qarTuli ena da logika

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  • ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

    i. vekuas saxelobis gamoyenebiTi maTematikis instituti

    samecniero-saganmanaTleblo Jurnali

    qarTuli ena da

    logika

    2005 logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli jgufi

  • i. vekuas sax. gamoyenebiTi maTematikis institutTan arsebuli logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli jgufisa da Tsu maTematikis institutis maTematikis dafuZnebis da swavlebis meTodikis modulis samecniero-saganmanaTleblo Jurnali

    qarTuli ena da logika

    universitetis saxelmwifo miznobrivi programa ,,kompiuteris sruli programul-momsaxureobiTi moqceva bunebriv qarTul enobriv garemoSi

    2005

    ianvari-ivnisi

  • samecniero-saganmanaTleblo Jurnali

    ,,qarTuli ena da logika

    ggll_pkhakadze@caucasus.net universitetis q. # 2

    ISSN 1512 2840

    mTavari saredaqcio sabWo:

    merab babuxadia, kaxa gabunia (mTavari redaqtoris moadgile), marine ivaniSvili,

    vladimer lekiaSvili (mTavari redaqtoris moadgile), givi nadibaiZe, vaxtang fxakaZe,

    konstantine fxakaZe (mTavari redaqtori), badri cxadaZe, giorgi CiCua.

    saredaqcio sabWo:

    rezo abaSia, qeTevan goCitaSvili, ineza beriaSvili, Tamar esitaSvili, lali tibua,

    Wabuki qiria, gela WankvetaZe.

    sakonsultacio sabWo:

    vladimer borSCevi, daviT gordeziani, Tamaz TevzaZe, barbara parti, Tedo uTurgaiZe,

    Temur CiCua.

    gamoicema saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros

    mier gamoyofili dafinansebiTa da qarTul-amerikuli sawarmos

    ,,kanargo standart oil produqtis qvelmoqmedebiTi

    mxardaWeriT

    THE GEORGIAN LANGUAGE AND LOGIC SCIENTIFIC-EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL ggll_pkhakadze@caucasus.net 2 University St ISSN 1512 - 2840 Main Editorial Board: Merab Babukhadia, Kakha Gabunia (Co-chair), Marine Ivanishvili, Vladimir Lekiashvili (Co-chair), Givi Nadibaidze, Vachtang Pkhakadze, Konstantine Pkhakadze (Chair), Badri Tskhadadze, Giorgi Chichua. Editorial Board: Rezo Abashia, Ineza Beriashvili, Ketevan Gochitashvili, Tamar Esitashvili, Lali Tibua, Chabuki Kiria. Consultative Board: Vladimir Borshchev, David Gordeziani, Tamaz Tevzadze, Barbara Partee, Tedo Uturgaidze, Temur Chichua. Published with the sponsorship of Ministry of Education and Science and charity of Georgian-American Enterprise Canargo Standard Oil Products

    mailto:ggll_pkhakadze@caucasus.netmailto:ggll_pkhakadze@caucasus.net

  • sarCevi

    1. k. fxakaZe.

    winaTqma anu logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli

    jgufis miznebisa da amocanebis Sesaxeb 1

    2. logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli jgufi - proeqti

    `qarTuli enis Tanamedrove logikuri gramatikis safuZvlebi.

    lingvisturi mimarTebisa da logikuri brunebis

    sakiTxisaTvis qarTulSi 19

    3. o. WankvetaZe, g. WankvetaZe.

    gankiTxulebani (interrogaciebi)

    da maTi gamoyeneba 78

    4. barbara hol parti, alis ter miuleni, robert uoli

    maTematikuri meTodebi lingvistikaSi

    Targmanze muSaobdnen: k. fxakaZe,

    l. lekiaSvili, e. soselia,

    m. ivaniSvili.

