Prescriptions for managing change: a survey of their effects in projects to implement collaborative working between organisations
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Prescriptions for managing change: a survey of their eects inprojects to implement collaborative working betweenorganisationsDavid Boddy*, Douglas MacbethDepartment of Management Studies, University of Glasgow, 59 Southpark Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LF, UKReceived 1 December 1998; received in revised form 31 March 1999; accepted 16 April 1999AbstractThis paper reports on a quantitative study of 100 companies which had attempted to move towards a more collaborativerelationship with another organisation. Judged on criteria set out in the survey 46 had succeeded and 54 had failed in theirattempt to implement supply chain partnering. A questionnaire invited respondents to indicate which project managementpractices (drawn from a review of the change management literature) they had used. Statistical analyses showed that fourpractices accounted for most of the dierence between successful and unsuccessful implementation. These concerned projectgoals, resources, structures and controls. Many conventional change management prescriptions had no statistically significanteect on the outcome. The paper relates these results to theories of change management and draw the practical implications.These are likely to apply to many other types of change project. 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd and IPMA. All rights reserved.Keywords: Collaborative working; Change management; Successful practices1. Change projects often fail to meet expectationsProjects intended to implement significant changesin the way an organisation works seldom turn out asexpected. Some exceed expectations. Many others fallshort of their promoters intentions. Kearney  andthe Economist Intelligence Unit  found a high fail-ure rate when European companies adopted TotalQuality Management (TQM) systems. Hougham and Boddy and Gunson  have shown how infor-mation technology projects can take longer and costmore to implement than was expectedas well as deli-vering substantial benefits. Wastell  concluded thatBusiness Process Re-engineering (BPR) initiativeshave typically achieved much less than promised (p.230). As Burnes observed, even well establishedchange initiatives, for which a great deal of infor-mation, advice and assistance is available, are no guar-antee of success (, pp. 172173).Part of the reason must be the inherent novelty andcomplexity of the change being developed. Rapid tech-nical developments, and the promise of prime movercompetitive advantages, tempt senior managers towardsnovel solutions. They sign up to projects involvingadvanced systems which inevitably require a great dealof learning and discovery during implementation.Another factor is the unique organisational setting ofeach attempt at change. Even a well-known manage-ment practice acquires a degree of novelty when it isapplied in a particular organisation, with its own dis-tinct history and current circumstances. It is easy toignore the systemic nature of organisations, and sounderestimate the ripple eects of a project, and hencethe scale of what needs to be done. And any one pro-ject is likely to be part of a wider cluster of changeswhich will have unpredicted links to each other.International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 2973060263-7863/00/$20.00 7 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd and IPMA. All rights reserved.PII: S0263-7863(99 )00031 -9www.elsevier.com/locate/ijproman* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-141-330-5660; fax: +44-141-330-5669.E-mail address: email@example.com (D. Boddy).Another explanation, and the focus of this paper,lies in the way people manage the change. There aremany anecdotal examples of management introducingpotentially acceptable changes in a way that is almostguaranteed to create indierence, opposition and fail-ure. The process of implementation matters as muchas the content or substance of the change. Changesthat aect how people work, who they work with,their status, interests and future prospects are inher-ently dierent from those that involve isolated physicalchanges. The use of established project managementtechniques will undoubtedly assist those conductingmessy organisational change projects. But they cannotin themselves cope with situations where there aredierent interpretations of what should be done, ormajor conflicts of interest over the solutions proposed.Nor are participative or consultative techniques likelyto be sucient where a change threatens establishedpractices that have deep significance to those aected.Such changes are likely to require a range ofapproaches to get things done. These could includeusing political and power-based methods  as wellas those of project management and participation.So the search continues for the factors that makethe dierence between successful and unsuccessfulchange projects. In this article, we present the resultsof a quantitative study of supply chain partnering, aform of organisational change currently in fashion. Inthe next section, we