NTPC Training Report

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<p>INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT</p> <p>CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION NTPC , SHAKTINAGAR</p> <p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI convey my gratitude and sincere acknowledgement to Mr NIRMAL SHARMA (AGM, C&amp;I DEPARTMENT) for his kind permission, enabling me to undergo training at C&amp;I LAB. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr S.KACHHWAHA (Manager) and Mr A.K.AHMED (Assistant Engineer) for his guidance and kind help extended to me in order to successfully complete my training by providing with adequate information &amp; all required inputs. I would like to thank them for providing me technical knowledge and arranging introductory sessions for innovative and in depth understanding of the working procedures.</p> <p>CONTENTSTOPICSABOUT NTPC ABOUT</p> <p>NTPC SHAKTINAGAR</p> <p> TECHNICAL</p> <p>SPECIFICATION OF NTPC SHAKTINAGAR</p> <p>WORKING OF A PLANT TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY MAJOR C&amp;I SYSTEMS i.e. SG &amp; TG packages FUNCTIONS OF C&amp;I DEPARTMENT ABOUT MAXDNA SYSTEMS USA CONCLUSION</p> <p>ABOUT NTPCPOWER GENERATIONPresently, NTPC generates power from Coal and Gas. With an installed capacity of 31,704 MW, NTPC is the largest power generating major in the country. It has also diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil &amp; gas exploration, power trading &amp; distribution. With an increasing presence in the power value chain, NTPC is well on its way to becoming an Integrated Power Major. NTPC has been recently accorded MAHARATAN Status by honourable GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. While leading the nations power generation league, NTPC has remained committed to the environment. It continues to take various pro-active measures for protection of the environment and ecology around its projects. NTPC was the first among power utilities in India to start Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) studies and reinforced it with Periodic Environmental Audits.</p> <p>NTPC is the largest thermal power generating company of India .A Public sector Company wholly owned by government of India. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country. Within a span of 30 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. Contributing 26% of the countrys entire power generation. NTPC today lights up every fourth bulb in the country.With ambitious growth plans to become a 56000MW power company by 2017, NTPC the largest power utility of India has already diversified into hydro sector. 18 NTPC stations have already been accredited with the ISO 14001 certification. In keeping with its well focused environment protection policy, NTPC has set up a Centre for Power Efficiency and Environmental protection (CENPEEP) which functions as a resource centre for development and dissemination of latest technologies in environmental management. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span</p> <p>of 32 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.</p> <p>Coal StationsS.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Coal based Singrauli Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon Dadri Talcher Kaniha Unchahar Talcher Thermal Simhadri Tanda State Uttar Pradesh Chattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Commissioned Capacity (MW) 2,000 2,100 2,600 1,600 3,260@ 2,000 840@ 840 3,000 840@ 460 1,000 440</p> <p>Total (Coal) @Capacity presently under implementation Vindhyachal 1000 MW Unchahar 210 MW</p> <p>20,480</p> <p>Gas/Liquid Fuel Stationss.no 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Gas based Anta Auraiya Kawas Dadri Jhanor-Gandhar Kayamkulam Faridabad Total (Gas) Through Joint Venture State Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Kerala Haryana Commissioned Capacity (MW) 413 652 645 817 648 350 430 3,955 314</p> <p>Grand Total (Coal + Gas + JV)</p> <p>23,749</p> <p>ABOUT NTPC SHAKTINAGARShaktinagar Super Thermal Power station is one of the most prestigious flagships of NTPC striving ahead to bridge the country generation gap especially in the western region. NTPC is the sixth largest thermal power generator in the world and the second most efficient utility in terms of capacity utilization based on data of 1998. The station is located in Singrauli district in MP in the north-western side of the country. It has secured ISO 14001 and ISO 9002 certificate in the field of environment and power generation but also in various other fields. On November 2009, it made glorious achievement by ensuring production up to 3260 MW. By next few months, it adds 1000 MW more to its capacity (i.e. 4260 MW) As a public sector company, it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government</p> <p>of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. NTPC Vindhyachal super thermal power project is one of the most prestigious flagships of NTPC striving ahead to bridge the country generation gap especially in the western region. The station is located in Sidhi district in MP in the northwestern side of the country. It has secured ISO 14001 and ISO 9002 certificate in the field of environment and power generation but also in various other fields. On September 2002 it made glorious achievement by ensuring production up to 2260 MW. By next 06 months it adds 1000MW more to its capacity (3260MW). Work for Stage-III is going on in full swing. The erection work has been completed before scheduled.</p> <p>TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ABOUT NTPC VINDHYACHALTYPE OF STATION STATION CAPACITY 500 STAGE III 2 X 500 STAGE IV 2 X 500 (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) FUEL COAL SOURCE TRANSPORTATION COOLING WATER SOURCE RESERVIOR ASH DISPOSAL RESERVIOR CHIMNEY FOR 210 MW PLANT 210m FOR 500 MW PLANT 265m COAL NIGHAI (NCL) BY RAIL RIHAND RIHAND THERMAL STAGE I 6 x 210 STAGE II 2 X</p> <p>PLANT AREA -</p> <p>90-200 ACRES</p> <p>SOURCES FOR RAW MATERIALSCOAL SOURCENorthern coalfields limited (NCL) mines at Dudhichua (7Km) and Nigahi (10Km) and Jayant (5Km).</p> <p>FUEL OIL SOURCEIndian oil corporation (IOC) COLD (customer operated lubricant and oil deposit) at Jayant.</p> <p>WATER SOURCEDischarge canal of Singrauli super thermal power station.</p> <p>BENEFICIARY STATESMadhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Maharastra, Gujarat, Daman &amp; Diu and Dadar &amp; Nagerhaveli.</p> <p>BASIC POWER PLANT CYCLEThe thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapor + liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is Ranking Cycle modified to include super heating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam Figure 1A shows this cycle and is self explanatory.