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Modern Ages- Bilingual education primary


  • 1. Modern Ages

2. Modern Ages S. XV - XVIII Beginning The Discovery of America (1492). 2 ) The Protestant Reformation (1517). The End French Revolution (1789) 1) The capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 Other events: 3. Concepts: themodern age 1.- Economy - Development of tradebetween Spain an America: gold , - Exploration(America) and discoveries. - Economic transformation. 2.- Society. - development of citiesand themiddleages 3.- Religion - Intolerance: Protestantism Catholicism ( inquisition) muslimsand jews 4.- Politics, - Absolutemonarchies 5.- Science -scientific and technical discoveries 6.- Art and culture. - Art and literature in Spain. the renaissance, the baroque, the enlightment 7.- The Spanish Monarchy. - Habsburg Dynasty . - TheBourbon Dynasty 4. The Catholic kings Themarriagein 1469 of Isabel I and Fernando II, united thekingdoms o Castileand Aragon, Later, in 1496 they werecalled theCatholic Kings. During their reign: they conquered Granadakingdom and discovered America Unified their kingdoms Increased their power and created amodern state Wereintolerant toward other religions, and persecuted Jewsand Muslims. The discovery of America In 1492, Christopher Columbus started a journey to the East Indies, in order to find a route to improve the spice commerce. He did it with the money from the Catholic Kings of Spain. During that journey, Colombus discovered America. Spain 16th century Theexpedition left on the3rd August 1492 with threeships( SantaMara, Pintaand Nia) and reached theisland of San Salvador on the12th of October 1492 5. Columbus thought that the Earth was round. He believed he had reached the Indies in his journey. Columbus died believing he had reached the East by sailing west, but instead he had discovered a new world. A New World Economy During the16th century Spain wasthemost powerful nation in Europe, gold and silver arrived from America thereweremany voyagesof discovery and Spain conquered many territories. Religion: Spain fought many warsagainst Protestant and Muslimscountries. Inquisition: peoplewerejudged if they werenot good catholics The 16th Century The kings in this period belonged to the house of Austria ( Habsburg) the first one was Charles I (grandson of the Catholic Kings) and Felipe II, his son Carlos I Felipe II Spanish Empire Total Expansion 6. The next Hapsburg king are: Felipe III, Felipe IV and Carlos II The 17th century Spain was a country IN CRISIS Crisis in Society: the population declined because of plague epidemics, bad harvests, expulsion of Moors , emigration to America, etc there was an increase of beggars and poors. Crisis in Economy : Commercial activity declined because decrease of population Culture and Art: important period for literature and Art called The golden Age: Cervanes, Lope de vega, Velzquez The end of the Hapsburg kings Charles II died childless in 1700 Succession War began: there were two candidates: Felipe de Anjou ( French) and Carlos de Austria . Spain lose power in Europe A new dynasty replaced the Habsburg: The Bourbon Dynasty Felipe V was the first of the Bourbon dynasty which continues to reign today 7. The Bourbon Dynasty Felipe V Absolutist monarch He centralised the government Chose new officials to control his lands Eliminated many local laws and institutions and created new ones for the whole empire The 18th century The18th century wastheperiod of the Bourbon kings. FelipeV, Fernando VI, CarlosIII and CarlosIV Thereformsof the18th century: Agricultural production improved (introduction of corn and potato) Industry developed Tradewith Americaincreased 8. The next Bourbon king were: Fernando VI and Carlos III Carlos III He was king during the Enlightenment He started many new plans to modernize Spain He improved Spains system of roads and He modernized agriculture He establisehed the Royal Factories to promote industry The next Bourbon king were: Carlos IV, Fernando VII, Isabel II, Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII And Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI (current monarch) Theenlightment: It isacultural , scientific and political movement developed in France, consequence: first democratic ideas 9. Exploration and discoveries During the 15th and 16th centuries, many geographic discoveries took place. : maps, compass, astrolabe, carabel In 1492, Christopher Columbus started a journey to the East Indies, with the money from the Catholic Kings of Spain. During that journey, Colombus discovered America. Economy 10. Economic transformation Agriculture was the main economic activity International commerce increased European countries produced more coins The first bank accumulated money and charged interest for loans. The first modern factories appeared Voyages of Columbus, Magellan-Elcano and Vasco da Gama 11. Society During the modern age, society was divided into three groups: NobilityNobility ClergyClergy CommonersCommoners 12. Royalty Members of the upper class