outline what we mean by the termand relate it to organisational change in general. Wethen indicate our perspective on change projects andsummarise the many prescriptions which observershave oered to those responsible for managing suchprojects. We present the methods and results of oursurvey and conclude with the practical implications forthose managing supply chain projects and other formsof organisational change. This latter section also drawsupon the evidence of long-term case studies conductedas a separate element of the research project.2. Supply chain partnering as an example of changeSupply chain partnering refers to situations in whichorganisations at related points in the supply chainagree to work in a more co-operative rather thanadversarial manner. The argument is that extremeforms of hierarchies and markets have disadvantages(see, for example, Ref. ). Partnering occupies themiddle ground between them as a way of organisingeconomic activity. It is an attempt to build close, long-term links between organisations that are distinct, butwhich see benefits in working closely together.Introducing partnering involves substantial changesin both organisations. There is more to it than a will-ingness to work together to develop a trusting relation-ship. If this happens it does so on the foundations ofmany tangible changes in the way the two organis-ations work, and in the organisations themselves.There is scope for radical changes in the allocation ofresponsibilities for doing and co-ordinating work.Companies often need to re-design business processesand perhaps some of their technologies and physicalfacilities. It may also require deep cultural changes ifpeople in both organisations are to move from anadversarial, arms-length relationship to one that ismore collaborative and with greater mutual obli-gations.In many respects partnering is similar to otherforms of large-scale organisational change. There aremany players and interest groups; it is aected by pol-icy changes at other levels of either of the partneringorganisations; it is implemented in the course of con-ducting the daily business of both organisations; andthe unfamiliarity of the concept means that implemen-tation is more of a voyage of discovery than of follow-ing a well-charted route. The parallels with emergingviews of strategy  are close. Understanding howcompanies tried to implement this form of innovation,and whether the methods used aected the outcomes,is likely to be useful to those managing any form ofmajor change.3. Perspectives on organisational changeThe study reported here took account of currenttheories of organisational change. Fairly commonground in modern empirical studies of change is thatthe outcomes of innovation are unpredictable. Theyreflect not only the substantive novelty of the changeitself but also how parties promote their intereststhrough the structures, cultures and political systemsof the organisation [12,13]. This interplay of interestgroups, within a dynamic business environment, oftenmeans that change projects take unexpected turns.This brings new challenges to managers charged withimplementing them. That led the research team to askwhether common prescriptions about managing changehelped or hindered project managers in dealing withsuch complex and volatile situations.The team, therefore, reviewed a selection of com-monly cited works on change management, such asSlevin and Pinto , Kanter , Kotter and Schle-singer , Dawson  and Burnes  together withother relevant empirical work such as Boddy andBuchanan  and Macbeth and Ferguson . Itappeared that there was some consistency in the pre-scriptions made by these authors. Grouping themunder the broad headings of project planning, struc-ture and implementation, 11 practices were identifiedD. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306298which were commonly recommended to those imple-menting change. These were:Project planning. setting clear goals. ensuring agreement with goals. having senior management commitmentProject structure. creating structures to manage the change. ensuring adequate resources. having a powerful and respected champion. appointing a capable project managerProject implementation. creating a project team with the right membership. preparing a detailed yet flexible project plan. consulting widely with those aected. setting up adequate controls.The diculty is that most of these prescriptions werebased on personal experience or deductions from asmall number of cases. The latter can give valuableinsights into a particular situation, but it does not fol-low that the conclusions apply elsewhere. The researchteam therefore decided to test the validity of such pre-scriptions by drawing on a much wider range of ex-perience. The aim was to establish if there was anyquantitative evidence about the relative eectiveness ofthe prescriptions on how to introduce change.A postal survey was designed to explore thoseaspects of the change process most suitable to thatresearch technique. The major themes were:. what proportion of attempts at partnering suc-ceeded?. were some of the recommended change managementpractices more often linked with success thanothers?The