North Africa & The Middle East. What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important?  What: North Africa and the Middle East (or Mid-East)

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<ul><li><p>North Africa &amp; The Middle East</p></li><li><p>What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important?What: North Africa and the Middle East (or Mid-East) is the nations of the northern part of Africa, the Arabian peninsula and the western part of Asia. Why:Familiarity with the culture and beliefs of this region will help our understanding of its current issuesAncient African civilizations flourished at a time when Europe was in decline with the ending of the Roman Empire</p></li><li><p>Middle East</p></li><li><p>Middle East and North Africa</p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p>VocabularyMake certain that you have the Essential Vocabulary done-posted on my website.Do Chapter 11 Vocabulary. List on page 395. Must do all 3 sections (12 words). Look up definitions in the glossary.</p></li><li><p>Lets Refresh Our MemoryThe Roman Empire (western) fell in 476 AD. By 550 AD, the Western Roman Empire had completely faded away.With the fall of Rome, trade with the East-China, India, etc.- was cut off.With the cutting off of major trading routes between East and West, information and knowledge shared between the two spheres began to disappear.European civilization went into decline (more about this later); Eastern civilization thrived. We have already looked at China-now we will look at North Africa and the Middle East.</p></li><li><p>Pre-Islamic Arabian CivilizationsOne of the areas in which diverse civilizations took root was the Arabian Peninsula.The Arabian Peninsula is the Peninsula which lies between Africa and Asia. Notice that we call it a Peninsula because it is surrounded by water on 3 sides and connects Africa and Asia.The western side is bordered by the Red Sea, the eastern side by the Persian Gulf and the southern side by the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean)</p></li><li><p>Life in Early ArabiaMost of the Arabian peninsula is desert with very intense heat, water found only in oases, and very often blinding sandstormsSurvival dictated that people band together to face the elements-and criminal elementsGroups to clans to tribes loyal to one another and headed by a sheikh</p></li><li><p>Life In Early ArabiaBedouins- desert herders who constantly traveled the desert, going from oasis to oasisTrade &amp; TownsMany people lived in small villages near sources of water- which allowed for farming and raising animalsSome people were merchants which transported goods across the desert in caravansEventually, they handled all the trade between India and the Mediterranean Sea and built towns along the trade routesRichest town/city was Makkah (Mecca)-crossroads for traders and the center of early Arabian religious life</p></li><li><p>Religion in Early ArabiaPolytheistic-worshipped many godsMost important was AllahMakkah-the center of religion in early ArabiaHome of the Kaaba- a low stone building surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses with a great stone inside that they believed came from heavenMany people traveled to Makkah to pay homage at the Kaaba</p></li><li><p>Teachings of IslamMuslims believe in one GodMuslims believe this one God holds all power and created the universeBelieve God determines right and wrongPeople are expected to obey Gods law if they want to be blessed in afterlifeMohammad is seen as the last prophet (after Abraham, Moses, etc.); he is not seen as divine.</p></li><li><p>The QuranMessages that Muhammad said he received from Allah are written down in the Quran-the Muslim holy bookContains moral teachings that instruct Muslims how to liveMust be honest, treat others fairlyHonor parents, show kindness to neighborsGive generously to poorMurder, lying, stealing prohibitedShould not eat pork, drink liquor, or gambleAlso contains rules for family life, business practices, and property rights</p></li><li><p>Five Pillars of IslamMuslims must fulfill the Five Pillars of Islam-the main acts of worship required of all MuslimsBelief-Muslims must declare that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammad is his prophetPrayer-Muslims must pray five times a day facing toward MakkahCharity-Muslims must give to the poorFasting-Muslims must not eat from dawn to dusk during the month of RamadanPilgrimage-Muslims must visit Makkah once in their life</p></li><li><p>The Night JourneyAccording to Islamic tradition, Mohammad took a journey sometime in