Maintaining a Healthy Heart

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    MAINTAINING A HEALTHY HEART

    y How To Maintain a Healthy Heart

    1. Don't smoke or use tobacco

    Smoking or using tobacco is one of the most significant risk factors for developing heart disease. Chemicals in tobacco can

    damage your heart and blood vessels, leading to narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis can ultimately lead

    to a heart attack. When it comes to heart disease prevention, no amount of smoking is safe. Smokeless tobacco and low-tar and

    low-nicotine cigarettes also are risky, as is exposure to secondhand smoke.In addition, the nicotine in cigarette smoke makes

    your heart work harder by narrowing your blood vessels and increasing your heart rate and blood pressure. Carbon monoxide in

    cigarette smoke replaces some of the oxygen in your blood. This increases your blood pressure by forcing your heart to work

    harder to supply enough oxygen. Even so-called "social smoking" smoking only while at a bar or restaurant with friends is

    dangerous and increases the risk of heart disease.Women who smoke and take birth control pills are at greater risk of having a

    heart attack or stroke than are those who don't do either. This risk increases with age, especially in women older than 35.The

    good news, though, is that when you quit smoking, your risk of heart disease drops dramatically within just one year. And no

    matter how long or how much you smoked, you'll start reaping rewards as soon as you quit.

    2. Eat a heart-healthy diet

    Eating a special diet called the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan can help protect your heart. Following the DASH diet

    means eating foods that are low in fat, cholesterol and salt. The diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, which can help

    protect your heart. Beans, other low-fat sources of protein and certain types of f ish also can reduce your risk of heart disease.Limiting certain fats you

    eat also is important. Of the types of fat saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and trans fat saturated fat and trans fat increase the risk of

    coronary artery disease by raising blood cholesterol levels.Major sources of saturated fat include: Red meat, Dairy products, Coconut and palm oils,

    Sources of trans fat include: Deep-fried fast foods,Bakery products,Packaged snack foods,Margarines,Crackers. Heart-healthy eating isn't all about

    cutting back, though. Most people need to add more fruits and vegetables to their diet with a goal of five to 10 servings a day. Eating that many fruits

    and vegetables can not only help prevent heart disease, but also may help prevent cancer.

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    y Type of Heart Diseases

    Coranary artery diseases ,the most common form of heart diseases,is caused by anarrowing of the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients.CAD

    can cause chest pain, heart attack, sudden death cause by severaly abnormal andinffective beating of heart.

    y C auses of Heart Diseases

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women.

    Coronary heart disease is caused by the buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also becalled hardening of the arteries .Fatty material and other substances form a plaque build-up on the walls of your

    coronary arteries. The coronary arteries bring blood and oxygen to your heart.This buildup causes the arteries to getnarrow.As a result, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. Many things increase your risk for heartdisease:

    y D iabetes is a strong risk factor for heart disease.y H igh blood pressure increases your risks of heart disease and heart failure.

    y E xtra cholesterol in your blood builds up inside the walls of your heart's arteries (blood vessels).

    y S mokers have a much higher risk of heart disease.

    y N ot getting enough exercise, and feeling depressed or having excess stress are other risk factors.

    y P reventive Measurey Eat a heart healthy diet. This is the most important step you can take lowering your risk y L ower fat intake. Calories from fat should less than 30% of total calorie intake every day. y L ower blood cholesterol to the recommend level.This keep plaque from building up

    within your coronary arteries.

    y Treatmenty F actor that increases the risk of heart disease,suck as smoking,poor diet & physical

    exercise y Treatment for heart attack,the choice of angioplasty in a specialist cardiac centre y D iagnosis of heart disease and access to diagnostic test

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    B lood C onstituents and Fuctions

    y R ed Blood Cells ( R BC's) Erythrocytes- Completely dedicated to their job of respiratory gas(oxygen and carbon dioxide) exchange.

    y W hite Blood Cells ( W BC's) Leukocytes Crucial to our defence against disease.

    y P latelets- Essential for clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessles areruptured or their lining injured.

    Blood Group And Blood Transfusion

    y A blood group is a classification of blood based on the presence or absenceof inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). Theseantigens may be proteins ,carbohydrates , glycoproteins , or glycolipids , depending on theblood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues . Several of these red blood cell surface antigens canstem from one allele (or very closely linked genes ) and collectively form a blood groupsystem. [1] Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. Atotal of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Societyof Blood Transfusion (ISBT).Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood typedifferent from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs.Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG , a small immunoglobulin, which can crossthe placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolyticdisease of the newborn , an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild tosevere .

    y Blood transfusion is the process of receiving blood products into

    one's circulation intravenously . Transfusions are used in a variety of medical conditionsto replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood , butmodern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as redblood cells , white blood cells , plasma , clotting factors , and platelets .

    Importance of Blood Donation and Handling Donated Blood

    y Many patient of different age group requires blood transfusion.This is needed when theyundergo major operation,battle,long term diseases, or are there victim of accidents.For

    example blood is needed during surgery,childbirth,or cancer treatment.As result,hospitalMalaysia require a lot of blood to meet the needs for blood transfusion.Blood is a livingand renewable tissue.Donating blood does not harm anyone but it can save lives.

    A healthy person can donate blood every 56 days or about four to six times per year

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    y To ensure that donated blood is safe for transfusion,the donor is interviewed and givenmedical counseling,test or screened for Hepatits B and C,sexually transmitted diseasesand human immunodeficiently virus (HIV).This is to make sure that infected blood is notgiven.

    Blood is separated into plasma,red blood ,white blood cells and platelets.The donatedblood is collected in a plastic bag which contain a substances that prevents the blodfrom coagulating.These bags are then sent to the hospitals where there are stored inbanks at 4C.Fresh blood can last for 24 hours and stored blood at 4C which can last for 40 days.