Nursery management

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<ul><li> 1. NURSERY MANAGEMENT PRACHI T.O. FTC, SUNDER NAGAR</li></ul> <p> 2. GROUPS OF VEGETABLES BASED ON PLANTING TECHNIQUES DIRECT SOWN Peas, Beans, root Crops &amp; cucurbitsTRANSPLANTED Tomato, Brinjal, Chillies, Capsicum, Onion, Cole Crops, lettuce etc. 3. ADVANTAGES OF NURSERY GROWING EASY &amp; CONVENIENT TO LOOK AFTER THE TENDER &amp; YOUNG SEEDLINGS IN SMALL &amp; COMPACT AREA PROVIDES FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR GROWTH HELPS IN AVOIDING A PART OF UNFAVOURABLE WEATHER CONDITION HELPS IN GETTING AN EARLY CROP NURSERY PLANTS CAN BE EASILY PROTECTED AGAINST INSECT PESTS &amp; DISEASES ECONOMY OF LAND, SEED &amp; OTHER SOURCES 4. PRINCIPLE Plant growth is related to the efficiency with which increasing radiation is intercepted &amp; converted into useful plant products. Direct seeded crops often grow slowly through the seedling stage and show poor light interception &amp; much of the light falls on the bare soil which is wasted. Light interception improves directly with leaf canopy cover until a point is reached where mutual shading reduces the functioning efficiency of lower leaves. The ratio of the leaf area to the area of ground covered is known as Leaf Area Index(LAI) 5. PRINCIPLE cont. Maximum assimilation usually occurs on LAI of about 5, although different species differed for it. This is particularly relevant for crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprout, broccoli etc. which form a dense spreading canopy. It is always desirable that an optimum LAI should be achieved as quickly as possible. Transplanted vegetables produce the necessary leaf canopy at a much faster rate than the direct seeded crop and retain this advantage provided there are no post planting checks and crop growth restrictions. 6. Cost of seed also influences the choice between direct seeding and transplanting 7. Choosing a vegetable nursery site 1. Environmental factors This refers to natural features of the land, which may greatly influence the cost of operation and facilitate management of the nursery. 8. a) Proximity to planting site (main field) are: i) Cost of transporting the seedlings to the field is minimized. ii) Less risk of loss of seedlings during transportation, and seedling failure after transplanting. iii) Reducing the chances of transmitting or redistributing soil-borne pathogens through seedling roots or earth balls over long distances. 9. Land gradient (steepness of the land) It is desirable to have the nursery on a level ground with good drainage. Nursery soils Favourable soil conditions (good drainage, absence of toxicity, fertile, etc.). Water supply A nursery should be located where a reliable, abundant and inexpensive supply of uncontaminated water is available. Water supply could be from wells, boreholes, natural streams or irrigation channel 10. Proximity to services Labour supply b) Markets c) Supplies d) Services 11. Types of nursery facilities Greenhouses - environment fully controlled * Nethouse - environment partially modified * Open field - where climatic conditions are normally favourable for the crops grown. 12. Media for raising seedlings Soil ,perlite, vermiculite and peat moss sufficiently firm enough and dense to hold seeds in place during germination. - sufficiently porous to let excess water drain away - have a high water holding capacity. - free from weed seeds, nematodes and other pathogens. - high cation exchange capacity so that it can provide nutrients - able to withstand sterilization treatment 13. Raising of Healthy Nursery Quality Seed Sufficient amount of Organic Matter in the Nursery Area Length of the nursery bed can be increased or decreased depending on the land availability Breadth of the bed should not be 1 m &amp; in no case more than 1.2m to ensure weeding without entering into the nursery bed 14. Raising of Healthy Nursery Nursery Bed 3m X1m X15cm 20-25 Kg well rotten FYM + 200g 12:32:16/SSP+15-20g DM-45+20-25 ml Chroropyriphos 15. DETAILED PROCEDURE Seed treatment with fungicide with captan/bavistin/Thiram @2-3g/ Kg Sow the seeds in lines 5cm apart &amp; cover with thin layer of FYM Cover the seeds with dry grass Irrigate the beds twice in summers, both morning &amp; evening One irrigation sufficient during winters The beds must remain moist but not wet otherwise damping off disease of seedlings appears 16. DETAILED PROCEDURE-cont. Thick sowing &amp; sowing with broadcasting also leads to damping off After germination remove the dry grass during day time but cover the beds at night during winter period If the disease damping off appears in nursery, spray the nursery bed with DM-45 @ 0.25% For good healthy seedlings, urea spray of 0.3 per cent can be given when plants are 8-10cm tall After 4-6 weeks, the plants become 10-15 cm tall and are ready for transplanting 17. DETAILED PROCEDURE-cont. Stop irrigating the nursery beds 3-4 days before the date of transplanting, so that the plants harden On the day of transplanting, irrigate the bed, then uproot the seedlings for transplanting Transplanting should always be done in the afternoon &amp; only the healthy seedlings should be used for transplanting Before transplanting the uprooted seedlings