Planet earth earthquake_powerpoint_presentaion

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<ul><li>1.Earthquakes and Earths Interior This 4-floor apartment building pancaked during the 1999 Izmit earthquake in Turkey, killing all occupants. The thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in damage from this event underscore the fact that earthquakes are one of the deadliest natural disasters faced by mankind.</li></ul><p>2. Earthquakes are vibrations of the earth caused by the rupture and sudden movement of rocks that have been strained (deformed) beyond theirelasticlimit. Earthquakes occur along faults .Faultsare breaks in the lithosphere where regions of rock move past each other. Most major faults occur alongtectonic plate boundaries . Thefocusis the point on the fault where the rupture begins.Theepicenteris the point on the earths surface directly above the focus.When the fault ruptures,wavesof energy spread out in all directions. 3. Elastic rebound theorystates that the waves of energy from an earthquake result from the sudden release of stored up strain energy in rock as it deforms. Much like a rubber band stretched past its breaking point, the rock on either side of a fault snaps suddenly to a new position, releasing energy in the process. 4. Types of Faults The majority of earthquakes (90%) are caused by rocks rupturing in response to tectonic stresses at active plate margins. 5. Faults can be divided depending on the direction of relative displacement.There are 2 main categories. </p> <ul><li><ul><li>Dip-slip faults- where the displacement is vertical </li></ul></li></ul><p>Relative displacement is largely a function of the type of tectonic stress the rock is under. </p> <ul><li><ul><li>Strike-slip faults- where the displacement is horizontal. </li></ul></li></ul><p>Types of Faults 6. Types of Tectonic Stress 7. Dip-Slip Faults - Normal Faults </p> <ul><li>Normal faultsresult fromtensional stressesalongdivergent boundaries . </li></ul><ul><li>The hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall block.</li></ul><ul><li>Low Richter magnitudes due to the tendency of rocks to break easily under tensional stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow focus (less than 20 km) because the lithosphere is relatively thin along diverging plate boundaries. </li></ul><p>Examples - all mid-ocean ridges; Continental Rift Valleys such as the basin and range province of the Western U.S. and the East African Rift Valley 8. Dip-Slip Faults - Reverse Faults </p> <ul><li>Reverse faultsare faults that result from horizontal compressional stresses where the hanging wall block has moved up relative to the footwall block.</li></ul><ul><li>Reverse faulting occurs along convergent boundaries. </li></ul><p>There are two types of converging plate boundaries. 1. Subduction boundaries where oceanic lithosphere is pushed beneath either oceanic or continental lithosphere. 2.Collision boundaries where two plates with continental lithosphere collide. 9. Subduction Boundaries </p> <ul><li>At subduction boundaries there is a continuum of stress along the subducting plate.Shallow focus earthquakes can be generated near the trench, but focal depths can reach down to 700 km as earthquakes are generated along the subducting plate. </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are strong under compression and can store large amounts of strain energy before they rupture.Therefore, these earthquakes can be very powerful. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1960 Southern Chili = 9.5 </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1964 Alaska = 9.2 </li></ul></li></ul><p>10. Collision Boundaries </p> <ul><li>At collision boundaries two plates of continental lithosphere collide resulting in fold-thrust mountain belts.</li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes occur due to the thrust faulting and range in depth from shallow to about 200 km. </li></ul><p>Example:The Himalayas from the collision of India with Asia 11. Strike-Slip Faults - Transform Faults </p> <ul><li>Strike-slip faults where the relative motion on the fault has taken place along a horizontal direction due to shear stresses acting on the lithosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be right lateral or left lateral. </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes along these boundaries tend to be shallow focus with depths usually less than about 100 km.Richter magnitudes can be large. </li></ul><p>12. Body wavestravel through the interior (body) of the earth as they leave the focus.They includeP-wavesandS-waves .P - waves Primary waves P ush- p ull waves S waves Secondary wavesS hearwavesEarthquake Seismic Waves 13. Earthquake Seismic Waves Surface wavestravel parallel to the earths surface.They are the slowest and most damaging.They includeLoveandRayleigh Waves . Love Waves- complex, horizontal motion Rayleigh Waves- Rolling or elliptical motion. 14. Seismographsare instruments that detect and record ground shaking produced by earthquake waves.Due to their different speeds, the different waves arrive at the seismograph at different times: first P-waves arrive, then S-waves, then surface waves. 