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  • 1. Mantra for Process ExcellenceShubham VyasEngineer servicesAlstom T&D India

2. PMI NATIONAL CONFERENCE 2014 - HYDERABADCAUSES OF DELAY IN ERECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS & REACTORSTheme - Mantra for Process ExcellenceAbstract - Electricity is the backbone of every growing economy, Lack of electricity is one of the majorbarriers of developing countries. Supplying electricity 24 hrs to each and every town & village is one of themajor targets of all political parties to attract voters. Transformer can be defined as heart of anyswitchyard which regulates flow of electricity in entire sub-station and geographical area as blood. As weall know time is money and quality, the critical factors need to be identify which causes such delay. Thesedelay causes decreases of customers faith & increasing stress of overall manufacturing team.Keywords Delay, Delay elements, Erection, Power transformer.Introduction As per report from Central Electricity Authority, the annual Load Generation BalanceReport (LGBR) [1] for year 2013 -14. In the financial year 2012-13, the total energy availability increasedby 6.2 % over the previous year and the peak met increased by 6.1%, the shortage conditions prevailedin the Country both in terms of energy and peaking availability as given in table 1. (MU-million unit)Energy (MU) Peak (MU)Requirement 998114 135453Availability 911209 123294Shortage 86905 12159(%) 8.7 9Table 1 Energy availability & shortage.The energy requirement registered a growth of 6.5% during the year against the projected growth of 5.1%and Peak demand registered a growth of 4.2% against the projected growth of 7.7%. The studies carriedout for anticipated power supply position for the year. 2013-14, indicate that there would be energyshortage of 6.7 % and peak shortage of 2.3 %. It means that erection & commissioning of a powertransformer at scheduled time is very important to full fill needs.Chan and Kumaraswamy [5] (1997) Similarly a research was conducted to find delay causes in HongKong construction projects and he found five major factors: delay (a) poor risk of management andsupervision (b) Unfocused site condition. (c) Slow decision making. (d) Client - initiated variation. (e)Work variance.Ogunlana [4] in 1996 at Thailand, Bangkok, and His analysis that there are three major categories ofdelay in project construction (a) Problems of shortages or inadequacies in the industry infrastructure. (b)Problems caused by clients and consultants. (c) Problems caused by contractorincompetence/inadequacy.S. Sen & R K Tyagi [2] (2102) - As per report from Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCIL), maximum 3. 2.36 % transformers are failed of 220 KV rating & 1.86 % transformers are failed of 400 KV rating, Table2. These failures itself give a brief idea about delay in supply of electricity.Voltage 765KV 400KV 220KV 132KVpopulation 100 305 34 12Failure 1 52 5 3Rate 0.30% 1.86% 2.36% 1.80%Table 2- Rate of failure of power transformerA per standard CBIP transformer manual total 24 days required for erection, testing & commission of400KV transformer.Fig -1 Peak Demand v/s Availability Fig -2 Energy required v/s AvailabilityNeed of this research - The main aim of this study is to find out, what are the causes of delay inerection and how to avoid this? As we all know cost, time & scope is interlinked, increasing erection timeleads to increasing overhead cost, production loss, loosing customer faith, etc. from our calculation wefound that approx. Rs 500KINR get waste due to delay.Research methodology - After approval of L2 scheduled & FQP (field quality plan) by customer wedepute our engineer for starting erection activity at site and now the practice activity starts. Our engineersubmits daily progress report (DPR) from site and using this DPR we monitor progress of work andcalculate whether we are working as per schedule or not.Calculation Three Point estimating methods was adopted for analysis.Average estimation time to complete = 19 daysVariance = 5 daysAs per formula work must complete in = 19 + 51 SD = 24 days, 2 SD = 29 days, 3 SD = 34 daysAs per collected data 60 % of sites got delayed due to various regions, average over head charges forsite is Rs 500KINR per site, That is total Rs 4.5MINR (9 x 500000) is used due to delay. Table 3Estimated V/s Real erection time for 400KV power transformer 4. SlNo.CustomerSiteOptimisticMostlikelyPessimisticRealtimeAverage St DeviationVariance(O) (M) (P) (R) (O+4M+P)/6 