should be dipped in 0.25% DM-45 &amp; 0.05% bavistin Fix the plants well &amp; water them daily till their establishment in field 18. Beds are made, approximately 1 meter wide. They can be as long a desired 19. A clear walking path between two beds is important to access beds on both sides. Vermicompost and well-decomposed cow-dung are mixed into the beds 20. The compost and dung are worked into the soil and large, hard chunks of soil are either broken down or removed so that the bed is fine and powdery. Using a stick, furrows are made along the width the of the bed, leaving a gap of approximately 5cm or as wide as four-fingers 21. Bed preparations in scientific way 22. Seeds are sprinkled in a straight line into the furrows 23. After sowing seeds, sprinkle a thin layer of soil and compsot mix on the seeds , A woman brings in the hay that will be used to mulch the beds 24. Straw is then used to cover the beds (mulch) to keep the seeds warm and allow them to germinate. The straw can be removed as soon as the seeds are seen to sprout. 25. Nursery raising in Cucurbits RAISING OF PLANTS Small polythene bags of 15cm X 10 cm of 100 gauge thickness Make holes at the base of polythene with needles Fill the bags with mixture of soil &amp; FYM If the soil is sandy, silt can be added &amp; all the three ingredients can be mixed in equal proportion If the soil is clayey some sand can be added 26. Nursery raising in Cucurbits-cont RAISING OF PLANTS Keep the bags in a protected place where they receive the sunshine &amp; are safe from the incidence of cold wind &amp; frost The seed is sown in each bag at 1-1.5cm depth in the last week of Jan., or first week of February Bags should be watered after sowing &amp; kept moist till all the seeds have germinated 27. Nursery raising in Cucurbits-cont TRANSPLANTING Plants ready for transplanting after 25-30 days of sowing The development of first true leaf by the plant is indicative of their proper stage of development With held irrigation 2-3 days before transplanting Bags should be placed near the hills/field where these are to be transplanted 28. Nursery raising in Cucurbits-cont TRANSPLANTING Remove the polythene of seedlings by giving a cut with the blade. In the well prepared hill, dig small pit and the soil ball holding the roots of the seedling is placed carefully after removing the polythene bag. 29. Formaline Treatment 5% soln of 40% commercial formulation 1:7 30. SOIL SOLARIZATION Plough &amp; level the land uniformly Incorporate FYM &amp; irrigate Spread transparent polysheet of 25-50 micron or 100-200 gauge thackness foe 4-6 weeks 31. After 45 days of solarization increase in temperature : 5 cm 7- 9c : 10 cm 6 - 7c : 20 cm 4 -5 c 32. Multicelled plastic plug or pro-trays nursery raising Plastic trays of uniform size with cells of equal size are fixed in thermocol basin are mostly prefered The cells shape may be flat, pyramid, round and hexagonal all have similar effect but cell size have a clear cut effect on growth Deeper celled trays have more faster growth because of more water and nutrient uptake compared to shallow celled trays. Larger cell sizes generally gives larger yields in the field for longer cycle crops like tomato and capsicums. 33. Container used for nursery raising must have good drainage and be able to hold soilless media and ease in handling. Table: recommended size of cell in plastic trays CropCell size (inches)Optimum size for early productionTomato, brinjal1.5-43.0capsicum1.0-42.0chilli1.0-32.0cucumber1.5-42.0Cole crops1. -32-3.0 34. Optimum temperature ranges for germination of seeds CropsGermination Appr. Days (0 C) to emergenceGrowing temp. during day (0 C)Growing temp. during night (0 C)Tomato, brinjal21-243-418-2112-18Capsicum &amp;chilli26-284-618-2112-18Cole crops18-242-310-188-14Cucurbits24-302-321-2412-18Onion 18-24 3-4 16-18 8-15 For healthy seedlings growth one seed per cell is sufficient, however, if some more seeds are sown then one seedling may be retained per cell after thinning and the thinned seedlings can be gap filled in where there is no seed germination 35. Rooting media for raising seedlings Mostly artificial soil-less media is used for raising seedlings Cocopeat Vermiculite Perlite Mix above in the ratio of 3:1:1 before filling in the plug trays. Media containing coarse textured peat provide better drainage and aeration promoting better root development of transplant. 36. Cocopeat: it is prepared from the waste ofcoconut husk. It has good porosity, improved drainage and air movement. It is free from infestation of any pest.Perlite: it is light rock material and is heatexpanded aluminium silicate rock.its role is to improve aeration and drainage. Vermiculite: It is heat expanded mica. It is light inwt. and has minerals (Ca &amp; Mg) for enriching the mix. It is neutral in reaction. 37. Advantages of soil-less media Uniformity of mix Ease of handlings Versatility Sterility: free of diseases Good drainage and moisture retention Convenience of use # After sowing the seeds a thick layer of vermiculite is given to cover the seeds for better germination as this media has good water holding capacity. 38. Slides of raising seedlings Healthy seedlings in traysTomato seedlings 39. Scientific nursery raising technology </p>