Open Source for Libraries
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- 1.Open Source for Libraries Nicole C. Engard Vice President of Education ByWater Solutions firstname.lastname@example.orgThursday, January 19, 12
2. Outline What is Open Source? Products for your Library Q&A ThroughoutThursday, January 19, 12 3. What isnt Open Source? Common Open Source FUD (Fear, Uncertainty & Doubt) Isnt that insecure? I dont want to share my data! How can it be any good if its free? We dont have the sta to handle open source. Comic: Author: Unknown | Year: Unknown | Source: UnknownThursday, January 19, 12 4. What is Open Source? Open source soLware is soLware that users have the ability to run, distribute, study and modify for any purpose. Open source is a collaboraMve soLware-development method that harnesses the power of peer review and transparency of process to develop code that is freely accessible.1 Open source draws on an ecosystem of thousands of developers and customers all over the world to drive innovaMon.2 1,2 hQp://connect.educause.edu/display/47941Thursday, January 19, 12 5. What is Free Software? OLen you will hear Free & Open Source SoLware (F/OSS) in conjuncMon. The Free SoLware DeniMon (hQp://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html) is similar to, but not idenMcal to the Open Source DeniMon (hQp://www.opensource.org/docs/deniMon.php) Free does not mean free of cost - it means Free as in FreedomThursday, January 19, 12 6. 4 Freedoms of Free Software You need all four of these freedoms to have free soLware Freedom of use Freedom to copy Freedom to modify Freedom to contributehQp://www.web2learning.net/archives/4263Thursday, January 19, 12 7. Sharing of ideas "If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange apples, then you and I will sMll each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas." AQributed to Bernard Shawhttp://ftacademy.org/materials/fsm/1#1Thursday, January 19, 12 8. The Cathedral & The Bazaar The Cathedral The Bazaar (proprietary soAware) (open source soAware) Development occurs Code developed over behind walls the Internet with Source code is several others in usually not provided public view - kept locked up Source code open to Corporate hierarchyall users Given enough hQp://www.catb.org/~esr/wriMngs/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/ eyeballs, all bugs are shallowThursday, January 19, 12 9. Open Source GovernanceWhat kind of quality control is there?Most open source projects have a release manager or a manager of somesort who reviews the code and approves it before adding it to the finalreleaseWhat is the role of the community?The community looks out for the best interests of the software. They workas the governing body behind all decisions related to the software. Thecommunity decides what features to develop next and who the managersare.Thursday, January 19, 12 10. Open Source Community Open source is about more than free soLware Community is crucial to the growth of open source Without shared knowledge and collaboraMon the project will not grow CriMquing the community is a right reserved for those who have proved themselves by making valuable contribuMons1 People who use open source can collaborate and contribute in many ways with the community Write code Write documentaMon Debug Educate others1. Tapscott, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. Embracing open source culture and strategy. In Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything, 82-83.Expanded Edition. New York, NY: Penguin USA, 2008. www.wikinomics.com/book/. Thursday, January 19, 12 11. Open Source Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing has it genesis in the open source movement in soLware. The development of the Linux operaMng system proved that a community of like-minded peers was capable of creaMng a beQer product than a corporate behemoth like MicrosoL. Open source revealed a fundamental truth about humans that had gone largely unnoMced unMl the connecMvely of the Internet brought it into high relief: labor can oLen be organized more eciently in the context of a community than it can in the context of the corporaMon. The best person to do a job is the one who most wants to do that job; and the best people to evaluate their performance are their friends and peers who, by the way, will enthusiasMcally pitch in to improve the nal product, simply for the sheer pleasure of helping one another and creaMng something beauMful from which they all will benet.Howe, J. (2008). Crowdsourcing: Why the power of the crowd is drivingthe future of business. New York: Crown Business. p.8Thursday, January 19, 12 12. Whos Using Open Source? Government Agencies Schools (K-colleges) All Kinds of Businesses LibrariansThursday, January 19, 12 13. Open Source in Business 2007 Survey Resultshttp://www.unisys.com/unisys/news/detail.jsp?id=5100086&pid=&sid=203Thursday, January 19, 12 14. Open Source in Business In 2010 