qualitative data analysis
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DESCRIPTIONQualitative Data Analysis. What is Qualitative Analysis?. It is the non-numerical examination and interpretation of observations. Theorizing and analysis are tightly interwoven. The primary activity of analysis is the search for patterns and explanations for those patterns. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Qualitative Data Analysis
What is Qualitative Analysis?It is the non-numerical examination and interpretation of observations.
Theorizing and analysis are tightly interwoven.
The primary activity of analysis is the search for patterns and explanations for those patterns.
The writing process itself is significant for structuring analysis.
What are Qualitative Data?Qualitative data are records of observations or interactions that are complex and contextualised, and that are not easily reduced to numbersThese records are made rather than collected, that is, they are not just lying around, like autumn leaves, ready to be swept into heaps (Richards, 2005. p. 37)Making data through:Interviews (individuals and in groups)Observations (field notes, photos, video)Document analysisTools for making data(Source: Bruce Johnson, Immersed or Drowning in Data: Whats the Difference? April 2008)
Analytical Thinking in Qualitative Data(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005)Standing back form the information givenExamining it in detail from many angles Checking closely whether each statement follows logically from what went beforeLooking for possible flaws in the reasoning, the evidence, or the way that conclusions are drawnComparing the same issues from the point of view of other writersBeing able to see and explain why different people arrived at different conclusionsBeing able to argue why one set of opinions, results or conclusions is preferable to anotherBeing on guard for literary or statistical devices that encourage the reader to take questionable statements at face value Checking for hidden assumptionsChecking for attempts to lure the reader into agreements
Creative Thinking in Qualitative Data(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005)Be openGenerate OptionsDivergence before convergenceUse multiple stimuliSide track, zig-zag, and circumnavigateChange patternsMake LinkagesTrust yourselfWork and Play at it
Credibility of Qualitative Data StudyThe credibility for qualitative inquiry depends on three distinct but related inquiry elements:
Rigorous techniques and methods for gathering high-quality data that is carefully analysed, with attention to issues of validity, reliability, and triangulationThe credibility of the researcher, which is dependent on training, experience, track record, status, and presentation of selfPhilosophical belief in the phenomenological paradigm, that is, a fundamental appreciation of naturalistic inquiry, qualitative methods, inductive analysis and holistic thinking
Principles of Analysis Qualitative Data(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005) Proceed systematically and rigorously (minimise human error)Record process, memos, journals, etc.Focus on responding to research questionsAppropriate level of interpretation appropriate for situationTime (process of inquiry and analysis are often simultaneous)Seek to explain or enlightenEvolutionary/emerging
Reducing Qualitative Data RecordIssue is not whether you reduce your data, but when! but you want to keep your detailed records for as long as you can handle themDilemmas!Transcribe or summarise interviews? Or a mix?What to include and excludeField notes how detailed?Video compress? Pre-edit?Storage; security and risk managementYour stories(Source: Bruce Johnson, Immersed or Drowning in Data: Whats the Difference? April 2008)
Qualitative Data CodingDescriptive coding information about the people and their contexts (age, gender, job, location, etc)
Topic coding what topics are being discussed in this passage?
Analytic coding whats going on here? What are the broader themes at work?
(Source: Bruce Johnson, Immersed or Drowning in Data: Whats the Difference? April 2008)
Recording and Managing Qualitative Data Before data can be analyzed, they must be recorded and then gathered together into a form that makes analysis possible.
Data can be recorded in text form, by audio- or videotape, photographically, and by memory.
Each recording process has its advantages and disadvantages.
Sometimes sacrifice comprehensiveness and accuracy in favor of recording in a way that is least disruptive of participants.
Qualitative Data Analysis Continuum(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005)Raw DataDescriptiveStatementsInterpretation
Qualitative Analytical Process(1. Analysis Considerations)WordsContext (tone and inflection)Internal consistency (opinion shifts during groups)Frequency and intensity of comments (counting, content analysis)SpecificityTrends/themesIteration (data collection and analysis is an iterative process moving back and forth)(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005)
Qualitative Analytical Process(2. The Procedures)Coding/indexingCategorisationAbstractionComparisonDimensionalisationIntegrationIterationRefutation (subjecting inferences to scrutiny)Interpretation (grasp of meaning - difficult to describe procedurally)
The Qualitative Analytical Process(Adapted from descriptions of Strauss and Corbin, 1990, Spiggle 1994, Miles and Huberman, 1994)ComponentsProceduresOutcomesData ReductionsData DisplayConclusions &VerificationCodingCategorisationAbstractionComparisonDimensionalisationIntegrationInterpretation
Unstructured Method Content analysis is the process of identifying, coding and categorising the primary patterns in the dataConstant comparative analysis reads raw data and identifies an important pointContinues reading and identifies another pointCompares to first point and so on
Conducting Content Analysis Prepare and organise raw dataSource code all raw dataCopy raw dataStore originals of raw data in safe placeReadTheme coding systemCompare first theme with second theme and so on
Conducting Content Analysis (cont.) Data index and classificationTransfer indicated passages to a fileOpen codingAxial codingRules for inclusionSelective codingMappingWrite report
A Rich, Messy and Complex Process Overlap between gathering and analysisManifest vs latent contentDecisions are yoursGathering data, analysing data and writing report are not mutually exclusive
Using a Computer Package Can only assist human judgementNvivo
Qualitative Data Management Tools QSR NUD.IST(Non-numerical unstructured data indexing searching and theorising)Enables efficient data management by supporting the processes of indexing, searching and hence data theorisingCreates an environment to store and explore data and ideas, it does not determine the research approach. The major advantage of the package is that it enables an efficient and flexible approach to rigorously and systematically analysing qualitative data.(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005)
QSR NUD.IST(Source: Mary Brennan, AEF 801, Research Methods and Project Management, February 2005)The QSR NUD.IST software tools are incorporated into two interlocking systems; a document system and an index systemDocument DatabaseEnables text to be stored, edited and retrieved; memos to record ideas can be attached to text; and word and phrase searches can be conducted on the documentsIndex DatabaseEnables the researcher to: code the data; conduct multiple concept or coded category searches thereby providing responses to research questions and theory development; and provides the means to record ideas about the data through memos attached to the various indices