Nobility They had special privileges They could govern They didnt have to pay taxes They had their own courts of law Clergy Church officials (such a bishops and priests) 13. Commoner s Burghers middle class (lived in towns and cities) Beggars (lived in towns and cities) Peasants (lived in the country) They became a powerful social and economic group including: Merchants Doctors Lawyers Artisans Shopkeepers -Formed the largest social group -They were usually very poor -Some of them lived in terrible conditions 14. Important changes occurred during this period The origin of modern states Religious conflicts The origin of Modern Science Politics, religion and science 15. The origin of modern states At the beginning of the16th century, European monarchies dominated an unifed territory, created permanent armies, chose diplomats and ambassadors, developed a very organised administrations and collected new taxes to pay for their armies 16. Religious conflicts The Modern Age was a time of religious intolerance and conflicts Martin Luther published criticisms of The Catholic Church European Christians divided into two groups: Catholics and Protestants There were religious wars between Catholics Protestants and Muslims In some Catholics countries there was an institution called the Inquisition 17. The origin of Modern Science Begins the development of modern science because of the invention of printing (Gutenberg 1543) Some of greatest thinkers: Copernicus's heliocentric theory says, the sun is the center of the solar system Leonardo da Vinci designed many unusual machines Miguel Servet discovered the pulmonary circulatory motion Other great thinkers were Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Pascal, Newton, Limaeus and Jenner. 18. The main artistic styles of the Modern Age were: Renaissance Baroque Neoclassical Downing College, Cambridge Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man David by Bernini Art And Culture 19. The Renaissance style Main characteristics: This style is typical in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was inspired by ancient Greek and Roman art Some of most famous Renaissance artist are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci is a master piece of Renaissance Michelangelos Piet 20. The Baroque style This style was typical in the 17th century and the first half of the 18 century. It used lots of curved lines, decoration and dramatic effects, such as contrasts between light and dark areas. Some of most famous Renaissance artist are Bernini, Rembrandt, Rubens and Caravaggio. Main characteristics: Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus 1601 Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642 Tomb of Pope Alexander - Chigi VII by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1671- 1678 21. THE NEOCLASSICAL STYLE This style was typical of the second half of the 18th century. It returned to the classical styles and concepts of ancient Greece and Rome. This style was especially important in architecture. Main characteristics: L'cole Militaire on the Champ de Mars, Paris by Ange-Jacques Gabriel The Pantheon Paris, France by Jacques-Germain Soufflot .1757 The Death of Marat by Jacques Louis David (1793) 22. Art and Literature in Spain In Spain there were great artists who made an important contribution the world of art and literature. At the beginning of the 16th century, the most important painter in Spain was Domnikos Theotokpoulos EL Greco Portrait of An Old Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), circa 15951600 El Greco was a painter Renaissance-Mannerist Characteristics of his painting Elongation of faces and hands Likes to fill all the space of the picture. Richly colored, with a predominance of yellow ocher Religious themes The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (15861588, Santo Tom, Toledo), now El Greco's best known work, illustrates a popular local legend. 23. SpaniSh Golden aGe (paintinG) For the Golden Age refers to the classical era of the Spanish culture, essentially the XVI century Renaissance and the Baroque of the XVII century. Painting: In the golden age, there were great painters like Ribera (el espaoleto), Ribalta, Murillo, Zurbarn, Machuca ... and especially Velazquez Beggar Boys Eating Grapes and Melon,, by Murillo. St.Mary Magdalene, o St. Thais , 1641 by Ribera St. Hugh of Cluny in the Refectory of the Carthusians,(1630-35) by Zurbaran 24. Diego Velzquez Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velzquez, known as Diego Velzquez, was a Baroque painter, considered one of the leading exponents of Spanish painting and master painters. Las Meninas (1656). 25. Also in the Golden Age in Spain had great writers such as: Quevedo (El Buscn, Gongora Lope de Vega (Fuente Ovejuna,Rimas,El Perro del Hortelano,La Hermosura de). Calderon de la Barca (Comedies -. Ret rato de Francisco de Quevedo Flix lope de Vega y Carpio D. Luis de Gngora, by Diego de Velzquez Literature Pedro Caldern de la Barca Tirso de Molina (fray Gabriel Tllez ) 26. Cover of the first edition of D