    maTematikuri da bunebrivi enebis

    zogadi logikuri

    safuZvlebi 81

    4.1. Sesavali 82

    4.2. simravleTa Teoriis ZiriTadi cnebebi 85

    4.3 mimarTebebi da funqciebi 106

    4.3. mimarTebebis Tvisebebi 116

    4.4. usasruloba 130

    4.5. logikisa da formaluri sistemebis

    sasafuZvlo cnebebi 146

    5. T. TevzaZe, g. nadibaiZe, v. fxakaZe, k. fxakaZe,

    k. gabunia, l. lekiaSvili, b. cxadaZe.

    maTematikuri da bunebrivi enebis logika

    da Tanamedrove saswavlo miznebi 155

  • winaTqma anu logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli jgufis

    miznebisa da amocanebis Sesaxeb

    winaTqmaSi mokled mimovixilavT Cveni jgufis winaSe mdgari problematuri sakiTxebis arss, Cveni moZraobis miznebsa da im etapobrivad gadasawyvet amocanebs,

    romelTagan erT-erTi swored iseTi gamocemis dafuZneba gaxldaT, rogoricaa

    samecniero-saganmanaTleblo Jurnali ,,qarTuli ena da logika.

    mkiTxvels vurCevT, rom pirveli wakiTxvisas naklebi yuradReba miaqcios

    CanarTebs. isini winamdebare winaTqmis mxolod damatebiTi qargia da ara ZiriTadi.

    amasTan, sakiTxTa siRrmiseuli gaazrebisTvis am CanarTebis gacnoba aucilebelia. zogi

    CanarTi nawilobriv meordeba, rac teqstis im adgilebis Sesabamisi aqcentirebis

    moTxovnebiT ixsneba, sadac es xdeba.

    Jurnali fuZndeba ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo

    universitetisa da i. vekuas sax. gamoyenebiTi maTematikis institutis saxelmwifo

    miznobrivi programis - ,,kompiuteris sruli programul-momsaxureobiTi moqceva

    bunebriv qarTul enobriv garemoSi (#1.01.73) - im umniSvnelovanesi miznis

    gaTvaliswinebiT, rac qarTuli weriTmetyvelebiTi da zepirmetyvelebiTi enebis

    kompiuterTan Tavisufali inteleqtualuri urTierTobis enad modificirebas

    gulisxmobs. amasTan, Jurnalis pirdapiri mizani saqarTveloSi im fundamenturi

    samecniero sferos ganviTarebaa, romelic enad da logikad1 iwodeba da romelic

    zemoaRniSnuli amocanis gaTvaliswinebiT sxvadasxva bunebriv-enobriv sistemebSi

    maTematikurad mkacri Teoriuli xasiaTis kognituri kvlevebiT aris dakavebuli.

    1 50-ani wlebis dasasruls Comskis mier gamoqveynebuli naSromiT - ,,sintaqsuri struqturebi

    (,,Syntactic Stuctures) da 70-ani wlebis dasawyisSi montegius mier gamoqveynebuli naSromebiT -

    `inglisuri, rogorc formaluri ena (`English as a Formal Languege) da ,,kvantifikatorebis sakuTrivi

    damuSaveba Cveulebriv inglisurSi (The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary Inglish) gamoikveTa

    da dafuZnda is samecniero sfero, romelic, sazogadod, enad da logikad iwodeba da romelic

    Tanamedrove logikur-lingvisturi samecniero mimarTulebis saxiT Camoyalibda. is ZiriTadi, rac

    Comskisa da montegius logikur-lingvistur xazebs ganasxvavebs, ganpirobebulia im gansxvavebuli

    maTematikuri, formalur-logikuri safuZvlebiT, rac maT Tav-TavianTi Teoriebis gansaviTareblad aiRes.

    es Teoriebi ZiriTadad semantikis fundamenturi problemisadmi gansxvavebuli damokidebulebiT ganirCeva.

