ocean creatures

Author: emmel-ng

Post on 07-Mar-2016




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comprehension passages


  • Jellyfish

    Jellyfish are animals with no backbone. There

    are many types and they usually have an

    umbrella or bell shape. The box jellyfish is

    the most dangerous kind and it lives in


    Jellyfish live in oceans all around the world.

    Sometimes they live in the deep part of the

    ocean, but often they are found in shallow

    water near the coast. A group of jellyfish is called a bloom. There can

    be millions of jellyfish in a bloom.

    Some jellyfish are very large (even bigger than a human) but some are

    so small you can hardly see them. They move by opening and closing

    their body quickly. This moves water away from them and shoots

    them off in another direction.

    Jellyfish use their tentacles to sting their prey. Sometimes the sting is

    harmless to a human, but sometimes it is very painful and can kill.

    Jellyfish eat plankton, tiny fish and prawns. Jellyfish are an important

    part of ocean life. They are food for turtles and large fish and

    sometimes they provide a place for small fish to shelter.

  • Jellyfish

    What do jellyfish look like?

    Where do jellyfish live?

    What is the name for a group of jellyfish?

    What do jellyfish use their tentacles for?

    Describe how jellyfish


    Why are jellyfish

    important to the ocean


    What is your favourite

    thing about jellyfish?

    Draw a picture of a


  • Starfish

    Most starfish have five arms, but

    some species have many more.

    One type of starfish has 40 arms!

    If a starfish loses an arm it can

    grow a new one. If it is being

    attacked it might leave its arm

    behind to get away.

    There are more than 2000 types

    of starfish and they live in oceans

    all over the world. They can be found in both shallow and deep

    water. Starfish cant swim but they move along the ocean floor with

    tiny little tube feet underneath their body.

    Starfish come in many different colours. They usually have a kind of

    shell to protect them from predators like birds or fish. Some starfish

    have little spikes on their skin, but others feel a bit like leather. They

    have tiny eyes at the end of each arm, although these eyes dont see

    very well.

    Starfish can change their gender! They can change from male to

    female or back again whenever they want. Amazingly, starfish dont

    have a brain and they also dont have blood!

  • Starfish

    Describe what a starfish looks like.

    Where do starfish live?

    Why do you think starfish might have spikes on their


    What happens if a starfish loses an arm?

    Describe how starfish


    Write down two

    interesting facts about


    What is your favourite

    thing about starfish?

    Draw a picture of a starfish.

  • Seahorses

    Seahorses live in oceans all around the

    world, usually in shallow areas near the

    shore. They are very good at hiding

    amongst underwater plants and often

    wrap their tail around the plants to hold

    themselves in place. Some seahorses can

    change colour to blend in with their


    Some people think a seahorse is strange to

    look at. It has a head like a horse, a tail

    like a monkey and male seahorses have a

    pouch like a kangaroo! Some seahorses are very tiny. Others are

    about as big as your school ruler.

    Seahorses like to eat plankton, little fish and tiny prawns. They dont

    have teeth, but suck their food up through their snout. A seahorse

    stands upright and uses its back fin to move itself around.

    Seahorses have their babies in a different way to most animals because

    its the male who is pregnant! He carries the seahorse eggs around in

    a pouch until theyre ready to be born.

  • Seahorses

    Describe what a seahorse looks like.

    How do seahorses eat?

    Where do seahorses live?

    How does a seahorse move

    around in the ocean?

    Describe how seahorses hide

    from predators.

    Write an interesting fact

    about seahorse babies.

    What is your favourite thing

    about seahorses?

    Draw a picture of a


  • Whales

    Whales are huge

    animals. One

    species called the

    Blue Whale is not

    only the largest

    type of whale, it is

    also the largest

    animal anywhere in the world. It is also bigger than any animal that

    has ever lived, including dinosaurs! Blue Whales can weigh more than

    150,000 kilograms and be more than 30 metres long.

    Unlike many kinds of sea creatures, whales breathe air. They come up

    to the surface of the water to breathe in and out using the blowhole

    on their head or back. They can stay underwater for up to an hour

    and a half.

    Some whales eat plankton and krill, but others eat fish and small

    animals. Whales are often known for their singing. Their song is the

    noise they make to call out to other whales and communicate with


    Each year whales migrate from cooler waters to warmer waters. They

    travel in a group called a pod. A baby whale is called a calf.

  • Whales

    How big is a Blue Whale?

    Describe how whales breathe.

    What do whales eat?

    Why do whales sing?

    What happens when whales migrate?

    What is the name for a group of whales?

    What is your


    thing about


    Draw a

    picture of a


  • Pufferfish

    Pufferfish are known for

    their ability to increase their

    size very quickly. When

    they feel threatened, they

    puff their body up into a

    ball shape. This scares away


    The pufferfish has a stomach

    that is very stretchy. They gulp in water to puff up to twice their

    normal size. This helps them stay safe because they are a slow


    There are more than one hundred different types of puffer fish living

    in different parts of the world, including the Pacific, Atlantic and

    Indian Oceans. Most pufferfish are very poisonous. Even if a

    predator eats them before they puff up, the poison will probably kill


    Pufferfish have really good eyesight. They also have big teeth. They

    like to eat algae, crabs, sponges, sea urchins and coral. Unlike other

    fish, pufferfish dont have scales. Their skin is rough and sometimes


  • Pufferfish

    What does a pufferfish look like?

    Why does a pufferfish puff up into a ball?

    Describe how pufferfish increase their size.

    Why are pufferfish dangerous to eat?

    Where do pufferfish live?

