Open and Distance Learning: History, Status and Trends

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Presentation on 22/03/2010 at the Refresher Programme in Distance Education organized by STRIDE


<ul><li>1.Open and Distance Education: History, Status and Conceptual analyses IGNOU-STRIDE Sanjaya Mishra</li></ul> <p>2. Lets Begin with the Terminologies Correspondence education Home study Independent study External studies Continuing education Distance teaching Self instruction Open learning Flexible learning Distributed learning IGNOU-STRIDE 3. Open Learning </p> <ul><li>medium or media, whether print, on-line, television or video;</li></ul> <ul><li>place of study, whether at home, in the workplace or on campus;</li></ul> <ul><li>pace of study, whether closely paced or unstructured;</li></ul> <ul><li>support mechanisms, whether tutors on demand, audio conferences or computer-assisted learning; and</li></ul> <ul><li>entry and exit points.</li></ul> <p>The educational philosophy ofopen learningemphasizes giving learners choices about: IGNOU-STRIDE 4. Distance Learning </p> <ul><li>separation of teacher and learnerin time or place, or in both time and place;</li></ul> <ul><li>institutional accreditation ; that is, learning is accredited or certified by some institution or agency. This type of learning is distinct from learning through your own effort without the official recognition of a learning institution;</li></ul> <ul><li>use of mixed-media courseware , including print, radio and television broadcasts, video and audio cassettes, computer-based learning and telecommunications. Courseware tends to be pre-tested and validated before use;</li></ul> <p>Most definitions of distance learning pay attention to the following characteristics: IGNOU-STRIDE 5. </p> <ul><li>two-way communicationallows learners and tutors to interact as distinguished from the passive recipient of broadcast signals. Communication can be synchronous or asynchronous;</li></ul> <ul><li>possibility of face-to-face meetingsfor tutorials, learnerlearner interaction, library study and laboratory or practice sessions; and</li></ul> <ul><li>use of industrialised processes ; that is, in large-scale open and distance learning operations, labour is divided and tasks are assigned to various staff who work together in course development teams.</li></ul> <p>Distance Learning Contd IGNOU-STRIDE 6. Teaching-Learning Scenario IGNOU-STRIDE Same timeDifferent time Same place Classroom teaching, face-to-face tutorials and seminars, workshops and residential schoolsLearning resource centres, which learners visit at their leisure.Different place Audio conferences and video conferences; television with one-way video, two-way audio; radio with listenerresponse capability; and telephone tutorials. Home study, computer conferencing, tutorial support by e-mail and fax communication. 7. History of ODL </p> <ul><li>Boston Gazette, March 20, 1728: Advertisement for Short hand course </li></ul> <ul><li>Popularly known, 1840: Sir Isaac Pitman's Short hand course </li></ul> <ul><li>First distance teaching university, University of South Africa in 15 Feb 1946:</li></ul> <ul><li>First Open University, 1969: UKOU </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 8. The Idea of Open University </p> <ul><li>China's Imperial Examination system in 6 thcentury </li></ul> <ul><li>Rabindranath Tagore's idea of home-based study influenced Leonard Elmhirst (Agricultural adviser), who started Dartington Hall. Michael Young was a pupil there who went on to propose the idea of the UK Open University and started the National Extension College as apilot </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 9. Status </p> <ul><li>Over 90 Open Universities around the World </li></ul> <ul><li>15 in India alone </li></ul> <ul><li>First Open University in India started in 1982; and the National Open University of India was established in 1985. </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 10. Open University Movement </p> <ul><li>Principle of egalitarianism (open to all) </li></ul> <ul><li>Principle of equality of educational opportunities (barriers of caste, economy, gender to be removed) </li></ul> <ul><li>Principle of lifelong and ubiquitous learning </li></ul> <ul><li>Principle of flexible curricula </li></ul> <ul><li>Principle of learner-orientation </li></ul> <ul><li>Principle of autonomous learning </li></ul> <ul><li>Principle of learning through communication and interaction </li></ul> <p>Source : Peters, 2008 IGNOU-STRIDE 11. Generations of Distance Education IGNOU-STRIDE First Generation- Correspondence Model: Only print based Second Generation- Multi-media Model: Print, Audio, Video, CBL(CAI/CML) Third Generation- Telelearning Model: Audio Teleconferencing, Video Teleconferencing, Audiographics, Broadcast Radio/TV Fourth Generation- Flexible Learning Model: Interactive Multimedia, Internet/WWW, CMC Fifth Generation- Interactive Flexible Learning Model: Automated response systems, Virtual Learning space 