hypothesis was that:The project management practices used in organiz-ations which claimed to have implemented partneringsuccessfully would dier significantly from thosewhich claimed to have been less successful.The survey began by presenting respondents with adefinition of partnering oered by Partnership Sour-cing . It then elaborated this and sought to estab-lish the current status of partnering in theorganisation. The questions directed at the process ofchange took the form of statements about changemanagement practices, grouped as above. Thus projectplanning was covered by Questions 412, project struc-ture by Questions 1323 and project implementationby Questions 2445. For each statement, respondentswere asked to indicate the extent to which it had beenused on their partnering project by indicating a pointon a 5 point scale. The survey concluded with standardinformation about the company. Those parts of thequestionnaire most relevant to this discussion arereproduced in Appendix A.4. The surveyA pilot study was conducted amongst participantson a related workshop. The main survey was con-ducted among firms which had some (however limited)experience of supply chain partnering. The source wasa database of companies which had independentlyrequested information on the topic. We selected 350companies and posted a copy of the questionnaire tothe contact name. We received 100 (29%) usablereturns.The largest single group (42%) of replies came frommanufacturing businesses. Respondents were asked toindicate their own position in relation to the partner-ing project. 41% described themselves as the main pro-moter or champion. Others included part ofimplementation team (19%), project manager (6%)and part of strategic planning group (21%)indicat-ing a well-informed group of respondents.The research team divided responses into those whichclaimed to have been successful in introducing partner-ing, and those which had not. The basis for this decisionwas the respondents answer to a question about theoutcome of the partnering project. Clearly, there arehazards with this, but various statistical tests confirmedthat the two sets of replies were being accurately distin-guished. Other statistical tests confirmed that the pos-ition of the respondent in relation to the project had notsignificantly aected their perception of the outcome.5. The results what factors made a dierence?Two forms of statistical analysis were used, chi-square and discriminant function. The results are pre-sented for both analyses, and then discussed.The chi-square analysis showed that (at a signifi-cance level of 0.01) companies which had been unsuc-cessful in partnering had dealt with four practicesdierently from those which had been successful.These are shown in Table 1.In order to establish more clearly which combi-nation of variables most contributed to success orfailure, we then used discriminant function analysis. This showed that answers to five questions onthe process of change7, 14, 35, 38 and 39 con-tributed most to success or failure. Companieswhich had been successful at partnering tended toagree with the statements in Questions 7, 14 andD. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306 29935. They tended to disagree with the statements inQuestions 38 and 39.Combining the results from both tests shows thatthe survey respondents showed a statistically signifi-cant tendency to agree with the following statements(presented to match the earlier headings):Project planning. Q7: The people aected by the change within my or-ganisation agreed with the goals.1,2Project structure. Q14: Management created a clear structure to man-age the change.1,2. Q15: Senior management accurately estimated theamount of resources needed to implement thechange.1. Q22: The joint senior team created specific lines ofauthority and responsibility.1Project implementation. Q35: A satisfactory system was developed tomeasure the progress of the change.2 They showed astatistically significant tendency to disagree with:. Q38: Care was taken to ask people with dierentperspectives for their views on the change.2. Q39: There was a lot of exploring and experimentingwith ideas.26. DiscussionResponses to Question 7 show that the peopleaected by the change in successful partnering compa-nies had agreed with the goals. This is consistent withthose prescriptions on change management whichemphasize the value of putting eort into convincingthose aected that the change is a worthwhile way ofmeeting some pressing business need. The unsuccessfulcompanies had not secured that degree of agreementwith the goals of partnering.Answers to Question 14 show that in organisationswhich had been successful in implementing partnering,senior management had created clear structures withinwhich to manage the change. This is in line with ex-pectations, and with the prescriptions of those whohave stressed that expressions of support from topmanagement are not enoughthese need to be backedwith clear structures, together perhaps with redefinedroles and reporting responsibilities. This is complemen-ted by responses to Question 22, which indicate thatsuccessful companies created specific lines of authoritylinking the senior