a survey of 300 large organizaMons in both the private and public sector found: 50% are fully commiQed to open source in their business 28% say they are experimenMng with open source and keeping an open mind to using it 38% expecMng to migrate mission-criMcal soLware to open source in next 12 months The cost was no longer viewed as the key benet, instead: 76% cited quality as a key benet of open source 70% cited improved reliability 69% said beQer security/bug xinghQp://newsroom.accenture.com/ arMcle_display.cfm?arMcle_id=5045Thursday, January 19, 12 15. Making money on open source IBM not only accepted open source soLware products and processes but also its philosophy, which is to spur quality and fast growth rather than just prots based on proprietary ownership of intellectual property. Giving up so much control is unconvenMonal to say the least, but the rewards for doing so have been handsome. IBM spends about $100 million per year on Linux development. If the Linux community puts in $1 billion of eort, and even half of that is useful to IBM customers, the company gets $500 million of soLware development for an investment of $100 million. TapscoQ, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. Joining Linux. In Wikinomics: How mass collaboraMon changes everything, 79-82. Expanded EdiMon. New York, NY: Penguin USA, 2008. hQp://www.wikinomics.com/book/.Thursday, January 19, 12 16. Open Source On the Web Total AcMve Sites: 6/2000 to 1/2012hQp://news.netcraL.com/archives/2012/01/03/january-2012-web-server-survey.html Thursday, January 19, 12 17. Why so Popular?Reliability through Peer ReviewFreedom to InnovateNo Vendor Lock-inUser-centric DevelopmentCollaboraMve EnvironmentZero License FeesThursday, January 19, 12 18. Why Should Libraries Care?Thursday, January 19, 12 19. Open Source & Libraries Libraries and Open Source Both... Believe that informaMon should be freely accessible to everyone Give away stu Benet from the generosity of others Are about communiMes Make the world a beQer place-- Horton, G. hQp://Mnyurl.com/3jvumnThursday, January 19, 12 20. Open Source & LibrariesLibraries and Open Source make the perfect pair [Librarians] "are almost ethically required to use and develop open source soLware." Crawford, R. S. hQp://www.lugod.org/ presentaMons/oss4lib.pdf hQp://www.ickr.com/photos/cavort/ 151687944/Thursday, January 19, 12 21. Open Source & Libraries Libraries and Open Source make the perfect pair Libraries are commiQed to the noMon of the commons. Libraries are in fact one of the last best hopes for the preservaMon of the intellectual commons. That value system should extend to the intellectual work we do on our access systems. We should reclaim the domain of library technology from the commercial and proprietary realms and actualize is as part of our vision of the commons. ... We are also congenital collaborators. Can you think of any other group of insMtuMons that share their stu the way we do through ILL? -- Lucia, J.Thursday, January 19, 12 22. Open Source & Libraries 2007 Survey ResultshQp://www.unisys.com/unisys/news/detail.jsp?id=5100086&pid=&sid=203 Thursday, January 19, 12 23. Open Source & LibrariesCommon quesMons libraries have: Is there support? Do I have to know how to program? Do I have to skimp on features? Isnt Open Source risky? Can I do it myself?Thursday, January 19, 12 24. Support for Open SourceIs there support? Do I have to know how to program? ByWater SoluMons Local Students BibLibre Freelance Developers Equinox YourLibrarySite And more!Thursday, January 19, 12 25. Do I have to skimp on features? Open Source developers follow the rule of Release early and release oLen Users vote with their dollars and Mme Freedom to develop on your own Developers love their productshQp://www.ickr.com/photos/programwitch/2505184887/Thursday, January 19, 12 26. Isnt Open Source Risky? Casey Coleman, chief informaMon ocer for the US Department of Defense memo encourages the use of open source with GSA (U.S. General Services AdministraMon), said many reasons including cost advantages, in a speech ... that the GSA heavily relies on reduced risk of vendor lock-in, beQer open source to drive down costs, increase security, and increased exibility. It says exibility of IT dollars, and reduce risk. You get that the posiMve aspects of open source much more transparency and interoperability, soLware should be given consideraMon and that reduces your risk, she said. during procurement research. hQp://news.cnet.com/ 8301-13505_3-9921115-16.html hQp://arstechnica.com/open-source/news/2009/10/dod-military-needs-to-think-harder-about-using-open-source.ars Thursday, January 19, 12 27. Isnt Open Source Risky?For a total 284 days in 2006 (or more than nine months out of the year), exploit code for known, unpatched criMcal aws in pre-IE7 versions of the browser was publicly available on the Internet. Likewise, there were at least 98 days last year in which no soLware xes from MicrosoL