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Islamic World 600-1400

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  • A History of World Societies
    Ninth Edition

    CHAPTER 9

    The Islamic World,

    6001400

    Copyright 2011 by Bedford/St. Martins

    John P. McKay Bennett D. Hill John Buckler

    Patricia Buckley Ebrey Roger B. Beck

    Clare Haru Crowston Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks

    *

  • Learning Objectives for Chapter 9

    1. From what kind of social and economic environment did Muhammad arise, and what did he teach?

    2. What made possible the spread of Islam, and

    what forms of government were established to rule Muslim lands? How important was trade to the growth of Islam?

    3. What new ideas and practices emerged in the

    arts, sciences, education, and religion?

    4. What is the difference between Sunni and Shia?

    5. How did Muslims and Christians come into

    contact with each other, and how did they view each

    other?

  • I. The Origins of Islam

    Arabian Social and Economic Structure

    1. Arabian society consisted of Bedouin tribes whose members were interrelated. A particular tribe might have both nomadic and sedentary members. Some nomads served as desert guides or caravan guards.2. Many oasis or market towns contained a shrine to the towns deity. The shrines became neutral places where arguments among warring tribes were settled by the leader of the towns holy family.

    Muhammads Rise as a Religious Leader

    1. Orphaned at a young age, Muhammad was raised by an uncle. He became involved in the caravan trade and married Khadija, a wealthy widow. Financially secure, Muhammad was able to devote himself to religious contemplation.2. While praying, Muhammad had a vision of an angel who revealed himself to be a messenger of God. The angel commanded Muhammad to preach the revelations he would receive from God.3. The revelations were later compiled in the Quran, which became the sacred book of Islam.4. Muhammads example as revealed in the hadith collections of the sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad became the legal basis for the Muslim way of life. Muhammads life provides the normative example, or Sunna, for Muslim believers.

    I. The Origins of Islam

    A. Arabian Social and Economic Structure

    1. Arabian society consisted of Bedouin tribes whose members were interrelated. A particular tribe might have both nomadic and sedentary members. Some nomads served as desert guides or caravan guards.

    2. Many oasis or market towns contained a shrine to the towns deity. The shrines became neutral places where arguments among warring tribes were settled by the leader of the towns holy family.

    B. Muhammads Rise as a Religious Leader

    1. Orphaned at a young age, Muhammad was raised by an uncle. He became involved in the caravan trade and married Khadija, a wealthy widow. Financially secure, Muhammad was able to devote himself to religious contemplation.

    2. While praying, Muhammad had a vision of an angel who revealed himself to be a messenger of God. The angel commanded Muhammad to preach the revelations he would receive from God.

    3. The revelations were later compiled in the Quran, which became the sacred book of Islam.

    4. Muhammads example as revealed in the hadith collections of the sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad became the legal basis for the Muslim way of life. Muhammads life provides the normative example, or Sunna, for Muslim believers.

    *

  • I. The Origins of Islam

    The Tenets of Islam

    1. Orphaned at a young age, Muhammad was raised by an uncle. He became involved in the caravan trade and married Khadija, a wealthy widow. Financially secure, Muhammad was able to devote himself to religious contemplation.2. While praying, Muhammad had a vision of an angel who revealed himself to be a messenger of God. The angel commanded Muhammad to preach the revelations he would receive from God.3. The revelations were later compiled in the Quran, which became the sacred book of Islam.4. Muhammads example as revealed in the hadith collections of the sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad became the legal basis for the Muslim way of life. Muhammads life provides the normative example, or Sunna, for Muslim believers.

    I. The Origins of Islam

    C. The Tenets of Islam

    1. Orphaned at a young age, Muhammad was raised by an uncle. He became involved in the caravan trade and married Khadija, a wealthy widow. Financially secure, Muhammad was able to devote himself to religious contemplation.

    2. While praying, Muhammad had a vision of an angel who revealed himself to be a messenger of God. The angel commanded Muhammad to preach the revelations he would receive from God.

    3. The revelations were later compiled in the Quran, which became the sacred book of Islam.

    4. Muhammads example as revealed in the hadith collections of the sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad became the legal basis for the Muslim way of life. Muhammads life provides the normative example, or Sunna, for Muslim believers.

