mahabharata with pictures

Download mahabharata with pictures

Post on 16-Apr-2015

301 views

Category:

Documents

7 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

mahabharata with pictures

TRANSCRIPT

-.

*'

.m* *2J%>*

*/

-

j-

'

'.

8SW' ','.

*- ' ^?>-

'

The Ramayana and the Manainli^f

TWO GREAT EPICS OF ASIA

TREASURESOF

Ravana shaking Mt. KailasaNumerous episodes from the Indian epic, the Ramayana, are carved n relief on the

walls of the great 8th-century temple, cut from the solid rock at Ellor, near Bombay.This relief, one of the most dramatic and monumental, depicts the episode in whichRavana, the demon-king, attempts to shake and uproot the sacred mountain Kailasa

(after which the temple is named) on which the god Shiva and the goddess Parvati

WORLD

ART

are seated.

Here, imprisoned within Mt. Kailasa, Ravana strains his many arms in a

superhuman effort while Shiva with a single foot steadies the trembling mountain.

1

CourierDECEMBER 196720TH YEARNOW PUBLISHED IN ELEVEN EDITIONS

Page

12 pages in full colour

THE

MAHABHARATA

-

THE

RAMAYANA

Two great epics of India and South AsiaBy Arthur L. Basham

THE

MARRIAGE

OF

DRAUPADI

EnglishFrench An episode from the Mahabharata

SpanishRussianGerman

13

THE

COLLECTIVE

DREAM

OF

A

CONTINENT

By Anil de Si/vaArabic U.S.A.18

16

HANUMAN,

LEADER

OF

THE

MONKEYS

THE

EPICS

IN

THE

ART

OF

SOUTH

ASIA

JapaneseItalianHindi Tamil30

Poems in stone, tales in miniature

By B.N. GoswamyTHE EXILE OF RAMA

Published monthly by UNESCOThe United Nations

A poem from the Ramayana as told by Kamban32

Educational, Scientific

MOVING

TRAGEDIES

IN

STONE

and Cultural OrganizationSales and Distribution Offices

Carved by Khmer artists of Cambodia34

Unesco, Place de Fontenoy, Paris-7e.

Annual

subscription rates: 15/-stg.;

S3. 00

SHADOWS

AND

LIGHT

ON

THE

RAMAYANA

(Canada); 10 French francs or equivalent; 2 years : 27/-stg. ; 1 8 F. Single copies 1/6-stg. ;30 cents; 1 F.

Behind the screens in Cambodia's shadow theatre

.The UNESCO COURIER is published monthly, except

36

KATHAKALI

AND

THE

DANCE-DRAMA

OF

INDIA

in August and September when it is bi-monthly (11 issues a year in English, French, Spanish, Russian, German, Arabic, Japanese, Italian, Hindi and Tamil. In the United Kingdom it is distributed by H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569London, S.E.I.

By C. Kunchu Nah43

INDIA'S

ANCIENT

HEROES

ON

CELLULOID

Individual

articles

and

photographs

not

copyrighted

may

By Bhagwan D. Garga45

be reprinted providing the credit line reads "Reprinted fromthe UNESCO COURIER", plus date of issue, and three

FURTHER

READING

ON

THE

RAMAYANA

voucher copies are sent to the editor.printedbe

Signed

articles rephotos

must

bear

author's

name.

Non-copyrightby an

AND

THE

MAHABHARATA

will be supplied on request. returned unless

Unsolicited manuscripts cannot international

accompanied and do not

reply coupon covering postage.opinions of the authors

Signed articles express thenecessarily represent

46

LETTERS

TO

THE

EDITOR

the opinions ofUNESCO

UNESCO or those of the editors of the

COURIER.

2

TREASURES

OF

WORLD

ART

The Unesco Courier is indexed monthly in The Read

ers'

Guide

to

PeriodicalCo.,

Literature,

published

by

Ravana shaking Mt. Kailasa (India)

H. W.

Wilson

New York.

Editorial Offices

Unesco, Place de Fontenoy, Paris-7e. FranceEditor-in-Chief

Sandy KofflerAssistant Editor-in-Chief

Ren Caloz Assistant to the Editor-in-Chief Lucio Attinelli

Photo

Rapho-Brihat.