</p> <p>WORKING OF A THERMAL POWER PLANTCOAL TO STEAMCoal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers (1) with the help of belt conveyors. Coal is transported to Bowl Mills (3) by Coal feeders (2) the coal is pulverized in the Bowl Mill, where it is ground to a powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. This table is rotated with the help of a motor. There are three large steel rollers which are spaced 120 apart. When there is no coal, these rollers does not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between roller and the table and this forces the rollers to rotate. Coal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and rotating table. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes (4) with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P.A. Fan (5). P.A. Fan taken atmospheric</p> <p>air, a part of which is sent to Air preheaters (7) for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control. Atmospheric air from F.D. Fan (18) is heated in the air heaters (7) and sent to the furnace (6) as combustion air. . Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer (8) and reaches the boiler drum (9). Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the Furnace. Due to heat and the density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes (12). Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum (9) where the steam is separated from water. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to super heaters for superheating. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540C) and finally it goes to turbine. Flue gases from the furnace is extracted by induced draft fan (14) which maintains balance draft in the furnace (-5 to -10mm of wcl) with forced draft fan (18). These flue gases emits their heat</p> <p>energy to various super heaters in the pant house (15) and finally passes through air preheaters (7)and goes to electrostatic precipitator (16) where the ash particles are extracted. Electrostatic precipitator consists of metal plates which are electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney (17) to pollute the atmosphere. Regular mechanical hammers blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash is mixed with water to form slurry and is pumped to ash pond.</p> <p>STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER</p> <p>As can be seen from figure 2, from the boiler, a steam pipe (1) conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to shut off steam in an emergency) and through control valves (2) that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor (3), driven from the main turbine shaft (4), operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used (This depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required from the generator). Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine, where it passes through a ring of stationary blades (5) fixed to the cylinder wall (6). These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second. Ring of moving blades (7) mounted. On a disc secured to the turbine shaft. This second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of the steam. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a stage of the turbine and in practice many stages are necessary, so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them. The</p> <p>steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy. The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating (8) and returns by a further pipe (9) to the intermediate pressure cylinder. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades. Finally, the steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders, each of which it enters at the centre (10) flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine blades - an arrangement known as double flow to the extremities of the cylinder. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine, its temperature and pressure fall and it expands. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine. The turbine shaft usually rotates at 3,000 revolutions per minute. This speed is determined by the frequency of the electrical system used in this country and is the speed at</p> <p>which a 2- pole generator must be driven to generate alternating current at a frequency of 50 cycles per second. When as much energy as possible has been extracted from the steam it is exhausted directly to the condenser. This runs the length of the low pressure part of the turbine and may be beneath or on either side of it. The condenser consists of a large vessel containing some 20,000 tubes, each about 25mm in diameter. Cold water from the river, estuary, sea or cooling tower is circulated through these tubes and as the steam from the turbine passes round them it is rapidly condensed into water condensate. Because water has a much smaller comparative volume than steam, a vacuum is created in the condenser. This allows the steam to reduce down to pressure below that of the normal atmosphere and more energy can be utilized. From the condenser, the condensate is pumped through low pressure heaters by the extraction pump, after which its pressure is raised to boiler pressure by the boiler feed</p> <p>pump. It is passed through further feed heater to the economizer and the boiler for reconversion into steam. Where the cooling water for power stations is drawn from large rivers, estuaries or the coast, it can be returned directly to the source after use. Power status situated on smaller rivers and inland do not have such vast water resources available, so the cooling water is passed through cooling towers (where its heat is removed by evaporation) and re-used. A power station generating 2,000,000 kilowatts (KW) of electricity requires about 2,27,500 cubic meters pf water an hour for cooling purposes. Where cooling towers are used, about one hundredth part of the cooling water evaporates and a certain amount is returned to its source to carry away any impurities that collect. Most of it however is recirculated. .</p> <p>The thermal power plant generates electricity using steam which is generated inside boiler by burning coal or oil. Firstly, the coal is sent to the bunkers of a RC (Raw Coal) feeder from which it is sent to pulverisers at a controlled rate. The pulveriser has a grinder and three rollers at a distance of 2.5mm rotating in opposite directions. The powdered coal (of size less than or equal to 2.5mm) is sent to furnace through pipes. The coal is</p> <p>fed in through pipes in four directions so as to maintain the temp. inside boiler homogeneous. The coal is sent to furnace with the help of PA fans (Primary Air Fans). The igniter ignites the coal which is coming inside the furnace in such a way so that the direction of air through PA fan is tangent to an imaginary circle. This helps in making hot air in shape of a turbulent like structure which saves the furnace from damage due to uneven heating on any part of furnace. Another fan called FD fan (Forced Draft Fan) is used for secondary air i.e. excess air required for combustion. The furnace walls have water pipes which absorb the...</p>