the year 621 AD in one single night.Mohammad is said to have taken a trip on a magical (flying) animal that took him from Mecca to the temple at Jerusalem (some 766 miles).Once he worshipped at the temple, his faithful steed took him to heaven, where he meets other prophets and received instruction from God. </p></li><li><p>The Night JourneyAccording to Islamic tradition, God tells Mohammad to pray 50 times a day.As Mohammad leaves, he talks to Moses who tells him to go back and ask for a reduction which is granted (-10).This happens several times until the number of daily prayers is reduced to 5.This is where the Muslim tradition of praying 5 times a day comes fromMohammad also receives the instruction that Muslims are to wash before praying.</p></li><li><p>Veterans DayWhy is Veterans Day celebrated on November 11?What is the difference between Memorial Day and Veterans Day?</p></li><li><p>Veterans DaySet aside to honor all veterans- all those who have ever served in our nations Armed ForcesOriginally was called Armistice DayArmistice signed between Germany and the Allied Powers to end World War IWent into effect on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918</p></li><li><p>QuestionsWhen was the Armistice signed?When did it go into effect?What was the attitude of Allied commanders towards the Germans?Who was the last American casualty of World War 1? When did he die?How many lives were lost on the last day?Why?</p></li><li><p>Essential QuestionsWhat ways did Muslims use to spread their religion?Which way was the most successful?Were Muslims united after the death of Mohammad?</p></li><li><p>Supposethat a member of your family built a powerful business empire. Upon their death, a sharp division occurred among members of the family over who should be the rightful successor and control this business empire.What do you think would happen to the empire? To the family?</p></li><li><p>Division of IslamAfter Mohammads death, Muslims had a major disagreement over who should be caliph. Eventually this lead to the division of Islam-which continues to this day.Shiite-believed that Ali, Mohammads son-in-law, should succeed him and that all future caliphs should be Alis descendants. They rejected the Umayyad caliphs in DamascusSunni-accepted the Umayyad caliphs as rightful rulers of Islam. Sunni more numerous than ShiiteOver time the Sunni and Shiite developed different religious practices and customs</p></li><li><p>Further Struggles Within IslamThe AbbasidsDynasty that ruled the Muslim world after the Umayyads, from 750-1258Built new capital at Baghdad (Iraq)Brought Persian influence into the empireThe Seljuk TurksNomads from central Asia, first hired as soldiers by the Abbasids who then took power for themselves.Were content to let the Abbasid caliph remain as religious leaderBecame sultan-the holder of government and military power</p></li><li><p>Later Muslim Empires-Read &amp;RespondRead Pages 384-386Create a T-chart or Venn diagram contrasting the Ottoman Empire and the Mogul EmpireMust have a minimum of 5 facts for each; the more, the betterWhat are the main features of each (life, government)?Are there things in common? What are the main differences?Write a 1 page (3-5 paragraphs) response:What would a visitor to the Ottoman Empire observe? To the Mogul Empire?Are all people treated equally?Are there any injustices (wrongs) being committed against any group of people? What are they? What is the purpose? Why is this accepted?Due at beginning of class tomorrow (25 points)</p></li><li><p>Word BankEgyptSaudi ArabiaIsraelLebanonSyriaJordanCyprusTurkeyIraqArmeniaAzerbaijanIranYemenOmanKuwaitQatarTurkmenistanPakistanAfghanistanUzbekistanUnited Arab Emirates (UAE)TajikistanKyrgyzstan</p></li><li><p>Focus QuestionWhat impact did Islam have on Hinduism?What are some examples of the impact Islam had on Hinduism?</p></li><li><p>Islam vs. HinduismAs we have already discussed, Islam spread rapidly because of conquests.As you have learned, this led to the establishment of Muslim Empires.As you have also learned, Muslims used a variety of methods to persuade non-Muslims to convert in the areas they conquered.Some of these methods included: higher taxes, marrying of non-Muslim princesses (&amp; other young ladies) to Muslim men and princes, forcing young Christian men to convert to Islam and become soldiers, etc.