    ComskisTan semantikuri sakiTxebi CorCiseul gamosaxulebaTa gadamweri sistemebis safuZvelze wydeba da

    semantika misTvis meoradi, formaluri analizis safuZvelze gamoyvanadi kategoriaa. montegiusTan

    semantika ZiriTad, sasafuZvlo kategoriad ganixileba da igi bunebriv enebSi semantikis sakiTxs

    maTematikisTvis tradiciuli, simravlur-Teoriuli midgomebiT wyvets. amgvarad, maTi mecnieruli

    Teoriebis da, sazogadod, Tanamedrove logikur-lingvisturi samecniero sferos formirebis procesi ar

    SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes iseTi filosofosebis, maTematikosebis da logikosebis gareSe, rogorebic

    iyvnen aristotele, laibnici, paskali, dekarti, buli, frege, hilberti, raseli, vitgenSteini,

    ejdukeviCi, tarski, CorCi, neimani, karnapi, bar-hileli, tiuringi, posti da sxv., romlebic, Tavis mxriv,

    enisa da azrovnebis filosofiis, Tanamedrove maTematikuri logikis, formaluri enebis da formaluri

    enebis Teoriis, formaluri mtkicebebis Teoriis, cifruli da enobriv-logikuri avtomatebisa da

    algoriTmebis Teoriis fuZemdeblebi arian. amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom dasavluri samecniero

    sazogadoeba ganuwyvetliv fiqrobda enisa da azrovnebis urTierTmimarTebebze anu im sakiTxebze, rac

    dRes misi praqtikuli Tu Teoriuli xasiaTis yvela SesaZlo SemadgenliT enad da logikad wodebul

    samecniero sferoSia Tavmoyrili. nebismieri, vinc Tundac gakvriT gadafurclavs saxelmZRvaneloebs

    `ena da logika (Logic and Language, redaqtorebi: iohan van bentemi da alis ter miuleni, 1997),

    ,,Tanamedrove semantikuri Teoriebi (Contemporary Semantic Theory, redaqtori Salom lapini, 1997),

    `formaluri semantikebi (Formal Semantics, redaqtorebi: paul portneri, barbara parti, 2001)

    darwmundeba, Tu rogori swrafi tempebiT ganviTarda es samecniero sfero bolo ormoci wlis

    ganmavlobaSi. dRes, iSviaTad naxavT iseT qveyanas, sadac maTi enebis manqanebTan saurTierTobo enad

    modificirebisaTvis ar warmoebs specialuri prioritetuli programuli kvlevebi am enebis sruli da

    amomwuravi logikur-lingvisturi Seswavlis mizniT.

  • qarTuli enis kompiuterebTan anu, ufro zogadad, manqanebTan Tavisufali

    urTierTobis enad modificireba iTvaliswinebs am manqanebis iseT programul

    uzrunvelyofas, rom nebismier momxmarebels, yovelgvari specifikuri codnis gareSe,

    mxolod qarTuli weriTmetyvelebiTi da zepirmetyvelebiTi enebiT saSualeba mieces

    maTTan amomwuravi da Tavisufali urTierTobis damyarebisa yvela SesaZlo

    inteleqtualuri Tu momsaxureobiTi mizniT.

    amgvari, komunikaciuri barierebisagan Tavisufali, eleqtronuli manqanebi

    TandaTan ufro da ufro meti moculobiT iReben TavianT Tavze adamianebisTvis

    damaxasiaTebel inteleqtualur, enobriv-azrovnebiT datvirTvebs da amiT isini (e.i.

    manqanebi) TandaTan ufro meti moculobiT maTi (e.i. adamianebis) dauzareli

    inteleqtualuri partniorebi xdebian.