    *

  • II. Islamic States and Their Expansion

    Islams Spread Beyond Arabia

    1. Muhammad, challenged by the townspeople of Mecca, fled to Medina. This event is known as the hijra.2. Traditionally, peoples interactions were based on tribal ties. Under Muhammad, the community of people, identified as the umma, were tied together by a shared religious faith.3. The umma could include anyone of the faith. Islam began to focus on spreading the faith into the two most powerful empires: the Greek-Byzantine and the Persian-Sassanid empires.4. The Byzantine and Sassanid empires were invaded by Islamic forces under Umar and Uthman. The Islamic forces brought an end to the old Persian Empire.5. Arab forces spread across North Africa, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, and invaded the kingdom of Spain. Advances into the Frankish kingdom were defeated near Tours by Charles Martel.

    II. Islamic States and Their Expansion

    A. Islams Spread Beyond Arabia

    1. Muhammad, challenged by the townspeople of Mecca, fled to Medina. This event is known as the hijra.

    2. Traditionally, peoples interactions were based on tribal ties. Under Muhammad, the community of people, identified as the umma, were tied together by a shared religious faith.

    3. The umma could include anyone of the faith. Islam began to focus on spreading the faith into the two most powerful empires: the Greek-Byzantine and the Persian-Sassanid empires.

    4. The Byzantine and Sassanid empires were invaded by Islamic forces under Umar and Uthman. The Islamic forces brought an end to the old Persian Empire.

    5. Arab forces spread across North Africa, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, and invaded the kingdom of Spain. Advances into the Frankish kingdom were defeated near Tours by Charles Martel.

    *

  • II. Islamic States and Their Expansion

    Reasons for the Spread of Islam

    1. Jihad

    2. Economic benefits

    The Caliphate and the Split Between Shia and Sunni Alliances

    1. Abu Bakr

    2. Umar, Uthman, and Ali

    3. Umayyad Dynasty

    4. Imam or ulama

    II. Islamic States and Their Expansion

    B. Reasons for the Spread of Islam

    1. There are various interpretations of jihad: some hold that it signifies an individual struggle against sin, while others claim that it denotes a holy war against unbelievers.

    2. Captured cities increased the wealth of the Islamic world. Some captured cities, such as Jerusalem and Hebron, were important religious sites.

    C. The Caliphate and the Split Between Shia and Sunni Alliances

    1. Abu Bakr, an important associate of Muhammad, was elected as the first caliph, an event that marked the victory of the concept of a universal Muslim community. A caliphate developed under Abu Bakr and his first three successors, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.

    2. Umar established authority over the Bedouin tribes and focused on conquests. Uthman sought to protect the economic interests of the Muslim community. But Uthman was from a Mecca family that had initially resisted the Prophet, and many of Alis followers resented him. After Uthman was assassinated, Ali took control, but he, too, was assassinated.

    3. Muawiya, Uthmans cousin, replaced Ali and established the Umayyad Dynasty.

    4. The events surrounding the caliphate split the umma. Alis followers, identified as Shia, designated an imam as community prayer leader. Muawiyas followers, called Sunnis, held that the Quran must be interpreted by a group of religious scholars identified as the ulama.

    *

  • II. Islamic States and Their Expansion

    D. The Abbasid Caliphate1. Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty. His successor, al-Mansur, moved the capital city from Damascus to Baghdad, which became a crossroads for trade routes and a cosmopolitan intellectual center.2. The Abbasids turned Turkish slaves into soldiers and capitalized on their horsemanship and military skills. The use of slave soldiers became standard procedure for Muslim armies throughout the Middle East.E. Administration of the Islamic Territories1. As more territories came under Muslim authority, governors, or emirs, were appointed to maintain order and collect taxes. Officials from the indigenous population were allowed to remain in power but only in positions below the emir.2. In practice the ulama, not the caliph, interpreted the sacred law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunna. The ulamas interpretations constituted the sharia.3. The qadis were judges who were experts in sacred law. These individuals maintained the judicial activities of the community.4. The position of vizier was adopted from the Persians. The vizier was the adviser of and chief assistant to the caliph.

    II. Islamic States and Their Expansion

    D. The Abbasid Caliphate

    1. Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty. His successor, al-Mansu