</p></li><li><p>Islam vs. HinduismWhen the Mogul Empire conquered India, it came into contact with Hinduism.At first, the same tactics were usedAkbar the Great, whom you have learned about, removed a lot of the discriminatory practices against non-MuslimsAkbar believed and treated all religions as equals.His views were not widely accepted, and the Mogul Empire returned to its prior treatment of non-Muslims</p></li><li><p>Islams Impact on HinduismAkbars influence, however, is still felt within Hinduism today.2 examples:The Taj MajalThe division of India into India and PakistanIndia is Hindu, Pakistan is Muslim</p></li><li><p>Focus Questions:How was early Muslim society organized?What are the main reasons for this type of societal organization?How is this societal organization represented in the modern world?</p></li><li><p>Early Muslim SocietyPyramid structure based on wealth and powerGovernment leaders, landowners, and traders- most wealth and powerGovernment and religious leaders could be the same, but could also be separate.Artisans, farmers, and workers- common people with little access to wealth or powerSlaves. Muslims could not be enslaved, so non-Muslims were brought from other areas, often as prisoners of war.</p></li><li><p>Early Muslim SocietyImportant Things To KnowGenerally, the Quran teaches equality-all Muslims are treated the same.Distinctions are made for the following:Non-Muslims- are not considered equal with Muslims. There are different passages within the Quran which state seemingly contradictory ways in which non-Muslims were to be treated, from acceptance to violenceWomen-are seen as equal in some ways, non-equal in others. Basically, men are seen as stronger, women as weaker.</p></li><li><p>Early Muslim SocietyMenRan government, were in charge of business and societyWomenHelped run Muslim families, could inherit wealth and own property.Many places also had laws requiring women to cover their faces and wear long robes in public-hijab.</p></li><li><p>Focus QuestionsHow does the use of Sharia law help to create order in Islamic nations?Think back to our study of China; how did both ancient Chinese society and Islamic society use religion to help create order in society?</p></li><li><p>Sharia LawWhat is Sharia Law?What are some examples of Sharia Law?Who uses Sharia Law? Who doesnt?What is the reasoning for either using or not using Sharia law?</p></li><li><p>Sharia LawSharia Law is the moral code and religious law of Islam.Sharia Law deals with practically all matters- crime, politics, economics, personal hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting.Often considered the infallible word of God, although the interpretation is not.Where strictly implemented, Sharia is essentially religious law, with court officials often being high officials from the local mosque</p></li><li><p>Examples of Sharia LawFive Pillars of Islam- no pork, prayer, fastingNon-Muslims -not equal to Muslims, may not display pork, display/recite scriptures, openly celebrate their religious holidays, attempt to convert Muslims Leaving the Muslim faith is the crime of apostasy and is punishable by deathBlasphemy-speaking against the Muslim faith- is also punishable by deathRequires the wearing of hijab by womenThieves can be punished by flogging (public beating) and even amputation of limbs</p></li><li><p>Countries Implementing Sharia LawHistorically, all Muslim countries used Sharia lawToday, most Muslim countries apply only a few aspects of Sharia Law-generally in the area of family law.A few countries employ the entire code.Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and PakistanSome nations have chosen to no longer employ Sharia at allTurkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan-among others</p></li><li><p>Reasons for Using Sharia LawCultural and historical connection with Islamic historyHelps to create order in societyHierarchy of order, stability and controlUsed as a hedge against the changing nature of the modern world</p></li><li><p>Reasons for Not Using Sharia LawPressure from western nationsObservation that the Sharia code is unfair in many waysRealization that Sharia often does not provide stability and security-the opposite is often trueDesire to be like and accepted by western nations</p></li><li><p>African GeographyWhen done with the Sharia Law Activity:Read pp. 445-446Complete the Understanding Charts Activity on pg. 446Keep until tomorrow</p></li><li><p>Examples of Sharia LawThieves can be punished by flogging (public beating) and even amputation of limbsConsumption of alcoholic beverages are expressly forbiddenSome interpretations of Sharia law prescribe jihad (holy war) against all non-Muslims. Killing non-Muslims in a jihad is not a crime.Sharia also dictates marriage and divorce laws- a woman in violation can face death by stoning</p></li></ul>