15. Seismogram - the record of an earthquake as recorded by a seismograph.It is a plot of vibrations versus time. 16. Remember: P-waves are faster than S-waves.Therefore, as this graph shows,the time gap between their arrival at a seismograph increases precisely with distance from the quake. Therefore, lag time is proportional to distance traveled. For example, in the graph here we see that a time gap of 30 seconds between P- and S- corresponds to a distance of about 340 kilometers (210 miles) from the quake. 17. We can use thelag timebetween the P-waves and S- waves to calculate thedistance to an earthquake ! If we do this for a minimum ofthree different seismic stations , we can precisely locate the epicenter. In the figure, each circle has a radius equal to the distance to the earthquake from three separate seismic stations. The three circles intersect at only one point -- the epicenter! 18. Earthquake Measurement Richter Magnitude scale - M L ; based on thehighest amplitude wavemeasured on a seismogram, corrected for distance from the seismograph to the epicenter - ranges from 1.0 (smallest) to infinity, but 9.0 is typically the highest possible value for an earthquake. - logarithmic scale: each whole unit on the Richter scale represents a ten-fold increase in wave amplitude (ground shaking) and an ~ thirty fold increase in the energy released. Below:The magnitude of the earthquake can be estimated using an earthquake nomograph, on which a straight line is plotted between the P-S time (distance) and the maximum wave amplitude.This line intersects the central line at the approximate magnitude of the earthquake. 19. Earthquake Measurement Modified Mercalliscale - based on peoples reportedperceptions of shaking , and thetype and extent of damage produced - ranges from I (not felt by people) to XII (catastrophic destruction) An example of the Modified Mercalli scale follows in the next slide. 20. A map of Modified Mercalli intensity for the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake. 21. Not all fault movements result in violent earthquakes. Some faults move slowly and fairlycontinuously, a movement calledfault creep .Fault creep never killed anyone, but, as shown in these pictures, it can cause damage to roads or other structures. 22. Earthquake Hazards and Mitigation </p> <ul><li>Now that you are familiar with some important concepts related to earthquakes and their measurement, we shall now consider the specific types of hazards generated by earthquakes, and the specific steps people can take to mitigate (reduce) those hazards.</li></ul><ul><li>The hazards we will review are:</li></ul><ul><li>ground shaking </li></ul><ul><li>liquifaction </li></ul><ul><li>uplift or subsidence of land </li></ul><ul><li>fire </li></ul><ul><li>tsunamis </li></ul><p>23. Ground Shaking An old saying among geologists is thatearthquakes dont kill people, buildings do.The vast majority of deaths in earthquakes occur when ground shaking from earthquake waves (particularly S-waves and surface waves) causes buildings or other structures collapse, killing the people inside.Most damage and collapse of structures like buildings, bridges, and roads occurs due tosideways movementof the ground from earthquake waves. This process is calledhorizontal ground acceleration , orbase shear . 24. Base shear causes the building to deform from a rectangle into a parallelogram, causing damage such as that shown in the photos right. Base shear causes buildings constructed on so-called cripples to fall sideways, causing damage such as that shown in the photos left. 25. The most deadly type of failure from base shear is story-shift, in which the sideways acceleration causes floors to shift and collapse onto one another -- a situation calledpancaking . Few or no occupants survive such collapses. 26. In addition to buildings,highway overpasses, bridges, and multi-decked freewaysalso suffer major damage from base shear. The photo shows the collapse of a double-deck freeway from the 1994 Northridge, CA, quake. 27. Collapse of the Hanshin expressway from the 1995 Kobe, Japan, quake. Collapse of freeways is most commonly caused byfailure of the concrete supporting columns , as the photo shows. 28. The Worst Earthquake of the Twentieth Century </p> <ul><li>On July 28, 1976, at 3:45 a.m., while 1 million inhabitants of Tang Shan, China, slept, a 7.8 magnitude quake leveled the city.Hardly a building was left standing, and the few that did withstand the first quake were destroyed by a second, magnitude 7.1, which struck at 6:45 p.m. the same day.When the wreckage was cleared, 240,000 people were dead.Losses were large because most of the buildings had not been constructed to withstand an earthquake.They had unreinforced brick walls.When the ground started to shake, the walls collapsed, the roofs caved in, and the sleeping inhabitants were crushed. </li></ul><p>29. Building practices make a huge difference in quake survival! The bar graph shows us the connection between year of construction and amount of damage to buildings during the 1995 Kobe, Japan, earthquake. More recent buildings were built to stricter codes, and thus fared much better during the quake. 30. Liquifaction Liquifactionoccurs in water-saturated soils and rock. The shaking of earthquake waves causes the soil or rock toturn into a weak, fluid-like mass . Structures built on areas that liquify may simply fall over, as shown in this photo from the 1964 Niigata, Japan, quake. 