team to the operational team.Question 15 indicates that management in successfulpartnering companies had accurately assessed the scaleof resources needed for the change. This is consistentwith the view in much of the literature that majorchange is systemic in its nature, and that a change inone part of an organisation needs to be accompaniedby appropriate changes elsewhere. These depend onresources both to plan and manage the change, as wellas those needed to support substantive changes, suchas in equipment or training.Responses to Question 35 shows that successfulcompanies had introduced adequate systems to moni-Table 1Common prescriptions which had a statistically significant eect on project success1 (totally disagree) 2 (stronglydisagree) 3 (neutral) 4 (strongly agree) 5 (totally agree) Total (100%)Q7 (chi = 9.67) The people aected by the change within my organisation agreed with the goalsUnsuccessful 2 (4%) 13 (24%) 24 (44%) 12 (22%) 3 (6%) 54Successful 1 (2%) 4 (9%) 11 (24%) 21 (46%) 9 (19%) 46Q14 (chi = 10.48) Management created a clear structure to manage the changeUnsuccessful 12 (23%) 13 (25%) 11 (20%) 14 (26%) 3 (6%) 53aSuccessful 2 (4%) 6 (13%) 11 (24%) 15 (33%) 12 (26%) 46Q15 (chi = 9.6) Senior management accurately estimated the amount of resources needed to implement the changeUnsuccessful 14 (27%) 15 (28%) 18 (34%) 5 (9%) 1 (2%) 53aSuccessful 3 (7%) 13 (28%) 13 (28%) 12 (26%) 5 (11%) 46Q22 (chi = 10.2) The joint senior team created specific lines of authority and responsibility to link it to the joint operational teamUnsuccessful 18 (33%) 12 (22%) 14 (26%) 8 (15%) 2 (4%) 54Successful 6 (13%) 7 (15%) 12 (26%) 15 (33%) 6 (13%) 46a No responseone unsuccessful company.1 Shown by chi square at significance level 0.01.2 Shown by discriminant function analysis.D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306300tor the change. This is likely to be especially importantin a complex, multi-site change such as partnering.Successful implementers tended to disagree with thestatements in Questions 38 and 39. These results wereunexpected, as they showed that successful implemen-ters had not explored and experimented widely withideas. This is counter-intuitive, and is certainly not inaccordance with much of the established prescriptiveliterature. One interpretation is that for most organis-ations the move to partnering would have been anovel activity. There would be little in-house experi-ence, or perhaps even interest, in this initially ratherabstract concept. Extensive debate with those likely tobe aected may have been seen as counter-productivein those circumstances.It was also observed that several commonly pre-scribed practices, such as those shown in Table 2,appear to have had little eect either way on the out-come.For example, it is often recommended that success-ful eective change requires the public support ofsenior management. The responses to Question 13show that while this had occurred in 74% of successfulcases (in line with received wisdom), it had alsooccurred in 54% of the unsuccessful cases. Question16 give some support to the frequent recommendationthat significant change needs to be backed by a strongchampion74% of successful companies had a strongchampion backing the change. Yet 50% of the unsuc-cessful ones also had a champion. Another commonprescription is to prepare a detailed plan to manage achange. Replies to Question 33 show that this wasdone in 57% of successful casesbut was also done injust about as many of the unsuccessful cases. Suchresults show that while common prescriptions mayhelp a project, they do not by themselves ensure suc-cess.7. Implications for implementing supply chain partneringprojectsThe results indicate that many of the recommen-dations for managing projects based on anecdotal evi-dence are not in themselves a route to successfulsupply chain implementation. Practices such as ensur-ing top management support and consulting widelyabout the change will not do any harm. However, theyshould be seen as necessary rather than sucient tothe success of a supply chain project. The results alsoprovide empirical support for the view that eectivechange does not depend solely on the skills of individ-Table 2Common prescriptions which had NO statistically significant eect on project success1 (totally disagree) 2 (strongly disagree) 3 (neutral) 4 (strongly agree) 5 (totally agree) Total (100%)(Q5) The basic goals of the change were clearly definedResponse 1 2 3 4 5 TotalUnsuccessful 4 (8%) 12 (22%) 11 (20%) 22 (40%) 3 (6%) 54Successful 1 (2%) 6 (13%) 15 (33%) 17 (35%) 7 (15%) 46(Q13) Senior management publicly expressed their commitment to the changeResponse 1 2 3 4 5 TotalUnsuccessful 8 (15%) 8 (15%) 9 (17%) 21 (39%) 8 (15%) 54Successful 4 (9%) 4 (9%) 4 (9%) 11 (24%) 23 (50%) 46(Q16) The change was backed by a strong champion (a person who was highly respected within the organisation)Response 1 2 3 4 5 TotalUnsuccessful 10 (19%) 7 (13%) 10 (19%) 15 (28%) 12 (22%) 54Successful 1 (2%) 5 (11%) 6 (13%) 16 (35%) 18 (39%) 46(Q28) The change was run by an experienced project managerResponse 1 2 3 4 5 TotalUnsuccessful 11 (20%) 8 (15%) 12 (22%) 13 (24%) 10 (19%) 54Successful 6 (13%) 4 (9%) 10 (22%) 16 (35%) 10 (22%) 46(Q33) A detailed plan was prepared to manage the change (Yes or No)Response 1 (yes) 2 3 4 5 (no) TotalUnsuccessful 28 (52%) 0 1 (2%) 0 24 (44%) 54aSuccessful 18 (39%) 0 0 0 26 (57%) 46a No responseone unsuccessful company.D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306 301ual change agents. People with those skills are valu-able, but they need to be supported by more formal,institutional devices. Senior management needs to con-struct a coherent framework to support individual pro-ject managers. This will include appropriatemanagement structures, clear reporting relationshipsand control systems that allow progress to be moni-tored. Management can increase the chances of suc-cessful implementation if they give priority to thesmall number of factors that made a dierence to suc-cess or failure at the companies in our survey.7.1. Ensuring agreement with goalsThe data implies that at the project planning stageeort put into ensuring people understand and agreewith the goals will usually pay o. The hazard thatbesets this seemingly obvious statement is that influen-tial players may themselves disagree about the goals ofsupply chain partnering or emphasise dierent possibi-lities. Faulkner  argues that there are four principalmotivations for creating inter-organisational alliancessuch as supply chain partnering:Resourcedependencyorganisations seek to reduce uncer-tainty by gaining greater access toor control over resources or skillswhich are necessary to their contin-ued survivalSpreading risk firms facing either an opportunityor a defensive challenge may seekto spread financial risk by collabor-ating with a partner.Speed to market a partnership can create the criticalmass needed to respond rapidly to amarket opportunity.Low costs an alliance may be regarded as aless risky and less costly optionthan, say, acquisition; the creationof the critical mass may alsoincrease productive eciency/econ-omy of scale.These may be complementary, or they may conflict.They may also change as a partnering arrangementdevelops and matures, making it all the more essentialto put time and eort into ensuring continued agree-ment with the current goals of the relationship. Thisapplies to both parties.7.2. Creating structures to manage the changeThis could include establishing clearly which individ-uals or departments are responsible for the change andwhat their remit should be. Those individuals whotake a leading role in partnering need an unusual com-bination of expertise. In some respects this consists ofbeing able to apply familiar management practices tothe particular circumstances of partnering. Partneringis also likely to require an additional set of boundary-spanning skills to cope with some of its distinctivechallenges arising from making internal and externalchange, within a volatile environment.However, there are limitations to what people actingon their own to solve a problem or improve a processcan achieve. These include the possibility that theyignore wider considerations in their decisions, use alimited range of ideas and lack the necessary power.Continuity and learning is lost if they leave.A way to overcome this is to support individualaction with structures and mechanisms. People maycreate new structures to support their personal initiat-ivessuch as pulling together a task force of peoplewhom they know support their idea. Support mechan-isms also take the form of relatively formal bodieswhich bring the players into regular face-to-face con-tact through teams of various kinds. Formal structuresand mechanisms can ensure that people bring a cor-porate perspective to their diagnosis, draw on a widerrange of skills and have access to institutional sourcesof power.As an example (drawn from case studies conductedas part of the same project), two companies that suc-cessfully introduced partnering gradually created aseries of regular, formal meetings at which relevantsta from both companies collectively dealt with im-mediate and longer term issues. They provided a regu-lar forum at which issues could be brought into theopen and dealt with. These structures supported indi-vidual initiative, in that people were able to act asseemed appropriate between meetings, confident thatthe commercial or other implications would be dealtwith at these forums.Structures also include documentary or electronicsystems to record information about the proposals, de-cisions and agreements made in the course of the part-nering project. These are independent of any oneindividual and can easily move to widely dispersedsites. Others can then act in more informed andmutually consistent ways and they may also learnfrom experience elsewhere.7.3. Ensuring adequate resourcesThe survey shows that a significant factor in the suc-cess of a project is to make realistic resource commit-ments. The reasons for this lie in the complexity ofcollaborative working, and in the systemic nature oforganisations. A significant attempt at supply chainpartnering is likely to require significant internalchange, especially in relation to the business processesand technical infrastructures of both players.D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306302Partnering