    aRniSnuli, erTi mxriv, epoqaluri1 datvirTvis mqone urTulesi logikur-

    lingvisturi specifikebiT gajerebuli teqnologiuri amocanaa, meore mxriv ki, is

    gadamwyveti gza, romelic am mizans SesaZleblobad aqcevs, dRes ukve problematurad

    aRar ganixileba da, Sesabamisad, ukve ganWvretili da Cafiqrebuli Sedegis misaRwevad

    miznobrivi moZraoba sul ufro intensiuri formebiT viTardeba.

    xazgasasmelia isic, rom dasavleTSi aRniSnuli mizniT moZraoba wlebis win

    daiwyo da dRes ukve iq am mizniT mimdinare procesebi daskvniT etapzea. da es maSin,

    rodesac, Tanamedrove Comski-montegiuseuli logikur-lingvisturi TvalsazrisebiT

    qarTuli enobriv-azrovnebiTi sistema misTvis sasafuZvlo qvecnobieri safexuris

    maTematikur enobriv-azrovnebiT sistemasTan Sejerebulad TiTqmis Seuswavlelia.

    gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa CamorCena qarTuli zepirmetyvelebiTi sistemis mkacri

    logikur-lingvisturi meTodebiT Seswavlis mxriv, rac, bunebrivia, fundamenturad

    unda eyrdnobodes manamde sakmarisi moculobiT gamokvleuli weriTmetyvelebiTi

    sistemis maTematikurad mkacrad aRweril logikur-lingvistur kanonmdeblobas.

    xazgasasmelia, rom metyvelebis kompiuteruli amocnobis problema bunebrivi

    enebis umetesi nawilisaTvis TiTqmis gadawyvetilia, arada qarTuli metyvelebis

    amocnobaze muSaoba mxolod Cveni jgufis farglebSi warmoebs2 da isic mxolod erTi

    mecnier-mkvlevris pirovnuli enTuziazmisa da aqtivobis xarjze3.

    1 dRes ukve gasagebia, rom saurTierTobod Tavisufali inteleqtualuri manqanebi axali tipis

    sazogadoebriv mimarTebebsa da saxelmwifoebriv urTierTobebs ayalibeben da rom Cven ukve am

    Tvisobrivad axali kulturuli epoqis mijnaze vimyofebiT. 2 Tu problemis aq gakeTebuli Cveneuli Sefaseba gadaWarbebulia da Tu igi viTarebas ara adekvaturad

    asaxavs, anu, dRes, Tu kidev sadme warmoebs am mimarTulebiT kvlevebi, amas, Cven, bunebrivia, mivesalmebiT

    da TanamSromlobiT reJimSi mxarsac davuWerT. - gamomdinare iqidan, rom bolo oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi,

    Cveni mxridan Ria sajaro moxsenebebis, prezentaciebisa da gamoqveynebuli statiebis saxiT

    sistematiurad xdeboda aRniSnuli problemis aqtualizacia da iqidanac, rom, miuxedavad amisa, aravin

    Semogvxmianebia, ufleba gveZleva zemoaRniSnuli mZafri ganacxadis gakeTebisa, risi upirvelesi mizani

    aucilebel TanamSromlobaze mowodebaa da meti araferi. - CvenTvis cnobilia, rom 90-ian wlebamde

    aRniSnuli mizniT qarTuli enis Seswavlisa da fonetikuri analizirebis procesebi mimdinareobda

    rogorc enaTmecnierebis, ise marTvis sistemebis institutSi. magram, miuxedavad Cveni araerTi

    mcdelobisa, jerjerobiT ver SevZeliT gavcnobodiT kvlevaTa im etapze miRweul Sedegebsa da iq ukve

    aprobirebul meTodebs. aq Cven ar vgulisxmobT prof. z. jafariZis cnobil Teoriul naSromebs, Cven

    ufro is praqtikuli realizaciebi gvainteresebs, romlebic ara Tu unda davkargoT, aramed, piriqiT,

    avtorebis miniSnebiT unda gamovamzeuroT da im saWiro da aucilebeli gamocdilebis saxiT