31. Land Uplift and Subsidence Areas right next to the fault can experience direct damage from the ground shifting upward (calleduplift ) or downward (calledsubsidence ).The photo shows afault scarp-- a cliff created by movement along afault. This scarp formed during the 1992 Landers, CA, quake. More than 6 vertical feet of offset occurred here. If a home or other building had been here, it would likely have been totally destroyed. 32. Fires Fires commonly break out during quakes due to ruptured gas lines or downed electrical lines. In some urban quakes, fires have caused more damage than the ground shaking itself. The photograph shows an uncontrolled fire in San Francisco after the1989 Loma Prieta quake. 33. Tsunamis Tsunamis are waves generated by physical disturbances of the ocean. Shifting of the sea floor during an earthquake is the most common cause. Undersea volcanic eruptions, landslides, or even meteorite impacts can also cause tsunamis. 34. When part of the sea floor drops the water drops with it.Almost immediately, water from the surrounding are rushes in to fill the depression, form a flat (~1m), high speed (up to 700km/hr), spread out wave with a wavelength measuring 10 to 100 km.In deep water tsunamis waves are nearly undetectable. But as the leading waves of a tsunami approach a shoreline,friction with the sea floor slows the waves down (100km.hr) , This compresses the wave and the distance between successive crests decreases as the wave height increases. The waves surge onto shore typically as a rapidly rising flood of water with great destructive power.The aftermath of a tsunami in Hilo, Hawaii, 1960. The bent parking meter shows the direction of the waves! 35. Most destructive tsunamis occur in Pacific Ocean. This is clearly related to plate tectonics: the borders of the Pacific Ocean are dominated by activesubduction zonesthat produce frequent violent earthquakes (as well as undersea volcanic eruptions and landslides).Hawaii, with its central location, is vulnerable to tsunamis coming from several different areas of subduction. 36. Earthquake Prediction / Forecasting Millions of dollars, and great research effort, has gone toward finding a reliable system for predicting earthquakes in theshort term(several hours to days before the event). The assumption of this research has been that large earthquakes produceprecursors-- some type of signal before they happen.Ground deformation:Measurements taken in the vicinity of active faults sometimes show that prior to an earthquake the ground is uplifted or tilts due to the strain building on the fault. Foreshocks: Small earthquakes that precede a large quake by a few seconds to a few weeks.The pattern and intensity of foreshocks usually increase in magnitude and may cluster or migrate down a fault to the place where the main shock will eventually occur. Abnormal Animal Behavior. 37. Earthquake Prediction / Forecasting Alas, no reliable short-term precursors have been found. Therefore research today focuses onlonger-term warnings or forecasts . In this approach, geologists attempt to identify regions where large earthquakes are likely to occur within the next several years or decades. While this does not provide short-term warnings, it is useful for long-range planning for building codes and emergency response services. 38. Statistical Methods use the history of past earthquakes in a region -- therecurrence interval-- to predict the magnitude and frequency of future quakes.Recurrence intervalis the expected time interval between events of a given magnitude. The theory here is that faults should behave in the future like they behaved in the past, producing a characteristic number of quakes of particular sizes over a given time interval.The Statistical Method allows us to calculate theprobabilityof an earthquake of a certain magnitude occurring in a region over a certain time interval. 39. This map, based on the history of earthquakes on particular faults in the San Francisco region, shows the predicted probabilities of one or more magnitude 6.7 or greater quakes occurring on these faults between the years 2000 and 2030. 40. Geophysical Methods attempt to identifyseismic gapsalong faults where strain may be building up.strain that may be released in a future earthquake. The theory here is that if a portion of a fault has been locked for some time (i.e. has not had an earthquake in a long time), then strain may have built up to especially high levels there, and a large quake may occur in the near future. This figure shows a cross section of earthquake activity along the San Andreas fault in Northern California, from Parkfield to San Francisco. 41. Earths Interior </p> <ul><li>No one has ever been through the crust let alone the center of the earth.How do we know what is going on there? </li></ul><ul><li>Recall, density increases with depth in the earth and seismic waves travel faster as density increases. Waves will travel faster through DENSER materials because atoms are packed closer together. </li></ul><ul><li>P waves travel through solids, liquids and gasses, whereas S waves only travel through solids. </li></ul><p>4...</p>