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  • 1. Gender-violence and education in Malawi:a study of violence against girls as an obstruction to universal primary school education Thomas Bisika, Pierson Ntata, and Sidon KonyaniPresentation by Celina Villarroel, Mauricio Muoz, and Luca Zuppa 2011
  • 2. Thomas Bisika Demographer and public health specialist; Research Fellow of the Centre for Social Research and instructor of social research and demography at Chancellor College, University of Malawi; Graduate of Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA. Currently, Programme Specialist at United Nations Population Fund and Senior Lecturer at the University of Pretoria School of Public Health.Pierson Ntata Sociologist; Head of the Sociology Department at Chancellor College, U. of Malawi; Graduate of the University of Warwick, United Kingdom.; Affiliate Fellow of the Centre for Social Research of the University.Sidon Konyani Biostatistician; Fellow of the Centre for Social Research of the University of Malawi; Graduate of the University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
  • 3. FACT SHEET estimates for 2011 Total population: 15,879,252 Sex ratio: 0.99 male(s)/female Life expectancy: 51.7 years Over 1,000,000 orphans (70% due to AIDS epidemic) Ranked 4th poorest country in the world Family income is less than $1 per day
  • 4. UNICEF UN MDGs: Millennium Development Goals DAW: Division for the Advancement ofWomen ActionAid International UPE: Universal Primary Education VAW: Violence Against Women EAs: Census Enumeration Areas FGDs: Focus Group Discussions
  • 5. Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenGoal 4: Reduce child mortalityGoal 5: Improve maternal healthGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseasesGoal 7: Insure environmental sustainabilityGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
  • 6. Source of publicationMETHODOLOGYSample Design CONCLUSION TitleData Collection and Analysis ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFindings AuthorsForms of(1-5) NOTES violence against girls Date of publicationReports of violence in schools andcommunitiesCONTRIBUTORS NOTES ON Abstract + key wordsExtent of violence against girls REFERENCESPerpetrators of violence INTRODUCTIONIncident reporting and actions takenEffects of violence on education
  • 7. This study funded by ActionAid and UNICEF sought todetermine the extent to which violence prevents girlsaccessing primary school education in Malawi. It furthersought to identify the different types of violence that girlsexperience when in primary school; the perpetrators of thisviolence; and where the violence takes place. The studyestablished that girls are subject to several forms of violenceas a result of their gender; that such gender-based violence isdetrimental to their experience of primary education; and thatit negatively affects their ability to access education in Malawi.Keywords: Malawi; education; gender-based violence
  • 8. Overview of GOAL 3 status in Malawi based on previous research Goal has not been achieved, despite free UPE Increase in enrollment, but mainly for boys High drop-out rates, higher for girls The Declaration on the elimination of violence against women of the UN General Assembly (1994) defines Violence Against Women (VAW) as Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. (as cited in Bisika et al., 2009, p. 288)
  • 9. VAW is not only a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women, it is also a mechanism for perpetuating such inequalities (p. 288) UNDAW: Fear as a barrier to report VAWOverview of what constitutes VAW: Physical and emotional abuse Behaviors: property damage, ridicule, threats, etc. Beliefs: women and girls occupy a subordinate status in [Malawian] society and are expected to be obedient and submissive; this makes it difficult for them to resist or complain. (Newsletter Gender Violence in Schools in Malawi, 2004, as cited in Bisika et al., 2009)
  • 10. NICHE (p. 288) little research has been done to determine the role that gender-violence plays in deterring Malawian girls from achieving their academic potentialPURPOSES (p.288-289) to gain a detailed understanding of the barrier that gender-violence presents [in preventing girls from accessing UPE] different types of violence that are to determine the currently attendant in Malawian primary schools, to identify the perpetrators and their victims, the contexts in which the violence takes place, and the mechanisms that perpetuate violence against girls in school.
  • 11. TANZANIA Malawi > 3 Regions > 27 districts > 60ZAMBIA Lake Nyasa EAs 1,496 households were surveyed: MOZAMBIQUE - NORTH: 497 (33.2%) - CENTRAL: 495 (33.1%) - SOUTH: 504 (33.7%) MOZAMBIQUE In total, the survey covered 56 of the 60 sampled EAs, and all interviews that were attempted were successfully completed, yielding a response rate ofMap from Ask.com > Districts of Malawi 100%.
  • 12. Figures reporting age, marital status, number of children, and schooling of respondents. Forms of violence Corporal punishments Punitive labor Food withholding Sexual assault, rape, inappropriate touching Forced marriage Verbal abuse Parental neglect Enforced isolation Social ostracization Denial of access to education Discriminatory classroom practices
  • 13. 43.9 % reported inappropriate touching happening at: Home 1.1% Religious functions 4.9% Public locations 10.5 % School 48.7%Frequency of VAW incidents: rarely 60% occasionally 28.6% common occurrence 11.4%
  • 14. Fellow pupils 52.2% Friends 16.2% Strangers 16.2% Boyfriends and local villagers 3.5% Teachers 3.8% Street vendors 3.2% Male relatives 2.5%
  • 15. 47.8% reported the assault 52.2% did not report the assaultReasons for not reportingo 52.2 % did not realize such incidents were offenseso 15.4% were intimidated not to do ito 11.4% were afraid Leading causes o Ignorance o Fear
  • 16. 32.8% no action was taken 67.2 % some action was taken nearly half were not satisfied with the actions taken a large proportion were unclear as to what type of action would be appropriate.
  • 17. 60.9% reported that VAW affected their school performance 38.8% adversely affected their education 3.3% drop out of school Main cause: inappropriate touching
  • 18. VAW plays a key role in preventing girls from participating fully in education. VAW is widespread and endemic in Malawi. Fellow pupils are main perpetrators of VAW