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Minor Ancient Latin Poets, Latin and English

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MINOR LATIN POE^^WITH INTRODUCTIONS AND ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS BYJ.

WIGHT DUFFAND

EMERITUS PROFESSOR OK CLASSICS, ARMSTRO.Vc; COLLEGE (iN THE UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM), XEWCASTLE-UPON-TYSE, FELLOW OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY

ARNOLD

M.

DUFF

ASSISTANT LECTURER IX CLASSICS, UKIVERSITT COLLEGE or WALES, ABERYSTWYTH

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTDCAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD

UNIVERSITYMCMXXXIV

PRESS

Pnnted

in Great Britain

Preface

PuBLiLius Syrus

...... Sententiae:

CONTENTS

PAGE

ix

Introduction

3 14

Text" Elegiae in

Maecenatem

"

:

Introduction

115

TextGrattius Text

120

Cynegetica'.

:

Introduction

143

150:

Calpurnius Text

Siculus Bucolica

Introduction

209 218 289 294319

" IvAUS Pisonis "

:

Introduction

TextEiNSiEDELN Eclogues:

Introduction

Text" Precatio

324

Terrae"

":

AND

*'

Precatio Omnium339 342

HerbarumText" Aetna ".

Introduction

:

Introduction

351

Text:

.

358 423 426

Florus Introduction Text.

V

CONTENTSHadriax Introduction Text:

....:.

PAOK

439 444

/

Nemesianus

Bucolica ami.

Cynegetica.

Introduction

.

.451456:

Text

Two Fragments ox Bird-CatchingIntroduction. .

.

.512512

TextReposianus,

Modestinus, " CupiDO Amans," Pentadius Introduction Text:

.

.

.

Tiberianus

:

Introduction

TextServasius:

Introduction

.... ......

519 524 555 558 573 576585

Text" Dicta Catonis ":

Introduction to Disticha

TextIntroduction to Monosticha.

592.

622624

TextIntroduction to Lines from Columbanus.

628

TextIntroduction to Lines on the Muses.

630 634

TextIntroduction to Epitaph on Vitalis

.634.

Textvi

636 636

CONTENTSPACK

" Phoenix "

Text

AviAXUS Fabulae Text

RuTiLius NamatiaxusIntroduction

TextIndex

.... .... .... ....:

Introduction

.

643 650669

:

Introduction

680

De

Reditu Suo

75376-4

831

PREFACETo select for inclusion in a single volume of the Loeb Library a series of works representing the minor poetry of Rome has been a task of much interest but of no The mere choice of poets and poems little difficulty. could hardly be thought easy by anyone acquainted "svith the massive volumes issued in turn by Burman senior and his nephew, the Poetae Latini Minores by the former (1731) and the Anthologia Latum by the latter (1759 But a more serious difficulty 1773). confronted the editors for, in spite of the labours of scholars since the days of Scaliger and Pithou on the minor poems collected from various sources, the text of many of them continues to present troublesome and sometimes irremediable critces. This is notably true of Aetna and of Grattius but even for the majority of the poems there cannot be said to be a textus receptus to be taken over for translation without more ado. Consequently the editors have had in most cases to decide upon their own text and to supply a fuller apparatus criticus than is needful for authors \\'ith a text better established. Certainly, the texts given by Baehrens in his Poetae Latini Minores could not be adopted wholesale for his scripsi is usually ominous of alterations so arbitrary as to amount to a rewriting of the Latin. At the same time, a great debt is due to Baehrens in his five volumes and to those who before him, like the Burmans and Wernsdorf. or after him, like

;

;

;

PREFACE\'ollmer, have devoted scholarly study to the poetae Latini minores. Two excellent- reminders of the

labours of the past in this field can be found in Burman's own elaborate account of his predecessors in the Epistola Dedicatoria prefixed to his Anthologia, and in the businesslike sketch which Baehrens' The editors' main obligations Praefatio contains. in connection with many problems of authorship and date may be gauged from the bibliographies prefixed to the various authors. In making this selection it had to be borne in mind that considerable portions of Baehrens' work had been already included in earlier Loeb volumes e.g. the Appendix Vergiliana (apart from Aetna) and the poems ascribed to Petronius. Also, the Consolatio ad Liviam and the Nux, both of which some scholars pronounce to be by Ovid, were translated in the Loeb volume containing The Art of Love. Other parts such as the Aratea of Germanicus were considered but rejected, inasmuch as an English translation of a Latin translation from the Greek would appear to be a scarcely suitable illustration of the genuine minor poetry of Rome. It was felt appropriate, besides accepting a few short poems from Buecheler and Riese, to add one considerable author excluded by Baehrens as dramatic, the mime-writer He is the earliest of those here Publilius Syrus. represented, so that the range in time runs from the days of Caesar's dictatorship up to the early part of the fifth century a.d., when Rutilius had realised, and can still make readers realise, the destructive powers of the Goths as levelled against Italy and Rome in their invasions. This anthology, therefore, may be regarded as one of minor imperial poetry

