Migration Why Do People Migrate? AP Human Geography

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<p>Migration: Key Issue 1</p> <p>Migration Why Do People Migrate?AP Human GeographyWhere and WhyGeographers want to understand two things:Where people are moving FROMWhere people are moving TO</p> <p>They also need to understand the circumstances of those places/situations to understand what motivates people to migrateMigration Is defined as:A permanent move to a new locationIn/Out MigrationEmigration- E is for exiting! Moving away from a place.She emigrated from China.Immigration- im=IN Moving to (into) a new placeShe immigrated to the United States.</p> <p>Emigration/Immigration GrowthNet- Migration is the total number of people moving into or out of a country.Net Migration Formula:Immigrants MINUS emigrants= Net MigrationIf the formulated number is positive:Net-In Migration.If the formulated number is negative: Net-out Migration.Why do People Migrate?Push Factors-induces people to move away from current locationPull Factors-induces people to move into a new locationThese usually oppose one anotherMobility Different than migrationMobility is about routine or general movementTwo types of mobility:Circulation- daily, weekly routine Seasonal- annually (Transhumance-movement of livestock to higher elevation during summer and lower elevations in winter)Three categories of Migration Economic OpportunityCultural/Political FreedomEnvironmental FactorsEconomic FactorsMost people migrate for economic reasonsRelocation for new employment opportunitiesNorth Dakota-oil fields Push factors- unemployment, factory closure</p> <p>Cultural/Political FactorsRefugees- forced migration from their home to seek asylum in another country. **cannot return, must wait for another country to allow them in. Lost Boys of Sudan Syrians Forced Migrants- literal force from home by political or environmental forces. Examples: Native American relocation to reservations. Jews to concentration campsJapanese internment campsSlavery </p> <p>Environmental FactorsTypically voluntary Choose to move to warmer climatesSouthern regions of US has seen a large net-in migration pattern in the last 50 years. This region is known as the Sun Belt.Can include some forced migration such as natural disaster circumstances. Hurricane Katrina Dust Bowl Additional Migration DrawsEnvironmental- Place Utility:additional factors that draw people/consumers/businesses to new locations. </p> <p>Place Utility With the invention of the air conditioner people could move to southern more desirable places (i.e places without winter)This was a large market area so as the factory closures of the 1980s-1990s pushed people from the north (economical) and pulled people to the south (environmental) there was competition for these new residents Place Utility Cont.There needed to be some incentives for people to move into new states and neighborhoods.Tax breaks, parks, sports arenas etc drew in new migrants. </p> <p>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SN0chNEB2_URavensteins Laws of Migration 1885* what is valid and what has changed?</p> <p>Most migration is over a short distanceMigration occurs in a series of stepsLong distance migrants usually move to centers of economic opportunity (urban areas)Each migration produces a movement in the opposite direction, counter stream. People in rural areas migrate more than people in citiesMen migrate over longer distances than womenMost migrants are young adult malesCities grow more by migration than by natural increaseMigration increases with economic developmentMigration is mostly due to economic causes. </p> <p>Migration Transition Using the DTM to determine the type of migration that is typical for each stage of development Stage 1: no countryStage 2: International/Interregional migrationStage 3: Internal/intraregional migrationStage 4: Internal/intraregional migration The Human Capital ModelLarry Sjaastad in 1962William A.V. Clark 1986Theory states that:People seek to improve income over their lifespan so weigh the cost-benefits of migrating. People migrate less as they age, because income is accumulated over time and potential decreases with ageThat psychological and economic factors are both weighed prior to migrationPsychological Considerations Migration is impacted by major turning points in a persons life. College, employment, marriage, children and retirement More flexibility when you are youngerAs people age they are less* likely to migratePeople with children tend to migrate intraregional*snow birds/retirees Distance Migration Types of emigrational patterns:Intercontinental/International- cross ocean or continent InternalInterregionalIntraregional Inter-continental/national Migration Two types of international migration Requires a large sum of money and usually some form of sponsorship.There is acculturation that occurs because of the distance decay that takes place within this form of migration. (loss of culture that typically takes place within three generations) Chain migration also takes place within this form as people become established they send for their loved ones, causing a chain reaction. Internal Migration Two types of Internal MigrationInterregional- from one region to anotherIntraregional- within one regionInterregional Migration Movement between regions of the same country Snowbirds-retirees Sun Belt v. Rust Belt</p> <p>Intraregional MigrationMovement within the same region.Usually rural to urban Primarily economically motivatedWithin the last half century there has been a trend outward from urban to rural. </p>