsReading TermsThings that every fifth grader should know know.1Adage A saying that has been popularly accepted over a long period of time. When it rains, it pours.The grass is always greener on the other side.Open mouth, insert foot. GeneralizationA broad statement based on specific facts and examples. Tables and chairs had been set up in the school gym for the big checkers tournament. The gym was packed with students talking excitedly as they waited to see whom they would be paired with. Suddenly, Steve walked into the gym. The students stopped talking and stared. A few began to bite their fingernails. Most of them hoped they would not have to face Steve in the first round. Generalization made Students fear and respect Steve as a great checkers player. What were the clues? Compare and Contrast Compare: to identify ways that multiple things are alike. Contrast to identify ways that multiple things are different. Character is any person, animal, or thing that takes part in the action of a story. 5Characterization Physical attributes- blonde hair, red shirt, etc.Interaction with others- how they treat and talk to others. (shy, mean, nice, etc.)Their thoughtsTheir actionsSTEAL Setting is when and where a story takes place7Plotis the series of events that make up a story. 8Conflict A problem that the characters must solveDoes not have to be a real fight or argument.9ClimaxThe point in the story at which the conflict of the story is addressed by the main characters but is not solved yet.The turning point!Plot ---->Exposition Introduces the reader to the characters and the setting early in a story.Point of ViewFirst Person Told from the point of view of I or weThird Person Told from the point of view of he, she, or they. Third-Person Limited A point of view in which he and she is used, and readers learn a lot about one or two characters and their thoughts.Third- person Omniscient-A point of view in which he and she is used, and readers learn a lot about all characters thoughts.Main IdeaWhat the passage is mostly aboutWhat strategy can you use to find the main idea?Dialect The way a person who lives in a specific geographical area or specific time period might speak. Example- In Uncle Toms Cabin Themeis the central idea or meaning of a story. Example: Giving is better than receiving. 15Parts of SpeechNounPronounVerbAdjectiveAdverbPrepositionConjunctionInterjectionNounIs the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. VerbA word that expresses action, a relationship between two things, or a state of being. Verb TensePast Tense: A form of a verb used to describe actions that have already happened. (He jumped high.)Present TenseA form of a verb used to describe actions or events happening currently right now. HE jumps high.)Future Tense A form of a verb that describes actions that have not happened yet (He will jump high.)Perfect Verb TenseA form of a verb used to describe actions already completed. Something happened before another time.Future Perfect Verb TenseA form of the perfect tense made by combining the future tense of to have with the past tense of a verb. (will have)By Sunday, Chris will have finished his book report. Two events in the future. One is completed before the other future event. Past Perfect Verb TenseA form of the perfect tense made by combining the past tense of to have (had) with the past tense of a verb. Alex had washed the dog when Fred arrived. Two events in the past. One happens before the other but both in the past. Present Perfect Verb TenseA form of the perfect tense made by combining the present tense of to have with the past participle of a verb. Use have or has with past tense verb tense. Mrs. Bradley has taught for ten years.An event that happened in the past and is still happening today.InterjectionA word or phrase that shows strong feeling.Ouch, that hurts!Yes, I won the race!Preposition A word that links objects (generally nouns or pronouns) to other words in a sentence. Often shows location or direction. Prepositional Phrase- a phrase containing a preposition and an object. They often indicate directions, or describe motion more precisely. Example: Bring me the book on the maple table. The prepositional phrase is: on the maple table PronounA part of speech that takes the place of a noun.He, she, it, they, we, us AdjectiveDescribes a noun or a pronoun. It tells what kind, how many, or which one. AdverbDescribes a verb. Tells how, when, where, or to what extent you are doing something.Authors PurposeThe reason an author writes a particular piece. Persuade- change the way you thinkInform- teach you something Entertain-tell a story 29Figurative Language Descriptive language that is not use literally and creates an image in the readers mind. Proverbis a statement of practical wisdom expressed in a simple way. An example of a proverb is A stitch in time saves nine, which means that doing something in a timely way saves you from having to do more work later. Dialogueis a conversation between charactersExample: Wake up! Its time for your birthday breakfast, Carolyn shouted. 32Description Tells how something looks, feels, smells, sounds, or tastes. Example: Laughter and shouts filled the air because the players were too wound up to sit quietly. 33Context CluesWhen you find a word you do not know, you use the words around the word to determine its meaning. You may have to use the sentence before or after the word that is unknown. What are the four main types?34Base WordA part of a longer word that can stand on its own.Root Words The basic word part that another word is made of when an affix is added. Remember an affix is a prefix or suffix. 36Antonym A word that is the opposite of another word. Happy - SadSynonym A word that has a similar or the same meaning as another wordFast- Quick Topic Sentence Usually the first sentence in a paragraph that tells the main idea of the paragraph. 