Post on 18-Nov-2014
Embed Size (px)
- 1. Presenting..
2. MOVEMENT 3. THE MARTYRDOM OF Gom-Bur-Za, instead of frightening the Filipino patriots, made them More determined to fight the evils of Spanish Rule. Theillustrados,led by Dr.Jose Rizal, M.H. del Pilar, and Graciano Lopez Jaena, organized the Propaganda Movement which wasa peaceful crusade for reforms. These Patriots were called Propagandist beacause they waged their movement by means of pen and tongue to expose the defects of Spanish rule in the Philippines and the urgency of reforms to remedy them. The Propaganda Movement failed,but the ideas of freedom and justice which it sowed paved the ground for the Philippine Revolution that the Katipunan and Andres Bonifacio began in the hills of Balintawak inAugust 1896. 4. After1872, Philippine conditions went from bad to worse. The deportation of Filipino leaders to Spanish penal colonies, the persecution of the intellectuals, and the abuses of the Spanish masters continued unabated. The Filipino exiles of 1872 and many patriotic students abroad met in Hong Kong, Singapore, Barcelona, Madrid, Paris, London, and other foreign cities. Inspired by a common cause, they banded together and consecrated themselves to the work of promoting the welfare and happiness of their fatherland. Aggressively but peacefully, by means of their writings and speeches, they crusaded for reforms to rectify the evils of the spanish colonial system. The peaceful campaign for reforms was known in Philippine history as the Propaganda Movement. It began in 1872, when Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were executed at the Luneta and ended in 1896 when Rizal was exiled to Dapitan. 5.
- The Propaganda Movement was not a revolutionary or seditious affair. The men who led it were loyal to spain; they asked merely for reforms, not independence. The reforms which they asked were as follows;
- Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the laws.
- Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain.
- Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes.
- Filipinization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the friars.
- Human rights for Filipinos, such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom to meet and petition for redredd of grievances.
- The Propagandists were the scions of good families, highly intelligent, educated, patriotic, and courageous, who symbolized the flower of filipino manhood. Of these propagandists, one of the greatest was Marcelo H. del Pilar of Bulacan, lawyer and journalist, beloved by the masses for his eloquent Tagalog and fearless defense of the poor against friar abuses .
Other Filipino propagandists worthy of mention wre Jose Rizal, physician-novelist and a many-splendored genius; Graciano Lopez Jaena, the greatest orator of the Propaganda Movement; Mariano Ponce, medical student and biographical writer; Juan Luna and felix Ressurreccion Hidalgo, master of the brush; Dr. Pedro A. Paterno, lawyer and manof letters; Antonio Luna, Pharmacist and Essayist; Pedro Serrano Laktaw, teacher-tutor of Prince Alfonso de bouron (later king Alfonso XIII of Spain); Jose Ma. Panganiban, Linguists and Essayist; Fernando Canon, Engineer and Musician; Jose Alejandrino, Engineer and Political writer; Isabelo delos Reyes, Folklorist, news-Paperman, and scholar; and Dominador Gomez, physician and orator. 7.
- The Filipino propagandists were not alone in their campaign for reforms, they were supported by foreigners. Foremost among them was Ferdinand Blumentritt,. He praised Rizals two novels (Noli and Fili) and wrote the Prologue to Rizals annotated edition of MorgasSucesos de las Islas Filipinas(Paris, 1890).
- Among the liberal Spaniards who aided the Filipino Propagandists was Don Juan Atayde. In September 1882 he founded a civic association of Spaniards and Filipinos in Madrid calledCircullo Hispano-Filipinoand published the newspaperRevista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino.
- Organized by the Filipino Students in Madrid.
- Miguel Morayta , Statesman, historian, journalist, and Rizals professor at the Central University of Madrid.
- Francisco Pi y Margall, statesman and former President of the First Spanish Republic (1873-1875)
- Emilio Junoy, journalist and member of the cortes.
- Msnuel Ruiz Zorrilla, parliamentarin and leader of the Spanish Republican Party.
10. Miguel Morayta :D Francisco Pi y Margall 11. Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla 12.
- On March 1, 1888, Manila was rocked by a tumultuous event. This was the anti-friar demonstration of hundreds of Filipino patriots led by the Manila patriotic lawyer, Doroteo Cortes, with the secret assistance of M. H. del Pilar and Jose A. Ramos, a London-educated rich merchant and leading Masonic leader.