12. Advantages of ODL </p> <ul><li>Overcoming physical distance </li></ul> <ul><li>Solving time and scheduling problems </li></ul> <ul><li>Expanding the limited number of space available </li></ul> <ul><li>Democratizing education </li></ul> <ul><li>Bringing quality education to the doorstep of millions </li></ul> <ul><li>Dealing with cultural, religious and political considerations </li></ul> <ul><li>Cost-effective education suitable to developing nations </li></ul> <ul><li>Provides second chance to those who miss education </li></ul> <ul><li>Enables lifelong learning </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 13. Limitations? </p> <ul><li>Attitudinal bias </li></ul> <ul><li>Believed as second rate </li></ul> <ul><li>Quality is questioned all the time </li></ul> <ul><li>Difficult to start takes lot of planning time </li></ul> <ul><li>Requires trained, committed human resources </li></ul> <ul><li>Any other? </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 14. Why ODL? </p> <ul><li>Access and reach </li></ul> <ul><li>Equity and Gender </li></ul> <ul><li>Quality and effectiveness </li></ul> <ul><li>Relevance and lifelong learning </li></ul> <ul><li>Globalization and Technology </li></ul> <ul><li>Cost and Efficiency </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 15. Access and Reach </p> <ul><li>880 millions illiterate population </li></ul> <ul><li>By 2015 about 100 million school aged children would not be in school </li></ul> <ul><li>Only 668 millions enrolment in Primary schools </li></ul> <ul><li>Education is a basic human right, and how are we going to achieve the gigantic task </li></ul> <ul><li>School enrolment rate have to be increased up to 10% for many countries to meet the goals of Education for All by 2015 </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 16. Equity and Gender </p> <ul><li>Equity refers to the fairness in distribution of educational resources </li></ul> <ul><li>Equity in gender </li></ul> <ul><li>Equitable access to education for people in rural, hilly, and remote islands </li></ul> <ul><li>Female enrolment in all stages of education is less than 50% </li></ul> <ul><li>64% of the total illiterate population is female; in China female illiteracy is more than 70% </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 17. Quality and Effectiveness </p> <ul><li>Not just access, people need access to quality education </li></ul> <ul><li>Effect of HIV/AIDS on supply of education services: In Zambia the mortality rate amongst teachers because of HIV/AIDS was more than the general adult population</li></ul> <ul><li>World average for teachers is just 16 for 1000 population; in developing countries it is more less </li></ul> <ul><li>Technology and student-centred design has a strong role to play in improving quality </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 18. Relevance and Lifelong Learning </p> <ul><li>Societal change from labour intensive work to knowledge intensive work </li></ul> <ul><li>Need to teach the 7Cs: </li></ul> <ul><li>Constant change and advancement in technology </li></ul> <ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul> <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul> <ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul> <ul><li>Cross-cultural understanding </li></ul> <ul><li>Communication </li></ul> <ul><li>Computing </li></ul> <ul><li>Career development </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 19. Globalization and Technology </p> <ul><li>Globalization refers to the package of economic reforms including liberalization, privatization and decentralization </li></ul> <ul><li>Education as a commodity and trans-boarder flow of knowledge </li></ul> <ul><li>Technology is the mover in the age of globalization, especially the Internet, and its WWW </li></ul> <ul><li>Increasing digital divide: only 4.8 persons per thousand online </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 20. Cost and Efficiency </p> <ul><li>Governments are by far the largest funding bodies in education </li></ul> <ul><li>In spite of commitment, Governments are not in a position to invest more as there are other important areas like health, environment, etc. </li></ul> <ul><li>The public expenditure in education varies between 2-6% of GNP in many countries; world average is just 4.8% of GNP </li></ul> <ul><li>Private participation required to increase efficiency; Governments can focus more on primary education </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE 21. ODL: Issues and Challenges </p> <ul><li>Mandate vs performance </li></ul> <ul><li>Quality of teaching and learning </li></ul> <ul><li>Dropouts and cost-effectiveness </li></ul> <ul><li>Faculty workload </li></ul> <ul><li>Research on ODL teaching and learning practices </li></ul> <ul><li>Flexibility vs professional demands </li></ul> <ul><li>Incorporating technology mediated synchronous learning </li></ul> <ul><li>Virtualization and emergence of Cyber universities </li></ul> <p>IGNOU-STRIDE </p>