were available to x IE aws that criminals were acMvely using to steal personal and nancial data from users.In a total of ten cases last year, instrucMons detailing how to leverage "criMcal" vulnerabiliMes in IE were published online before MicrosoL had a patch to x them.In contrast, Internet Explorers closest compeMtor in terms of market share -- Mozillas Firefox browser -- experienced a single period lasMng just nine dayslast year in which exploit code for a serious security hole was posted online before Mozilla shipped a patch to remedy the problem.hQp://blog.washingtonpost.com/securityx/2007/01/internet_explorer_unsafe_for_2.html Thursday, January 19, 12 28. Risk of Proprietary Software Closed-source eorts oLen suer from aws and problems which the original development team never anMcipated. Lack of inspecMon of the code by other programmers can mean that inappropriate design constraints and other errors might not be discovered unMl the code is already in use. Pavlicek, Russell. Embracing insanity : open source soLware development. Indianapolis IN: SAMS, 2000. p. 33.Thursday, January 19, 12 29. Software is Risky!All soLware has risks, you need to evaluate open source the same way you do proprietary systems.Several Levels of Risk to consider: SoLware security issues Open source is just as secure if not more secure than proprietary systems because of its transparency Evaluate open source soLware no dierently than you do other soLware! Company mergers and acquisiMons Because you own the code to your system you are not Med to one support source and will never be leL without support Thursday, January 19, 12 30. Can I do it Myself? Absolutely, with the right in-house skills Linux server management Web programming Perl / PHP / MySQL Systems knowledgeThursday, January 19, 12 31. Some NumbersThursday, January 19, 12 32. Open Source & Libraries When asked what Open Source apps they use at work, 977 librarians and library workers answered as follows hQp://opensource.web2learning.net/archives/category/survey-resultsThursday, January 19, 12 33. Open Source & LibrariesWhen asked why they chose and open source app, 977 librarians and library workers answered as follows hQp://opensource.web2learning.net/archives/category/survey-resultsThursday, January 19, 12 34. Now What?Thursday, January 19, 12 35. Play Time Start downloading and installing applicaMons that will make things more ecient (and possibly aordable) for you. hQp://www.ickr.com/photos/nengard/3253133986/Thursday, January 19, 12 36. Portable PlayCant install soLware on your work computer?Try PortableApps:Install on your USB drive and use many of these open source applicaMons without installing to the hard drive hQp://portableapps.com Thursday, January 19, 12 37. Local Play Dont have access to a web server? Try BitNami: Free, easy to setup wikis, blogs, forums and many other web applicaMons that you can run locally or in the cloud. BitNami makes deploying server soLware a simple and enjoyable process.hQp://bitnami.org/Thursday, January 19, 12 38. Additional LinksOpen Source Living http://osliving.comOSS Watch, open source software advisory service: http://www.oss-watch.ac.ukOpen Source as Alternative http://www.osalt.comNicoles Delicious bookmarks: http://delicious.com/nengard/opensourceThursday, January 19, 12 39. OSS & Libraries Links Open Source SoLware in Libraries hQp://infomoMons.com/musings/ossnlibraries/ Open Source SoLware and Libraries Bibliography zotero.org/groups/ freelibre_and_open_source_soLware_and_libraries_bibliography PracMcal Open Source SoLware for Libraries hQp://opensource.web2learning.net/blog Open Network Libraries hQp://onl.org.nz FOSS4Lib hQp://foss4lib.org Thursday, January 19, 12 40. Open Source Blogs The Open Road New York Times - Open hQp://www.cnet.com/openroad/hQp://open.nyMmes.com Open Ended from Ars Technica OpenSource.com hQp://arstechnica.com/open-sourcehQp://opensource.com The H Open Source Open Source at DatamaMon hQp://www.h-online.com/open/ itmanagement.earthweb.com/osrc/ ZDNet Open Source hQp://blogs.zdnet.com/open-sourceThursday, January 19, 12 41. Online Reading List Open Source: Narrowing the Divides between EducaMon, Business, and CommunityhQp://connect.educause.edu/display/47941 The concepts of Free SoLware & Open Standards: IntroducMon to Free SoLware hQp://Lacademy.org/materials/fsm/1#1 We Love Open Source SoLware. No, You Cant Have Our CodehQp://journal.code4lib.org/arMcles/527 Open Source SoLware Tools And Directories: Where To Find Them, How To Evaluate ThemhQp://www.masternewmedia.org/open-source-soLware-tools-and-directories-where-to-nd-them-how-to-evaluate-them/ Open Source Security BibliographyhQp://www.zotero.org/nengard/items/collecMon/QKWPIXK9 Nicoles Zotero LibraryhQp://www.zotero.org/nengard/items/collecMon/1796131Thursday, January 19, 12 42. Print Reading List Prac%cal Open Source So/ware in Libraries by Nicole C. Engard The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Acciden...