SD=(P-O)/6 Sq. of SD1 A 12 14 18 26 14.333 1.000 1.0002 B 12 15 30 29 17.000 3.000 9.0003 C 12 15 18 23 15.000 1.000 1.0004 D 15 18 20 19 17.833 0.833 0.6945 E 15 18 21 23 18.000 1.000 1.0006 F 14 18 20 26 17.667 1.000 1.0007 G 12 15 18 22 15.000 1.000 1.0008 H 20 23 30 28 23.667 1.667 2.7709 I 25 30 35 42 30.000 1.667 2.77010 J 15 22 25 32 21.333 1.667 2.77011 K 14 18 20 26 17.667 1.000 1.00012 L 18 22 25 23 21.833 1.167 1.36513 M 20 22 25 33 22.167 0.833 0.69314 N 14 18 21 26 17.833 1.167 1.36415 O 14 18 20 23 17.667 1.000 1.000Sum 401 287.000 19.00 28.444Sq. root of Sum of Variance 5.3Table 3- Estimated V/s Real erection time for 400KV power transformerFig -3 Estimated V/s real time for erectionStages of erection Erection activity can be divided into four stages. 5. Data analysis From the analysis of DPR of each & every site engineer we have found some commoncauses of delay. These delay elements are divided into 5 categories 1. Internal 1.1 Material stolen from site.1.2 Poor storage area.1.3 Slow payment process or cash flow.1.4 Lack of communication to every level.1.5 Poor management skill.1.6 Slow decision making.1.7 Safety.2. External 2.1 Site condition.2.2 External causes (stick, accident, natural causes etc).3. Planning 3.1 Too short estimated time.3.2 Lack of recourses.3.3 Rescheduling4. Contractor or vendor 4.1 Rework.4.2 Scope of work not defined completely or disputes or customer interfere.4.3 Lack of skilled manpower.4.4 Poor management skill.4.5 Daily target.5. Transportation & Packaging -5.1 Transit damageSome Examples are given which defined causes of delay, photographs taken at customers site. 6. Fig 4. Transit damage Fig 5. Poor storage area [3]Fig 6. Poor site condition [3] Fig 7. External causesImpact of delay It can be categories into two parts.Some common impacts are a) Overall project cost increases.b) Delay in ROI.c) Increasing man-hours at site (decreasing safety of individuals).d) Delay in production.e) Decreasing customers faith & trust.f) Decreasing customer satisfaction level.g) Increases stress to overall team.h) Increasing market competition. 7. i) Overrun of every thing (vehicle, machine, per day expanses etc.)j) Decreasing brand image or decreasing reputation of org.Benefits to avoid delay a) Enhancing customers trust.b) Saving time & money.c) Can provide training to customer for maintenance of product.d) Implementation of new techniques & technology in saved time.e) Vendor can purchase new tools & tackles for site.f) Increasing safety awareness among site engineers for implementing at site to avoid accident,near miss, fall from height, excavation, LOTO and first aid training etc.g) Planning for future projects.Result and Conclusion The study was aimed to find the causes of delay, total eighteen delayelements are identified. These delay elements are further categorized into five groups. If we can provideproper storage area to avoid damage of material, avoiding rework activities at site and one more thingproper security at site to avoid material stolen. If we can control these three delay elements at site, thenwe must say we can save around 40% of delay time and around 200 KINR per site.From the study we have concluded that erection of power transformer at scheduled time is very importantfor the benefit of both customer & vendor. We recommend to all site engineers to set a daily target andreview it at the end of the day, we also advice to all site engineers to prepare lesson learned document atend of every phase of erection.We recommend to all customers, to provide a separate concrete building for material storage and provideat least four workers and one supervisor for monitoring incoming & outgoing materials, we alsorecommend to vendors to take full time to complete per day given task to avoid re work activity.Reference [1] Load Generation Balance Report 2013-14 Report published by Central Electricity Authority (ministry ofenergygovt. of India)[2] S.Sen, R K Tyagi & Gunjan Agrawal, failure analysis of power transformers- few case studies, CBIP5th International Conference Delhi, (2102), S6/8.[3] S. Vyas Causes of delay in project construction In developing countries, IJCMS, Volume IV Issue 2(1),May 2013.[4] Ogunlana,S O K. Promkuntong, V. Jearkjirm, Construction delays in a fast growing economy,Comparing Thailand with other economies. International journal of project Management Vol. 14-1 (1996),P. 37-45[5] Chan DW, Kumaraswamy MM. A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kongconstruction projects. Int J Project Manage 1997;15(1):5563