Key Issue 3: Why do Migrants Face Obstacles?. Why do migrants face obstacles? Immigration policies of host countries Cultural problems faced while living.
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- Key Issue 3: Why do Migrants Face Obstacles?
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- Why do migrants face obstacles? Immigration policies of host countries Cultural problems faced while living in other countries
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- Obstacles Past: long, arduous expensive trip across land or sea Cramped, unsanitary ships
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- Immigration Policies of Host Countries Two policies to control arrival of foreigners seeking work 1) quota system: United States Limits number of permanent migrants 2) temporary approval: Western Europe & Middle East Allows workers to stay temporarily
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- US Quota Laws 1921, Congress passed Quota Act 1924, National Origins Act Set limits on number of people who could immigrate from each country in 1 year period Only 2% of a countrys population in the U.S. could immigrate each year (1910 data) Stayed in effect (with modifications) until 1960s
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- U.S. Quota Laws Quota laws ensured that most immigrants were European Immigration Act of 1965 Individual country quotas changed to hemisphere quotas 120,000 from Western Hemisphere 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere 1978 changed to a global quota 620,000 and no more than 7% from one country
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- U.S. Quota Laws More applicants than what can be admitted Preferences: Family-sponsored immigrants (3/4) Reunify families (spouses, unmarried children, siblings) Employment-related immigrants (1/4) Skilled workers, talented professionals Asians make up a large portion of this group Lottery for others to diversify entry Takes about 5 years
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- U.S. Quota Laws Quota does not apply to refugees Quota dos not apply to spouses, children & parents of US citizens
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- Brain Drain Most immigrants are young, well-educated Scientists, researchers, doctors & other professionals Migrate to make a better living in destination Brain Drain: large scale emigration of talented people US & Europe at fault for favoring educated immigrants
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- Temporary Migration for Work Prominent in Europe, Middle East, Asia guest workers temporary job holders Western Europe: Protected by minimum wage laws, labor unions Take unwanted jobs: bus drivers, garbage men Earn more than in native country Send money home (helps native country) Decreases unemployment in native country
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- Guest Workers in Europe Fig. 3-9: Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe. Guest workers emigrate primarily from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier, more developed countries of Western Europe. Selected country may be a former colonial ruler, have a similar language or an agreement with the exporting country
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- Time-Contract Workers Recruited for a fixed period to work Millions of Asians in 19 th century, mines & plantations India to Burma, Malaysia, East & Southern Africa, etc Japanese & Filipinos to Hawaii, Brazil China to United States, railroad More than 33 million Chinese live in other Asian countries
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- Emigration from China Fig. 3-10: Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.
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- Distinguishing Between Economic Migrants and Refugees Difficult to distinguish cause of emigration: economic vs refugee Important because it determines acceptance into new country Refuges receive special priority Cuba, Haiti, Vietnam
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- Emigrants from Cuba Us regards Cuban immigrants as refugees, 1959 Communist revolution under Castro US government prevents trade with Cuba Many settled in Southern Florida after revolution Mariel boatlift political prisoners, criminals and mental patients of Cuba allowed to leave Cuba, 1980 Sought political asylum in US 125 mile voyage in small boats, often capsized US now permits 20,000 per year
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- Emigrants from Haiti Haitians wanted similar treatment as their neighboring Cuba US claimed Haitians were only looking for economic advancement, not political asylum When Haitian govt was taken over by military, 1991, US began to allow Haitians asylum as refugees 1994, US invaded Haiti to reinstate democratic govt Haitians continue to migrate to US
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- Emigrants from Vietnam Post Vietnam War, 1975 Several thousand pro-US South Vietnmese were evacuated by US for protection from North Vietnamese Those who werent evacuated left by boat in South China Sea, hoping to be rescued by US Navy boat people seek refuge in other countriees
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- Migration of Vietnamese Boat People Fig. 3-11: Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in 1975. Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.
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- Cultural Problems Faced While Living in Other Countries US Attitudes Towards Immigrants 19 th century Immigrants helped settle the frontier, extend US control across continent, created productive farms 20 th century Opposition to new Northern & Eastern European immigrants: German & Irish Hostility towards Italians, Russians, Poles
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- US Attitudes toward Immigration 1911 government study of popular attitudes Immigrants from Southern & Eastern Europe are racially inferior Violent crimes, Resist assimilations, Steal jobs Current attitudes: Deny undocumented citizens access to schools, day- care centers, health clinics
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- Attitudes Toward Guest Workers Europe: typically young males Guest workers suffer poor social conditions, low paying jobs. Send money home to native country Many guest workers remain indefinitely Many Europeans dislike them Oppose govt programs to help them Political parties w strict immigration rules gaining more support
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- Anti- Immigration Protest in Spain Spanish youths attacked Moroccan immigrants in El Ejido, Spain after an alleged murder.
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- Attitudes toward Guest Workers Middle East, petroleum-exporting countries Fear guest workers will spark political unrest Fear abandonment of Islamic customs Host countries force migrants to return home if they wish to marry
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- Middle East & Western Europe Slow economy Reducing amount of guest workers Pay guest workers to return home High unemployment can cause native country to deny nationals return
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- Fiji British brought Indians to Fiji for labor, 1879-1920 More Indians than native Fijian Peacefully coexisted in democratic country for decades Indians won power in 1987, leading to riots New constitution ensures Fijians will hold majority in parliament
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- Arguments of Anti-Immigrants Western Europe & United States If immigrants were thrown out, unemployment rate would drop Cut off immigrants from public programs, then taxes would drop Little scientific basis for these arguments
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