    gaviTvaliswinoT, romelTa gareSe aseTi sirTulis amocanebi ver wydeba. - nebismier SemTxvevaSi, cxadia,

    rom qarTuli metyvelebiTi enis Taviseburebebi, im Tanamedrove midgomebiT, romlebic zogad

    algoriTmul meTodebsa da markovis maTematikuri jaWvebis Teorias emyareba, siRrmiseul kvlevebs

    iTxovs. 3 mxedvelobaSi gvyavs jgufis wevri, miznobrivi programis erT-erTi TanaxelmZRvaneli, g. CiCua, romelic

    ukve TiTqmis rva welze metia am mimarTulebiT awarmoebs intensiur kvleviT saqmianobas da romelsac

  • miuxedavad imisa, rom Targmnis amocanaze da qarTuli enis kompiuterul

    damuSavebaze saqarTveloSi muSaoba 60-ani wlebidan mimdinareobs, samwuxarod, dResac

    ara gvaqvs qarTuli enis morfologiuri1 da sintaqsuri2 safexuris marTlweris

    programuli sistemebi. ar arsebobs qarTuli enidan da qarTul enaze avtomaturad

    mTargmneli sistemebi3. arada, dasavleTSi, ukve konstruirebulia Targmnis amocanis

    xmidan xmaze reJimSi gadamwyveti manqanebi4.

    am fonze, gasagebia, rom ara gvaqvs e.w. bunebriv-enobrivi rezonerebi (reasoner)

    anu mamtkicebeli programuli sistemebi5 qarTulisaTvis. ufro metic, am mizniT, Tu ar

    metyvelebis amocnobis problemaze originalur Teoriul midgomebTan erTad ukve aqvs amocnobis

    maRalmaCvenebliani eqsperimentuli programuli realizaciebi. 1 warmoqmnis principze agebuli qarTuli morfologiuri marTlmweris eleqtronuli programuli

    sistema pirvelad realizebul iqna mxolod 2003 wels logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli

    jgufis da miznobrivi programis erT-erTi TanaxelmZRvanelis da gaerTianebuli jgufis meore

    Semadgeneli jgufis xelmZRvanelis k. gabunias avtorobiT. es eleqtronuli programuli sistema ara

    amomwuravi sisruliT, magram, mainc, sakmarisi warmadobiT arTmevs Tavs qarTuli enobrivi teqstebis

    morfologiuri spelCekirebis amocanas (programuli gadawyveta ekuTvnis s. gabunias). 2 logikisa da enis qarTul jgufSi k. fxakaZis xelmZRvanelobiT SemuSavebuli Teoriuli xedvebis

    safuZvelze mis mierve agebuli algoriTmis mixedviT ukve realizebulia martivi winadadebebisa da

    frazebis sintaqsuri marTlmweris pirveli eqsperimentuli varianti, romelic tipizirebuli

    maTematikuri enis meSveobiT icnobs SaniZiseuli martivi winadadebebisa da saxeluri frazebisaTvis

    damaxasiaTebel araswor sintaqsur konstruqciebs da akoreqtirebs maT. programuli modeli agebulia

    sufTa maTematikuri midgomebiT. imdenad, rom programuli realizaciisas arcerTi gramatikuli wesi ar

    yofila gamoyenebuli. am wesebis nacvlad Cven veyrdnobodiT tipizirebuli maTematikuri enis farglebSi

    maTematikuri formulebis saxiT Caweril gamosaxulebaTa gadamwer wesebs (programuli gadawyveta

    ekuTvnis r. sxirtlaZes). gasagebia, rom aRniSnuli eqsperimentuli programuli realizacia

    mniSvnelovania jgufSi ganviTarebuli Tanamedrove logikur-lingvisturi midgomebis warmadobis

    dasadastureblad da rom igi saTanado moculobiT ver xsnis qarTuli enis sintaqsuri spelCekirebis

    problemas....

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