implies that the nature, responsibility andlocation of business processes within and betweencompanies change and become more closely linked.For example, one of the case study companies intro-duced, at corporate level, a major global process re-en-gineering exercise. The stated aim was to:Radically simplify business process within oursupply chain with the aim of reducing time, therebycreating cost reduction opportunities, maximisingflexibility, improving quality and increasing custo-mer satisfaction.This in turn led to significant operating changes inprocesses for new product development, sub-tier sup-plier management, materials planning, inventory man-agement, quality assurance, scheduling, andperformance management and reporting. This clearlyaected their relationship with core suppliers, prompt-ing both the customer and their suppliers to introducecompatible internal changes.Partnering can also involve one or both partiesinvesting in compatible technologies, such as a supplierbuilding a plant close to the customer and investing indedicated equipment on the surety of a long-term re-lationship. They are also likely to invest in electronicinformation systems to support their business links.Finally, management is likely to plan and introducepartnering alongside current operations and alongsideother changes. Coping with parallel, interactingchanges severely overload both those planning changeand those aected by it, unless they are adequatelyresourced for the job.7.4. Setting up adequate controlsThe survey shows that using one or more of thewell-established project control techniques is likely tohelp the success of a change project. The diculties ofknowing what is happening in a multi-site change suchas partnering are formidable, and this finding indicatesthat investing time in this area is worthwhile. One cau-tion is that the novelty of the change is such that itmay not be clear at the outset what should bemeasured. Control mechanisms therefore should besensitive to the context and focus only on criticalissues.As an example, a computer manufacture undertooka major project to relocate production of some of itsmodels from its own site to that of a subcontractor.This involved very complex logistical arrangements asit was imperative that production was not interrupted.The change involved consequential changes at foursitestwo in Europe and two in the United States.The main control device used was to hold weekly tele-conferences at which all the participants who wereactive on the project at the time (over 30 sta at onestage) reported verbally to all others about the state oftheir part of the task. This allowed instant access tothe latest information, as well as enabling actions tobe co-ordinated. Items were symbolically coded ateach meeting with green, amber or red flags, to indi-cate those that were felt to be in the least and mostdangerous state.7.5. Will consulting widely with those aected help orhinder?The survey results suggest that companies with suc-cessful partnering projects had not consulted anddebated widely about the project. This result is con-trary to conventional wisdom on change management.It implies that sometimes management must be willingto drive change, rather than delay while the issues arewidely discussed. They may need to use political andpower skills, rather than those of participation andconsensus. This approach may work when the changeis so novel that many of the possibilities only becomeclear with experience: prior discussion may add littleof value. However, extensive discussion of the resultsof that experimentation, and of how to further developthe system in the light of that experience, is likely tobe beneficial.This may be illustrated by one of the case studycompanies that decided to establish closer links with asupplier of a bulky product that was previouslyimported from the United States. They wanted to havea secure and reliable local source. They identifiedwhich of their current suppliers was willing to workwith them to meet the demanding quality requirementsand to invest both human and financial resources indeveloping closer links. This strategic decision wasmade by a very small number of senior people and therelationship began. However, at later stages of itsdevelopment many more people in both organisationsbecame involved in decisions about how best to makethe relationship work. They progressively discoveredthe issues to be managed and built the confidence todeal with them.8. Implications for managing other forms of changeprojectTo the extent that other major organisationalchange projects are similar to partnering changes,these results may apply more widely. Some of theseareas of similarity were mentioned earliermanyplayers and interest groups; aected by policychanges at other levels; implemented in parallel withother changes; and unfamiliarity with the detail ofthe concept. To the extent that managers can recog-D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306 303nise these similarities in their projects then thisstudy should be useful. It helps them to discrimi-nate between the many prescriptions available. Thequantitative analysis of the experience of 100 com-panies