- The demonstrators, including manygobernadorcillosof the towns around Manila, marched through the city streets to theAyuntamiento(City Hall) and formally submitted to acting Civil Governor Jose Centeno of Manila Province an anti-friar manifesto addressed to Queen Regent Maria Cristina. This manifesto, tittled Long Live the Queen! Long Live the Army! Down with Friars!
13. The Anti-Friar Manifesto of 1888 denounced the anti-Filipino Archbishop, Pedro Payo, and the bad friars for medding in the movement, enriching themselves contrary to their monastic vow of poverty, opposing the teaching of Spanish language to the Filipinos, and keeping the Philippines in obscuranism. It requested the expulsion of the friars from the Philippines. As a result of the anti-friar demonstration and manifesto of 1888, the powerful friars avenged themselves by persecuting the leaders and signers of the manifesto, having them arrested and thrown into prison. Fortunately, the Spanish Queen Regent issued an amnesty in 1889 pardoning the patriotic demonstrators . 14.
- Graciano Lopez Jaena founded a fortnightly newspaper,La Solidaridad,in Barcelona on February 15 1889.
- to portray vividly the deporable conditions of the Philippines,
- To work peacefully for political and social forms
- To combat the evil forces of medievalism and reaction
- To advocate liberal ideas and progress and
- To champion the legimate aspirations of the Filipino people for democracy and happiness.
16. La Solidaridadwas printed in Barcelona from February 15 to October 31, 1889 until last issue on November 15, 1895. On December 1889, M.H. del Pilar replaced Jaena as its editor, remaining as such until the demise ofLa Solidaridadon November 15, 1895, after an existence of seven years. 17. 18. Dr. Jose Rizal(Laan Laan) Mariano Ponce(Naning, Kalipulako or Tigbalang ) 19. Antonio Luna (Taga-Ilog) Jose Ma. Panganiban (Jomampa) 20. Others :D
- Antonio Ma. Regidor
- Dr. Pedro A. Paterno
- Isabelo de los Reyes
- Eduardo de Lete
- Jose Alejandrino.. Etc..
In the last issue of La Solidaridad (November 15, 1895). M.H. del pilar wrote his farewelleditorial saying :We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery. 21.
- Despite its political spirit, the Propaganda Movement produced certain meritorious literary works which contributed to the blossoming of Filipino literature. It gave birth to the first Filipino novel,Ninay,which was written by Dr. Pedro A. Paterno, doctor of laws and man-of-letters, and published at Madrid in 1885. He also wrote a volume of melodious poemsSampaguitas(Madrid, 1880) and a historical book,La Antigua Civilizacion Tagalog(Madrid, 1887)
- Gregorio Sanciangco, economist and also a doctor of laws, authored the book entitledEl Progreso de Filipinas(Madrid, 18810, and a treatise on colonial economics and politics in the Philippines. M.H. del Pilar, lawyer and journalist,excelledas political pamphleteer. His pamphletes were classics of satire, notablyDasalanatTuksohan(1880), La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas(18880, andLa Frailocracia Filipina(1889). Lopez Jaena, the greastest orator of the Propaganda, was also a gifted writer. In his satirical novelette,Fray Botod(Fat Friar). He ridiculed the Spanish friars who became very fat for eating too much and living in luxury at the expense of poor Filipinos, whom they abuse. In one of his articles published inLa Solidaridadentitled En Tinieblas (In Utter Darkness), he lambasted the biased Spanish writers for their absurdities.
- Antonio Luna
- who wrote the book,Impresiones , a collection of essays describing the customs of the spaniards in Madrid.
- Jose Ma. Panganiban
- author of the crictical essay La Universidad de Filipinas: Plan de Estudios (published inLa Solidaridad)which exposed the defects of the Church-dominated education in the Philippines,
- Isabelo de los Reyes
- folklorist and historians, who authoredEl folk-Lore Filipino(1887) andHistoria de Ilocos(1890, 2 volumes)
- Mariano Ponce
- biographer, who wote the series Celebres Filipinos inLa Solidaridad.
- Dr. Jose Rizal, of Course was the greatest writer of the Propaganda Movement. Aside from his famous novels(Noli Me Tangere andEl Filibusterismo)he wrote many essays and poems of literary merit. He was als0 a formidable polemicist, as evidenced by his satirical replies to his detractors, notablyLa Vi