Light Levels ClassAct SRS enabled. In this presentation you will: explore the measurement of the quantity of light explore the relationship between illumination.
Post on 01-Apr-2015
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Light Levels ClassAct SRS enabled. In this presentation you will: explore the measurement of the quantity of light explore the relationship between illumination and distance Slide 2 Light Levels In this presentation you will learn about light, how it can be detected, how its luminous intensity can be measured, and how distance affects the illuminance on a surface. Next > Slide 3 Light Levels Each color has its own specific wavelength, ranging from violet with the shortest wavelength (400 nanometers) to red with the longest wavelength (700 nanometers). All these colors are part of the visible spectrum. Next > White light actually consists of numerous colors, which can be separated by passing white light through a glass prism. This causes the light to refract and disperse. The Visible Spectrum Slide 4 Light Levels Next > The Electromagnetic Spectrum The visible spectrum is one very small part of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, which covers an enormous range of frequencies. 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 100m 10m 1m10cm 1cm 1000m 1mm 100m 10m 100nm 10nm 1nm 0.1nm 1000m 1000nm 1m X-rays Ultraviolet Visible Infra-red Micro- waves Frequency in Hz Wavelength 700nm600nm500nm400nm Radio, tv Long- waves Slide 5 Light Levels The Human Eye The quantity of light entering the eye is controlled by the size of the pupil, but it is cells in the retina that detect the amount of light and the color. The retina consists of two types of light-sensitive (photoreceptor) cells called rods and cones. These cells react to the different light frequencies, producing different photochemical reactions that send electrical signals to the brain. Next > The human eye can only detect frequencies in the visible spectrum. Pupil Retina Slide 6 Light Levels The Human Eye Rods can distinguish between different intensities of light, but not between light of different frequencies whereas cones allow us to see color. Next > Nucleus Outer segment of cone cell containing photosensitive chemicals Cone Rod Nucleus Outer segment of rod cell containing photosensitive chemicals Slide 7 Light Levels 1 What is the name given for the part of the electromagnetic spectrum in which light can be seen by the human eye? Question A) Magnetic spectrum B) Visible spectrum C) Frequency spectrum D) Invisible spectrum Slide 8 Light Levels 2 Rods and Cones are light-sensitive cells in the eye that allow us to see light intensity and color. Which of these two types of cells detects color? Question A) Rods B) Cones Slide 9 Light Levels Crookes Radiometer A radiometer consists of a set of vanes, each shiny on one side and blackened on the other. When exposed to light, the vanes revolve. The more light, the faster the vanes revolve. Next > One instrument that can demonstrate the energy emitted by a light source is Crookes radiometer. It is difficult to measure light energy with this instrument, as the vanes can move very fast and do not respond quickly to changes. Vanes The vanes are mounted on a spindle in a vacuum. Slide 10 Light Levels Illuminance in lux Resistance in Photoresistor A photoresistor, also called a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR), is a sensor that reacts to the quantity of light falling on it by changing its resistance. The resistance of a photoresistor usually decreases as the ambient light falling on it increases. Next > Modern electronics has given us several light sensing devices. Slide 11 Light Levels Photodiodes & Phototransistors Photodiodes and phototransistors are light-sensitive semiconductor devices. They can be used in a variety of sensor circuits that detect the presence and the amount of light. Next > Each of these devices reacts to light by controlling the flow of electric current passing through it. Slide 12 Light Levels Photometry Photometry is the science of measurement of light, in terms of its perceived brightness to the human eye. The human eye is not equally sensitive to all wavelengths of light. Next > In this part of the presentation you will learn about 4 terms that are commonly used in photometry: L uminous Intensity L uminous Flux L uminance I lluminance Photometry attempts to account for this by weighting the measured power at each wavelength with a factor that represents how sensitive the eye is at that wavelength. Slide 13 Light Levels Luminous Intensity Luminous intensity (I) is a measure of the power emitted by a light source in a particular direction. The unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd) from the Latin word for candle. Next > Slide 14 Light Levels Luminance Next > Luminance (L) is the luminous intensity emitted by a unit area of a light source. The unit of luminance is the candela per square meter (cd/m 2 ). Luminance is often used to measure light emission per unit area from flat, diffuse surfaces, such as video displays. The luminance is a measure of how bright the surface will appear to the eye from a particular angle of view. Slide 15 Light Levels Luminous Flux Luminous flux () or luminous power is a measure of the power emitted by a light source in all directions. The unit of luminous flux is the lumen (lm), from the Latin word for light. Luminous flux is often used to measure the useful power emitted by a light bulb. Next > For example, a typical 100 watt incandescent light bulb emits about 1700 lumens. When comparing different types of light bulbs, energy conscious consumers compare the luminous flux of each type of bulb. Roughly the same amount of light can be produced by a 25 watt compact fluorescent light bulb at a quarter the electricity cost. Slide 16 Light Levels I lluminance I lluminance (E) or illumination is the total luminous flux falling on a unit area of a surface. It is a measure of how brightly the surface is lit. The unit of illuminance is the lux (lx), which is the same as lumens per square meter (lm/m 2 ). If 1 lumen (lm) of luminous flux uniformly lights a surface of area 1 m 2, the illuminance of the surface will be 1 lux. Next > Some typical illuminance values in your everyday surroundings are: Bright sunlight 50,000 100, 000 lux Sunset 1 100 lux Full moonlight 0.01 0.001 lux Classroom lights 100 300 lux 1 m 2 1 lumen Illuminance = 1 lux Slide 17 Light Levels Area= 100m 2 = 1 lux 100 lm Lux vs Lumen For example: 100 lumens, concentrated into an area of one square meter, will light up that square meter with an illuminance of 100 lux. The same 100 lumens, spread out over a hundred square meters, will produce a dimmer illuminance of only 1 lux. Next > The difference between the lux and the lumen, is that the lux takes into account the area over which the luminous flux is spread. Area= 1m 2 = 100 lux 100 lm Slide 18 Light Levels 3 Luminous flux of 100 lumens falls on a flat surface of area 20 m2. What is the illuminance of the surface? Question A) 100 lux B) 20 lux C) 5 lux D) 1 lux Slide 19 Light Levels 4 What is illuminance measured in? Question A) Candela B) Lumen C) Candela per square meter D) Lux Slide 20 Light Levels Effect of Distance on Illuminance Investigation of illuminance shows that it obeys an Inverse-Square Law, which states that as a light source is moved away from a surface, the illuminance decreases by a factor that is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Thus the illuminance of a surface by a source of light 2 m away is 1/4 of the illuminance at 1 m from the source. Next > This can be written as: r 2r 3r 4r 5r I I 1 r2r2 Slide 21 Light Levels Effect of Distance on Illuminance Conversely, for two light sources, one at 1 m from a surface and the other at 2 m, to give the same illuminance to the surface, it would be necessary for the source at 2 m to be 4 times as bright as the source at 1 m. Next > 1m 2m Slide 22 Light Levels 5 If you double the distance between a light source and a sensor, how is the illuminance affected? Question A) The illuminance quarters. B) The illuminance halves. C) The illuminance remains the same. D) The illuminance doubles. Slide 23 Light Levels 6 If the illuminance at a distance r from a light source is 400 lux, what would the illuminance be at a distance of 2r? Question A) 800 lux B) 200 lux C) 100 lux D) 1 lux Slide 24 Light Levels After completing this presentation you should be able to: Summary show knowledge of some of the sensing elements used for the measurement of light. show knowledge of some of the units used in the measurement of light. show knowledge and understanding of the Inverse-Square Law for illuminance and distance. End >