    What do pufferfish


    Write an interesting

    fact about pufferfish.

    What is your

    favourite thing about


    Draw a picture of a pufferfish.

  • Sea Turtles

    There are seven kinds of sea

    turtles and six of them live

    in the ocean surrounding

    Australia. All species of sea

    turtle are endangered.

    Sea turtles are large

    creatures and can grow as

    big as two metres long.

    Some of them weigh more than 900 kilograms! Sea turtles often live

    for up to 80 years.

    Sea turtles like to eat sea grasses and jellyfish. Although they spend

    their days swimming underwater, sea turtles need to come up to the

    surface to breathe air. They only need to take one big breath and

    they can stay underwater for hours.

    Sea turtles return to the beach to lay their eggs. The female turtle digs

    a hole in the sand and lays more than one hundred eggs. When they

    hatch, the baby turtles dig their way out of the sand and move quickly

    to the ocean. Not all of them make it to the water though, because

    predators like birds and crabs try to eat them.

  • Sea Turtles

    How big do sea turtles get?

    How do sea turtles breathe?

    What does endangered mean?

    What do sea turtles eat?

    Describe what happens when a sea turtle lays eggs.

    Write an

    interesting fact

    about sea turtles.

    What is your

    favourite thing

    about sea turtles?

    Draw a picture of

    a sea turtle.

  • Crabs

    Crabs have ten legs,

    including their two claws, or

    pincers. They use their

    pincers to catch their food,

    protect themselves and

    communicate. They wave

    or drum their pincers to talk

    to each other!

    Crabs come in many different sizes. Some are smaller than one

    centimetre, but some can grow to about four metres wide! They have

    a thick shell to protect them from predators and eyes that are on

    stalks, just like a snail. Their flat body allows them to hide in small

    spaces. They are well protected, but if a crab loses a leg in a fight, it

    can usually grow another one.

    There are more than 6000 types of crabs and they live in oceans all

    over the world. They like to be in a sandy area. Most crabs walk

    sideways and some can even swim.

    Crabs look for their food on the ocean floor. They usually eat algae,

    worms and molluscs, but they are not fussy eaters and will sometimes

    eat other dead animals or plants.

  • Crabs

    What do crabs look like?

    What do crabs use their pincers for?

    How do crabs move?

    What do crabs eat?

    What size are crabs?

    How are crabs

    protected from


    What is your

    favourite thing

    about crabs?

    Draw a picture

    of a crab.

  • Sharks

    Sharks dont

    have any

    bones in their

    body. Their

    skeleton is

    made of

    cartilage (the

    same material your nose and ears are made of). This makes them

    more flexible when theyre moving through the water.

    There are more than 400 types of sharks. Some live in the deep ocean

    and others live in shallow water closer to shore. Most sharks are

    about one metre long, but some sharks, like the whale shark, can get

    to 14 metres long! A baby shark is called a pup.

    Sharks dont have a single row of teeth like humans do. They have

    multiple rows of teeth. When they lose a tooth, new ones keep

    growing to replace them. Sharks often lose at least one tooth each


    Sharks have a very good sense of smell. They can smell blood in the

    water from a long way away. They can also hear very well and are

    always listening out for their prey.

  • Sharks

    What is different about a sharks skeleton?

    Where do sharks live?

    What is the name for a baby shark?

    What happens when a shark loses a tooth?

    Why do you think sharks have such a good sense of


    Write an interesting fact about sharks.

    What is



    thing about


    Draw a picture of a shark.

  • Squid

    Most squid are about

    50cm long, but the

    giant squid can be as

    big as 13 metres! It

    weighs more than

    400kg and its eyes are

    as big as basketballs!

    They have the largest

    eye of any animal on earth.

    There are more than 300 different kinds of squid and they can be

    found in oceans all over the world. Squid are unique because they

    swim backwards. Their tail goes first, instead of their head.

    Squid usually have eight arms and two tentacles. They also have a

    type of beak which they use to eat their prey. Squid eat fish, smaller

    squid or other small animals. Some types of squid can glow in the


    When they feel threatened, squid often squirt dark ink into the water.

    This distracts their attacker while they escape and hide. They can also

    change colour to blend in with their surroundings, making it hard for

    predators to see them.

  • Squid

    Describe what squid look like.

    How big is a giant squid?

    What is different about the way squid move?

    What do squid eat?

    How do squid protect themselves?

    Write an

    interesting fact

    about squid.

    What is your

    favourite thing

    about squid?

    Draw a picture

    of a squid.

  • Octopuses

    There are many

    different types of

    octopuses. They range

    in size from as small as

    five centimetres to as big

    as 10 metres.

    All octopuses have eight

    legs. They use two of

    their legs to walk along the ocean floor, or to push off when they are

    swimming away. Each of their legs has suckers to help them feel and

    taste things. Octopuses dont have any bones, but they do have three


    Octopuses usually live on the ocean floor and make a home amongst

    rocks or create a burrow. When they feel in danger, octopuses may

    squirt ink. The ink confuses their attacker and allows them to hide or

    make a speedy escape. They can also change colour to blend in with

    their surroundings.

    Octopuses like to feed on molluscs, crabs, worms and crayfish. Some

    species of octopus, like the Blue-Ringed Octopus, are poisonous to


  • Octopuses

    Where do octopuses live?

    How big does an octopus get?

    What does an octopus use the suckers on its legs for?

    Describe how an octopus moves.

    What does an octopus eat?

    How do octopuses protect themselves from attackers?

    What is your

    favourite thing



    Draw a picture

    of an octopus.