qualitative analysis webinar
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DESCRIPTIONDuring this webinar, Dr. Lani will discuss qualitative analyses for dissertation Chapter 4. Special emphasis will be given to Phenomenological, Case study, and Grounded theory approaches.
- 1. Qualitative Analysis Dr. James Lani
- 2. Characteristics of Qualitative Data Analysis Inductive Simultaneous Iterative Interpretive
- 3. TheProcessofDataAnalysis Interviews Field Notes Scanned Material Collecting Data Transcription of the data Preparing Data To get general sense of the dataReading Data Identifying segments of text Assigning a label or "code" to them Coding Data Identifying text with descriptive value for report Coding for Description Identifying text with thematic value for report Coding for Themes Simultaneous and Iterative Process [Creswell, 2005]
- 4. Case Study Studies one or more cases bounded by a uniting factor Case(s) studied over time for in-depth analysis Employs multiple data collection methods Generates a rich description of the cases of study Examines themes which emerge from the study of each case
- 5. Phenomenology Explores the lived experiences of participants Describes the meaning that individuals assign to their experience Illuminates commonalities of experience between individuals Distills descriptions to find the essence of the phenomenon of study
- 6. Grounded Theory Aims to generate theory Is emergent and dynamic in nature Researcher derives theory which is based or grounded in data Produces a broad explanation of a process, action, or interaction. Theory is formed from the collective perspectives of a cast number of participants.
- 7. Collecting Data Data Collection Methods Observations Documents Interviews and Questionnaires Focus Groups
- 8. Transcribing Data Performed by Researcher or Transcriptionist Use detailed descriptive information Time, setting, participant, session type Use wise margins to enable note-talking Clearly distinguish between speakers Clearly demarcate interview/survey questions Make note of incidental noises Pauses, inaudible remarks, laughter, crying, or other noises that occur during the interview
- 9. Organizing Data Data Storage Computer files, filing folders, or index cards Data Grouping By type of document, participant, location, or data source File Naming Systematic naming of files for easy identification Data Back-Up Duplicate physical and/or digital copies of data
- 10. Analyzing Data by Hand More helpful for smaller data sets Uses hard copies of data Organization of data occurs on paper Margins used for note- taking Retain original copies of data
- 11. Analyzing Data with Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) Assists with organization and management of data. Enables researcher to sort data, assign labels or codes to data, and search data. Process entails: Uploading data into software. Selecting data within a test to sort under a chosen code, or category. Searching for text within all data sources that correspond to code. Reviewing coded data. Variety of CAQDAS programs exist including: Nvivo, Atlas.ti, HyperRESEARCH, and MAXQDA.
- 12. Using Codes to Build Themes Process by which the researcher makes sense of the data. Coding process begins with repeated readings of the data. The data is segmented into text or image fragments. Each fragment is labeled with a short, descriptive word or phrase (code). The identified codes are refined to eliminate redundancy. Codes are combined to form broad themes. I really wasnt happy with the outcome. I almost started to cry when I found out. I had worked so hard to get a good grade in the class. I felt bad that all my hard work was for nothing. I knew that this would have a big impact on my GPA. I had to get and get myself together before anyone from class saw me. I didnt want them asking why I was misty-eyed all of a sudden. Codes Theme Tearfulness Disappointment Sadness
- 13. Representing Findings Narrative form Comparison tables Figures Maps Diagrams Demographic Tables Methods of Representing Findings
- 14. Report Findings: Narrative Form Chief form of reporting in most qualitative research designs. Includes supportive excerpts from the dialogue. Includes multiple perspectives, and negative- case examples. Explore within-participant contradiction.
- 15. Example of Narrative Reporting Environmental factors All 11 students noted subject eating habits due to environmental factors, such as cultural upbringing and religious affiliation. Student 1 indicated their cultural perception of rice as a norm in the household, Weve always had rice in the house. My mom, my uncles, [and] everyone else I knew just ate rice. Thats how I was brought up and we eat it every day. Student 2 also demonstrated support for this theme by stating, We are Hispanic people and we like meat: pork, lamb, [and] beef. You name it I know its fatty, but thats what makes it delicious. I grew up on loving it and its not goanna [sic] change. Student 2 mentioned their eating habit due to their religious affiliation, so, on every Sunday we made sure to not eat any meat. Fish was ok, but thats all. I think its kinda [sic] stuck with us, and we just started eating healthier because of our faith; we practiced it. . Coping mechanism Three students indicated using food as a tool to help cope, manage, and deal with stressful situations. Student 2 stated that they ran to food when their parents would argue, Id see them fight and I felt so useless. I guess, I kinda [sic[ just ate to shut them out. Just ran to the cupboard. I was crying a lot then [and] the food helped. Student 1 however had a different take on food as a coping tool: I hated food. The idea of it made me sick. My friends used to say that I was letting him [boyfriend] take control over me like that. But I didnt care. I loved him and wanted him to like me.wanted to be a supermodel or something, but it wasnt going to happen. I just avoided food like I avoided my issues and hurt.
- 16. Reporting Findings: Grounded Theory Interview Question 1. What have your experiences been like in feeding your twins? Open coding revealed three sets of theme related information based on planning, level of difficulty, and type of blood. The majority of participants cited the level of difficulty associated with feeding their twins. Level of difficulty was related to overall feeding and difficulty of individual children. Plans for feeding and the types of food the twins were fed were also noted. See Table 1 for details. Table 1 Feeding Interview Question 1 Open Coding Responses
- 17. Reporting Findings: Grounded Theory Cont.
- 18. Trustworthiness Lincoln and Guba (1981) suggest four criteria for evaluating trustworthiness: Credibility How true are the findings? Transferability Can the findings be generalized? Dependability Can the study and findings be replicated? Confirmability How free are the results from researcher bias?
- 19. Pitfalls in Qualitative Research Study Design Choosing an Inappropriate Design Lack of Research Focus Data Collection Not Achieving Saturation Interview Design Unclear or Irrelevant Interview Questions Leading Interview Questions Data Analysis and Interpretation Superficial Analysis
- 20. Questions & Answers
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