Paris

Coyer photoDusserah is the name Indian festival held in of the popular September-Octculmination of

Managing

Editors

English

Edition: Ronald Fenton

(Paris)

ober each year symbolizing the triumphof good over evil. The

French SpanishRussian German

Edition: Jane Albert Hesse (Paris) Edition: Arturo Despouey (Paris)Edition: Victor Goliachkov (Paris) Edition: Hans Rieben (Berne)

nine nights of celebrations, it is linked with the story of the Ramanaya and innorthern India the festivities end with

ArabicJapanese Italian Hindi Tamil

Edition : Abdel Moneim El Sawi (Cairo)Edition: Edition: Edilion: Edition: Shin-lchi Hasegawa (Tokyo) Maria Remiddi (Rome) Annapuzha Charidrahasan (Delhi) Sri S. Govindarajulu (Madras)Olga Rodel

the

portrayal

of

Rama's of

victory

over

Ravana the demon-king. sal paste-board effigyRavana arrows bursts shot by into Rama

Here a colos ten-headedafter off fiery crackers

flames set

packed Research and Illustrations:Layout and Design:southern

insideIndia,

(See

alsois

P.less

15).a

In

Ravana

villain

Robert Jacquemin

All correspondence should be addressdto the Editor-in-Chief

than a tragic figure and a victim of his ill-fated passion.

Two great epics of India and South Asia

THE MAHABHARATA

AND THE RAMAYANAby Arthur L. Basham

T HElife of the

religiousof the

and

culturalsub

The

plot

whole

Indian

complicated

of the one.

Mahabharata is a Like the Greek

continent and much of the rest of Asia

has been deeply influenced by the two great epic poems of Hinduism, the Mahabharata (pronounced Ma-ha-bahra-ta, accent on "bah") and the Ramayana (pronounced Rah-my-ana, accent on "my"). Putting aside all question of their merits as literature, which by any standard are very high, they are among the most important poems in the world.Of the two the Mahabharata is in

stories of the Trojan war out of which emerged the Iliad, and like the cycle of Germanic myth and legend which crystalized into the Nibelungenlied, the Indian epic tells of a bitter quarrel which developed into a war of extermination. The five sons of Pandu are

the original. From its style and content it appears to be at least as old as the main narrative of the epic, and looks back to the days of small semi-tribal kingdoms before the time of the Buddha. Undoubtedly the most important . interpolation of the Mahabharata is the

Bhagavad-Gita,poemall

the

long

religiousthe mostOf

whichof

has

become

unjustly deprived of their ancestral kingdom by their wicked cousins, the Kauravas, and they regain it after atremendous enemiesslain. .

influential text of modern Hinduism.

works

Sanskrit

literature

it

is

battle

in

which

all

their

probably the most widely known outside India, and t has been translated

and

most of their friends are

essence

the

older,

its

nuclear

story

into many languages and read by millions who know nothing else of theepic poem which contains it.'

having

been

transmitted

from

the

shadowy period following the compo sition of the Rig Veda, the oldest literature of India. A few of the names

of rulers, sages and priests mentionedin the Mahabharata also occur in

Echoes of a heroic age are heard throughout the narrative portions of the epic, and the martial values of bravery, loyalty and truthfulness are much encouraged. Heroes and villains alike never refuse challenges, whetherto battle, to contests of skill, or to

A pretext for its inclusion is provided, just before the commencement of

the great battle, by the misgivings ofArjuna, the second of the five heroes,

sources of the later Vedic period, and

at

the

thoughtand

of

fightingHis

his

own

kinsfolk

friends.

mentor

the story of the epic may have devel oped around traditions of a greatbattle which took place about 900 B.C.

games of chance, and few major char acters are guilty of serious cowardice.The atmosphere of the main narrative

Krishna strengthens Arjuna's resolu tion with this long religious poem, itself possibly a conflation of versesfromVishnu

But with the passing centuries the account was so enlarged and develop ed by the introduction of new characters and incidentsnow

is that of a society just emerging from tribalism, in which personal loyalty toone's chief and fellow clansmen is still

more

than

one

source,

and

reveals

himselfincarnate.

as

the

great

God

thatbe

its

historical

very strongly emphasized.But the Mahabharata as we have it

kernel

cannot

established.

Shorter interpolations are numerous,and include the well known and beau

There is even some reason to believe

contains more than the poetic ac