suggests that they should concentrate theiractions on four areasensuring agreement withgoals; ensuring adequate resources; setting up ade-quate controls; and creating structures to managethe change.This last point can be elaborated. Many writers onchange have emphasised the role and significance ofthe skills of the individual change agent. We havedone so ourselves in earlier work, and clearly skilledand committed change agents are essential ingredients.However, this research shows that they are notenough, and that their activities can be supported byappropriate institutional mechanisms. Such structuresprobably contribute to change in at least four ways.1. They provide a known forum in which the playerscan raise issues, lay them on the table and seek toresolve them in conjunction with the other players.Structures provide a vehicle for bringing wider ideasto bear on a solution, including both functional andhierarchical interests .2. They can link the inner context of the project towider developments in the external context. Thishelps to ensure that events or information fromboth are brought together for scrutiny and decisionsin the same forum. This can reduce the chances ofinconsistent or incoherent actions being taken by in-dividuals acting independently of one another, andthe tensions between external demands and internalconstraints.3. They can integrate a cluster of changes. One changeis usually part of a cluster of changes within, oraecting, an organisation. Well-designed structuresenable managers to maintain an overview of suchmultiple changes, and in which they can balance thetensions between them.4. They support and maintain the change over time.Major change is surrounded by volatility and caneasily falter and lose momentum as prioritieschange, people leave or individual change agentsbecome discouraged or overwhelmed. More formalstructures can sustain or substitute individual eortto maintain momentum through dicult times andas the need arises. They may be a stronger barrierto the forces of inertia than an individual. This isespecially true of changes which cannot be fully-defined at the outset, but in which solutions arelearned and discovered in the course of the change.Without a coherent institution such incremental oremerging change can become unco-ordinated ordirectionless motion. Structures can be the basis ofcontrol mechanisms to check on progress.9. ConclusionManagers are not short of advice on how to managechange projects. They are expected to produce quickand eective results, as well as deal with current oper-ations and other parallel changes. Where best to con-centrate their eort and resources? Change can only bemanaged by adapting any practice to the unique andparticular setting in which it is taking place. However,with that caveat, this paper provides firm empiricalsupport for the argument that they should pay particu-lar attention to the areas of project goals, resources,structures and controls.AcknowledgementsThe research on which this paper is based was sup-ported by Engineering and Physical Sciences ResearchCouncil grant GR/K/21252.Appendix A. Questions on the change processes usedRespondents were requested to indicate on a scaleof 1 to 5 (where 1 is totally disagree and 5 is totallyagree) the category which best described their com-panys experience.Planning the change(4) The pressures for change were clear and urgent.(5) The basic goals of the change were clearlydefined.(6) Partner organisations agreed with the goals ofthe new relationship.(7) The people aected by the change within my or-ganisation agreed with the goals.(8) There was a lot of uncertainty about the costsand implications of the change.(9) The change was expected to disrupt a lot ofestablished practices.(10) The costs of the change were expected to begreater than the benefits.(11) The goals of the change were in line with thegeneral goals of the organisation.(12) The change just seemed to be inappropriate toour culture and style.How your organisation structured the change process(13) Senior management publicly expressed theircommitment to the change.(14) Senior management created a clear structurewithin which to manage the change.(15) Senior management accurately estimated theamount of resources needed to implement thechange.D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306304(16) The change was backed by a strong champion(a person who was highly respected within the or-ganisation).(17) An internal senior level team was set up tohandle the strategic issues.(18) An internal team was set up to handle oper-ational implementation issues.(19) A senior level team was set up to handle oper-ational implementation issues.(20) Teams were set up with joint membership fromboth organisations to handle operational implemen-tation issues.(21) The senior level strategic team created specificlines of authority and responsibility to link it to theinternal operational team.(22) The joint senior level team created specific linesof authority and responsibility to link it to the jointoperational team.(23) Top management received regular feedback onthe progress of the change.Partnering implementation in your organisation(24) Partners contributed to problem solving asmuch as our own sta did.