39Concluding SentenceUsually the last sentence in a paragraph that sums up the idea of the paragraph. Conclusion = where40Stanza Pumpkins on Guard Look at all the pumpkin facesLighting up so many places. On the porch and in the yard,Pumpkin faces standing guard. Looking friendly, looking mean,With a smile or with a scream. Orange faces burning brightIn the cool October night.Stanza 1Stanza 2Stanza 3Stanza 441Rhyme-Last line in poetry have same soundsRhyme Scheme-The pattern in which rhyme sound occur in a stanza. abab, abcabc, abcdabcd, etc.42Idiom An expression of two or more words that mean something other than the literal meaning of the individual words. Give me a hand 43Imagery Words that appeal to our five senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, or hearing.The sun cast an orange glow over the ocean. 44Alliteration Repetition of the same consonants In lines of poetry or prosePeter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers;A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked;If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? Do not forget that it is two or more not always the whole sentence!45Hyperbole-Extreme exaggeration _____________46 Similecomparing 2 unlike things using "like" or "as"47Metaphorcomparing 2 things without using "like" or "as"The mind is a machine. 48Onomatopoeia-Sound Words Like Splash, buzz, hiss, boom49Personification-Giving human qualities to something not human The sweet face of the moon is shining. The acorn jumped from the tree. The grass danced in the wind. 50AffixA group of letters that are added before or after a root.Prefix and SuffixPrefix- pre, re, un, dis, anti, co, mis, semi, Suffix- able, er, less, ment, ion, estP Q R S Pun Words with humorous double meaning. A play on words. Example: The average ghost is mean spirited. 52AtlasA book of maps.EncyclopediaA book or set of books that gives facts about many topics. Palindromeis a word or phrase that reads the same way backwards and forwards. Example: deed, dad, mom, racecar, never odd or even55Poem/PoetryConcentrated words expressing strong feeling, does not follow rules of prose writingI'm Late For SchoolI got up late for school today,And nearly missed the bus!I hurried down the stairs,Wolfed my toast, and caused a fuss!I quickly threw books in my bag,My pens, my lunch and shorts.Grabbed my coat from out the cupboard,Took my bat and ball for sports.I slid across the kitchen floor,And hopped around the cat!Then expertly rolled over,Jumped back up and grabbed my hat!I belted out of our front door,Spun round and swung it shut.Saw the bus was waiting for me,I felt I had time to strut!I climbed aboard and then froze still,And knew that things weren't right!My friends fell down in fits of fun,And pointed with delight!My face went red, I couldn't breathe,For in my haste I knew!I'd forgotten to wear trousers,Jumper, shirt, my socks and shoes!56Sequence of events What order things happen, usually not over a period of time .First, put cracked eggs in a large bowl. Then, add flour. 57Chronological order-Things put into order by time Charlie went to the store, and bought a box of cookies. Then, he went home and made a card. The next day, he took the card and cookies to school. At lunch, he gave the card and cookies to Sally for her birthday. 58Spatial Orderobserving by bottom to top, left to the right, inside to outside, East to West, near to far. The way things appear in the space around them 59Cause-the event or reason {Because of rain (cause), the grass grew (effect)} The reason something happens.60Effect the result (what happened because of the cause) 61AnalogyAnalogy- the way you compare thingsHot is to cold as wet is to dry.62FactFact - can be proven by observation, statistics, or research 63OpinionOpinion- a statement that cannot be proven. It communicates someones feeling or judgement. 64Title page-has title of book, author, copyright, and publishing company 65preface introduction to the story, the short story before the story66 Table of contentsChapter titles and page numbers 67AppendixAppendix- extra stuff that did not fit anywhere else in the book.68Glossary- Words and definitions 69Index-Alphabetical reference list of topics, heading , subheadings, people, places, events & the page they are located.70Bibliography- A listing of the resources used in a written project or works cited 71Fallacy/Propaganda- information which tries to falsely persuade you or influence you 72Foreshadowing-clues or hints of what is to come 73DramaA play that has a script. It is written in order for someone else to act it out. 74Fiction-Not true storyFiction fake, fiction fake75Nonfiction-True storyNonfiction not fake, nonfiction not fake76GenreA books genre is the type of book it is. For instance, a book in the autobiography genre is a book that was written about a person about their life. A book in the fiction genre is a book that is a made up story.Biography-Written story of a persons life by someone else78Autobiography-Story of a persons life by that person79Fantasy-Bizarre characters in an exaggerated world80Science Fiction-The future, in other words, or different dimensions of time & space81Mystery-Terror or suspense plays a controlling point in the story. Characters are looking for clues to solve problem. 82Novel-Chapter Book 83Short Story-Just what it says84Fable-Personified animals or creatures within a story that gives a moral lesson 85Tall tale-Hyperbole (or exaggeration) of true events and people.Example: Paul Bunyan, Davy Crockett, or a Fish Story86Conjunctions A word that connects two or more words in a sentence.Fanboys = coordinating conjunctions (needs a comma if connecting two complete sentences)Correlative Conjunctions- bothand, eitheror, neither.nor, not only..but also Subordinating Conjunctions- because, after, since, etc. Connects dependent clauses with independent clauses. Coordinating ConjunctionsFANBOYSUsed to connect words, phrases, and sentences. If used to connect two sentences, you need a comma before the conjunction. The comas takes the place of the first comma.Subordinating Conjunctions A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a dependent clause.It helps connect the dependent clause to the independent clause. Ram went swimming although it was rainingAlthough it was raining, Ram went swimming.Correlative Conjunctions Either ... or, neither ... nor, and not only ... but also are all correlative conjunctions.They connect two equal grammatical items.Every single evening either the horned owl or the squabbling cats wake Samantha with their racket.