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  • 1.How to use your Qualitative Data

2. Qualitative Research Analysis

  • Transcribe audio or video tapes.
  • Carefully and Individually review the written statements and visuals from interviews.
  • As a group, discuss the main findings and summarize them ( Always provide support to your claim through statements from the respondents )

3. Examples

  • VP Marketing for the Montreal Canadiens (NHL)
    • It is the strongest sports brand in Canadian historyOur team represents the dreams and hopes of the people from QuebecWe have one of the nicest jerseys and logos in the NHL, Why would we change anything

4. Examples

  • Sport Equipment manufacturer and distributor.
    • The team has not changed their jersey for years. This means no new offering to the fans: the jersey they bought ten years ago is still good today. Furthermore, not changing the team jersey that is associated with the glory of the past is not coherent with todays team performance on the ice, what the brand stands for and who their primary target is. It is alright to emphasize nostalgia when you are targeting older customers, but not when you are approaching younger customers, as the team is

5. Measurement

  • Measurement is the assignment of numbers to observations [or responses] according to some set of rules

6. Measurement Levels

  • Nominal
  • Ordinal
  • Interval
  • Ratio

7. Nominal-Scaled Responses

  • Numbers forming a nominal scale are no more than labels used solely to identify different categories of responses
  • Example: What is your sex?
    • Male
    • Female

8. Nominal-Scaled Responses (Contd)

  • Which one of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most?
    • Television
    • Radio
    • Newspapers
    • Magazines
    • Internet

9. Central Tendency Mode

  • The Mode is the most frequent category - only statistics applicable to nominal variable

10. Ordinal-Scaled Responses

  • An ordinal scale is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the property of rank order
  • How long do you spend reading newspapers on a typical weekday?
    • Less than 5 minutes
    • 5 minutes to less than 15 minutes
    • 15 minutes to less than 30 minutes
    • 30 minutes or more

11. Mode and Median

  • The Mode and the Median are the most meaningful measures of central tendency for ordinal-scaled responses
  • Medianthe category in which the 50th percentile response falls when all responses are arranged from lowest to highest (or vice versa)

12. Consider the following distribution of responses to the question about reading newspapers: In this case the mode is category 1 and the median is category 2 13. Interval-Scaled Responses

  • An interval scale has all the properties of an ordinal scale and the differences between the scale values can be meaningfully interpreted

14. Interval-Scaled Responses (Contd)

  • How likely are you to buy a new automobile within the next six months?
  • (Please check the most appropriate category.)
      • Will definitely not buy _____
        • (1)
      • Extremely unlikely _____
        • (2)
      • Unlikely _____
        • (3)
      • Likely _____
        • (4)
      • Extremely likely_____
        • (5)
      • Will definitely buy _____
        • (6)

15. Exhibit 9.1 Impact of Arbitrariness of an Interval Scales Starting Point 16. Ratio-Scaled Responses

  • Ratio scales possess all the properties of an interval scale and the ratios of numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations
  • What is your annual income before taxes?
  • $______
  • How far is your workplace from your home? ______ miles

17. Attitudes

  • Attitudes are similar to beliefs, except that they also involve respondents evaluative judgments
  • For instance, do respondents feel print advertisements for cigarettes should be banned?

18. Attitudes Conceptually and Operationally

  • A conceptual definition of attitude may be a predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a stimulus object

19. Self-report Measurements of Attitudes

  • This method involves asking respondents relatively direct questions concerning attitudes toward whatever is of interest to the researcher
  • The questions are typically in the form of rating scales on which respondents check off appropriate positions that best reflect their feelings

20. Graphic Formats

  • A graphic rating scale presents a continuum, in the form of a straight line, along which a theoretically infinite number of ratings are possible
  • Example: Indicate your overall opinion about eBay by placing amark at an appropriate position on the line below.
  • VeryVery
  • Bad Good

21. Exhibit 9.3 Semantic-Differential Scale Items 22. Exhibit 9.4 Pictorial Profiles Based on Semantic-Differential Ratings 23. Exhibit 9.2 Rating Scales with Picture Labels (a) I didnt like it at all I liked it a lot I liked it a little (b) Reallyh ated it Didnt like it Its ok Liked it Really liked it * * * ** * ** ** ** * ** How much did you like what you just saw? 24. Itemized Formats

  • Itemized rating scales have a set of distinct response categories
  • Any suggestion of an attitude continuum underlying the categories is implicit
  • They essentially take the form of the multiple-category questions

25. Itemized Formats (Contd) 26. Unbalanced Response Choices

  • An unbalanced rating scale that can be used if respondents opinions about a subject are anticipated to be predominantly positive

27. Labeled and Unlabeled Response Choices 28. Number of Scale Positions

  • A scale with a large number of positions will not be meaningful if respondents are unable to make fine mental distinctions with respect to whatever is being measured
  • More precise measurements shouldresult as the number of scale positions increase

29. Constant Sum Scale 30. Table 9.2 Likert Scale Items 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site supportsystem is confusing ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site is not careful with personal information ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ The auction site responds to complaints quickly ________ ________ ________ Agree ________ ________ ________ Strongly Agree ________ ________ ________ The auction site commissionis reasonable________ ________ ________ User registration is complex at this site ________ ________ ________ The online auction sitecontains an abundance of exhibits Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree 31. Strengths Of Multiple-Item Scales

  • Validity
  • Reliability

32. Validity

  • The validity of a scale is the extent to which it is a true reflection of the underlying variable it is attempting to measure

33. Reliability

  • Reliability measures how consistent or stable the ratings generated by the scale are likely to be

34. Questionnaire

  • A set of questions designed to generate the data necessary for accomplishing a research project's objectives

35. Questionnaire's Impacto n Data Accuracy

  • It must communicate to the respondent what the researcher is asking for
  • It must communicate to the researcher what the respondent has to say

36. Sources of Distortion

  • A sloppy questionnaire can lead to a great deal of distortion
  • The entry of an intermediary , orthe interviewer ,into the communication channelcan also distort the questionnaire

37. Exhibit 10.2 TheQuestionnaire Design Process Check question relevance and wording Check sequencing of questions Prepare final draft of the questionnaire Make changes suggested by the pretest Is another pretest needed? Translate data requirements into arough questionnaire draft Revise the rough draft Check question form Check layout and appearance Make the necessary checks Pretest the rough draft Are any changes needed? Are any other checks to be made? Are any changes needed? Are any changes needed? Are any changes needed? No No No No No No Yes Ye