(25) Partners were able to influence the changes inpractice which they had to make.(26) The change goals were explained to all of oursta who were aected by them.(27) The change goals were explained to all aectedsta in our partners organisation.(28) The change was run by an experienced projectmanager.(29) The implementation team included people withadequate technical skills.(30) The implementation team included people withadequate management skills.(31) The implementation team had specific lines ofauthority and responsibility.(32) The implementation team was committed tothe success of the change.(33) A detailed plan was prepared to manage thechange. Yes/No.(34) The change plan was flexible enough to adaptas circumstances changed.(35) A satisfactory system was developed tomeasure the progress of the change.(36) Careful studies were made of the changes inpractice that would be needed.(37) Sta involved were actively encouraged toidentify possible diculties.(38) Care was taken to ask people with dierentperspectives for their views on the change.(39) There was a lot of exploring and experimentingwith ideas.(40) Changes in sta that would be needed to sup-port partnering were implemented.(41) Adequate training was provided in the newways of working.(42) Aected sta were well informed about whatwas expected of them in the new system.(43) Attempts to revert to old practices were dis-couraged.(44) Resources were available to resolve practicaldiculties as soon as they arose.(45) The successes and benefits from the changewere widely publicised.References Kearney AT. Total quality: time to take o the rose-tinted spec-tacles. Kempstown: IFS, 1992. Economist Intelligence Unit. Making quality workLessonsfrom Europes leading companies. Economist Intelligence Unit,London, 1992. Hougham M. London ambulance service computer-aided des-patch system. International Journal of Project Management1996;14(2):10310. Boddy D, Gunson N. Organisations in the network age.London: Routledge, 1996. Wastell DG, White P, Kawalek P. A methodology for businessprocess redesign: experience and issues. Journal of StrategicInformation Systems 1994;3(1):2340. Burnes B. Managing change. London: Pitman, 1996. Keen P. In: Rhodes E, Weild D, editors. Information systemsand organization change. Oxford: Implementing new technol-ogies Blackwell/Open University Press, 1981. Pfeer J. Managing with power. Boston: Harvard BusinessSchool Press, 1992. Graham JH. Machiavellian project managers: do they performbetter? International Journal of Project Management1996;14(2):6774. Macbeth DK. Partneringwhy not? In: Proceedings of the 2ndWorldwide Symposium on Purchasing and Supply ChainManagement. Stamford, England: CIPS, May 1998. p. 35162. Mintzberg H. The rise and fall of strategic planning. , HemelHempstead: Prentice-Hall, 1994. Dawson P. Organizational change: a processual approach.London: Paul Chapman, 1994. Hardy C. Understanding power. British Journal ofManagement 1996;7:316. Slevin DP, Pinto JK. The project implementation profile: a newtool for project managers. Project Management Journal1986;(9):5765. Kanter RM. The change masters. London: Allen and Unwin,1993. Kotter JP, Schlesinger LA. Choosing strategies for change.Harvard Business Review 1979;March/April. Boddy D, Buchanan D. Take the lead: interpersonal skills forproject managers. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall, 1992. Macbeth DK, Ferguson N. Partnership sourcing: an integratedsupply chain management approach. London: Financial Times/Pitman, 1994. Partnership Sourcing. Partnership Sourcing. London:CBI, 1990. Harris RJ. A primer of multivariate statistics. New York:Academic Press, 1975. Faulkner D. International strategic alliances: co-operating tocompete. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill, 1995.D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306 305David Boddy teaches a range of courses for experienced managers,especially those attending Executive MBA programme where heleads the core courses in Organisational Behaviour. His mainresearch has been in the human and organisational aspects of infor-mation technology; implementing major change; and supply chainpartnering. His most recent books are Organisations in the NetworkAge, Routledge, 1996 and Management: An Introduction, Prentice-Hall, 1998.Douglas K. Macbeth is CIPS/SCMG Ltd. Professor of Supply ChainManagement and Head of the Department of Management Studiesof the University of Glasgow. After an industrial career he enteredthe academic world where he worked at three Universities in Oper-ations and Manufacturing Management. He than redirected hisresearch and consultancy into the field of co-operative inter-organis-ational strategy and practice. As director of the spin out consultancycompany SCGM Ltd. it has been possible to realise a degree ofsynergy in these complementary activities. Thus, the research outputhas a route to market and the consulting insights are used inresearch projects, all with international client organisations.D. Boddy, D. Macbeth / International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 297306306
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