PREFACEextending over four and a half centuries. The arrangement is broadly chronological, though some poems, like the Aetna, remain of unsettled date andauthorship. While, then, the range in time is considerable, a correspondingly wide variety of theme lends interest There is the didactic element to the poems. always typical of Roman genius pervading not only the crisp moral saws of Publilius Syrus and the Dicta Catonis, but also the inquiry into volcanic action by the author of Aetna and the expositions of huntingcraft by Grattius and by Nemesianus there is polished eulogy in the Laus Pisonis, and eulogy coupled with a plaintive note in the elegies on Maecenas there is a lyric ring in such shorter pieces as those on roses ascribed to Florus. taste for the description of nature colours the Phoenix and some of the brief poems by Tiberianus, while a pleasant play of fancy animates the work of Reposianus, Modestinus and Pentadius and the vignette by an unknown writer on Cupid in Love. Religious paganism appears in two Precationes and in the fourth poem of Tiberianus. Pastoral poetry under Virgil's influence is represented

;

;

A

by Calpurnius Siculus, by the Einsiedeln Eclogues and by Nemesianus, the fable by Avianus, and autobiographic experiences on a coastal voyage by the elegiacs of Rutilius Namatianus. Although Rutilius is legitimately reckoned the last of the pagan classic poets and bears an obvious grudge against Judaism and Christianity alike, it should be noted, as symptomatic of the fourth century, that already among his predecessors traces of Christian thought and feeling tinge the sayings of the so-called " Cato " and the allegorical teaching of the Phoenix on immortality.

PREFACEversions composed by the editors for volume are mostly in prose but verse translations have been wTitten for the poems of Florus and Hadrian, for two of Tiberianus and one of Pentadius. Cato's Disticha have been rendered into heroic couplets and the Monosticha into the Englishthis;

The English

iambic pentameter, while continuous blank verse has been employed for the pieces on the actor Vitalis and the two on the nine Muses, as well as for the Cupid Asleep of Modestinus. A lyric measure has been used for the lines by Servasius on The Work of Time. Some of the poems have not, so far as the editors are aware, ever before been translated intoEnglish.

The comparative unfamiliarity of certain of the contents in the miscellany ought to exercise the appeal of novelty. While Aetna fortunately engaged the interest of both H. A. J. Munro and Robinson Ellis, while the latter also did excellent service to the text of Avianus' Fables, and while there are competent editions in English of Publilius Syrus, Cal-^ purnius Siculus and Rutilius Namatianus, there are yet left openings for scholarly work on the minor poetry of Rome. It possesses at least the merit of being unhackneyed and the hope may be expressed that the present collection will direct closer attention towards the interesting problems involved. Both editors are deeply grateful for the valuable help in copying and typing rendered by Mrs. Wight:

Duff.July, 1934.J. W. D. A. M. D.

xu

PUBLILIUS SYRUS

VOL.

INTRODUCTIONTO PUBLILIUS SYRUSTo the Caesarian age belonged two prominent mimes with both of whom the great Juhus came into contact Decimus Laberius (10543 B.C.) and Pubhlius Syrus. PubHHus reached Rome, we are told by the elder Pliny ,^ in the same ship aswriters of

Manilius, the astronomical poet, and Staberius Eros, the grammarian. As a dramatic performance the mime * had imported from the Greek cities of Southern Italy a tradition of ridiculing social life in tones of outspoken mockery it represented or travestied domestic scandals with ribald lanCuao;e and coarse gestures. At times it made excursions into mythological subjects: at times it threw out allusions which bore or seemed to bear audaciously on politics. Audiences who were tiring of more regular comedy found its free-and-easy licence vastly amusing, though Cicero's critical taste made it hard for him to