KEY ISSUE 3: WHY DO MIGRANTS FACE OBSTACLES. Governments Place Legal Restrictions on Migration Immigration laws – laws that restrict or allow migration

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<ul><li><p>KEY ISSUE 3: WHY DO MIGRANTS FACE OBSTACLES</p></li><li><p>Governments Place Legal Restrictions on MigrationImmigration laws laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country.</p><p>Quotas limit the number of migrants from each region into a country.</p><p>A country uses selective immigration to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.</p></li><li><p>Immigration Policies of Host CountriesUnited States uses a quota systemEra of unrestricted immigration ended when Congress passed the Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924 and was designed to ensure most immigrants were from EuropeCurrent law-620,000, no more than 7% from any one country. are admitted to reunify familiesRemaining 1/4 are skilled workers and talented professionalsQuota does not apply to refugeesAsians make good use of law, skilled workers come, then bring families who bring wider range of families through chain migration</p></li><li><p>Post-September 11</p></li><li><p>BRAIN DRAIN-large scale emigration by most talented peopleUS and Western Europe contribute to this by drawing the most talented individuals from a countryMost seeking employment are young, well-educated people lured to economic growthPercentage of college educated Haitians living abroad was 84%!!! 47% of Ghana, 45% in Mozambique </p></li><li><p>Guest WorkersGuest workers migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go home once the labor need subsides.- have short term work visas- send remittances to home country-typically those who obtain jobs in Europe and the Middle East</p></li><li><p>Europes Guest workers700,000 immigrants enter Europe legally each year along with about 500,000 illegallyPrimarily from Northern Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and AsiaLow paid by European standards; taking low-status, low-skilled jobsReduces unemployment in home country and puts foreign currency into local economyGermanyTurks; France-former colonies</p></li><li><p>Distinguishing between refugees and economic migrants-Cuba/Haiti/VietnamUS has regarded Cubans as political refugees since 1959 (Castros Communist revolution)Took over privately owned banks, farms, factories, etc. political opponents jailed.More than 600,000 came in years following impacting southern Florida1980 Mariel boatlift2nd wave of immigrants came when Castro released prisoners and mental patients. (more than 125,000)</p></li><li><p>HaitiJust after Mariel boatlift, many Haitians came to the US Dictators Papa Doc (Francois Devalier) and Baby Doc (Jean-Claude Devalier) harshly persecuted political opponentsUS government drew distinction because Cuba was Soviet allyUS immigration would not let people in boats come aboard and the Haitians sued and wonAfter a 1991 coup, many Haitians came and claimed political asylumUS decided most came for economic reasons</p></li><li><p>VietnamAfter Vietnam war, many Pro-US Southern Vietnamese were persecutedThey tried to leave by boat and were thus called boat peopleWould drift into the South China Sea and hope to be rescued by a US naval vesselSome would not be taken aboardSecond surge in the late 80s went to other Asian countries; Thailand especially sent them back to seaMany placed in detention camps until 1996 when returned to Vietnam</p></li><li><p>US Attitudes toward ImmigrantsAlways regarded new arrivals with suspicion, but accepting during 19th century b/c immigrants were taming the westOpposition intensified toward Poles, Italians, Russians and Southern Europeans in early 1900sNow denial of undocumented immigrants services in several states</p></li><li><p>Attitudes Toward Guest WorkersMany Europeans dislike them and oppose programs to improve their living conditionsIn Middle East, workers must marry abroad and cant work if they have familiesAnti-immigrant arguments/politicians seductive to many voters</p></li><li><p>Economic Opportunities</p><p>In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance.</p></li><li><p>Key Issue 4Why do people migrate within a country?</p></li><li><p>Interregional migrationmigration between regions of a countrySettling of the American west is one of the most famous examples of large-scale internal migrationChanging center of population (the average location of everyone in a country; center of population gravity) pattern of moving west and south after 1790Population center didnt change throughout the colonial period</p></li><li><p>National Migration FlowsAlso known as internal migration</p></li><li><p>Early Settlement of the InteriorSettlement of the interior begins after 1790 as a result of opportunity for large amounts of land for low priceIn early 1800s transportation improvements, mainly canals, made it easier to go westFor much of the 19th century settlement stopped at the 98th meridian because it was declared unfit for farmingIronically, this region is one of the worlds richest farmland</p></li><li><p>98th dotted/100th solid</p></li><li><p>Settlement of the Great PlainsAfter 1880, population center shifts slowerimmigration from Europe offset western migrationbecause of filling in the area between California and the 98th meridianAdvancing agricultural technology made it possible for Great Plains to be cultivatedExpansion of railroads began in 1840/they sold land acquired from governmentGold rush in mid 1800sIn 1980, the population center jumped the Mississippi for the first time ever</p></li><li><p>Recent Growth of the South1920s center began to move southward alsoDuring the 1980s and 90s, 4 million people a year moved into the South from the Northeast, Midwest, and West for job opportunitiesto the sunbelt from the rustbelt.</p></li><li><p>African American MigrationDuring the 20th century, large number of African Americans migrate to Northeast, Midwest, and West for jobsIt equals in the 1990s whereas North to South was much higher for whitesPresently, migration patterns differ little between races; internal migration has slowed due to less difference in regional employment opportunities</p></li><li><p>Migration between Regions in other countries</p></li><li><p>Russia-government policies to encourage interregional migrationInterregional migration important in developing Soviet UnionEstablished factories near raw materials and didnt have enough workersNeeded to develop far North because of rich resourcesDid force people to migrate but later changed to incentive programsMany just moved back because of the harsh climateNow government officials no longer dictate locations of industry</p></li><li><p>BrazilMost of Brazils most populous cities are on Atlantic coast while interior is sparsely populatedMoved capital to Brasilia in the interiorGrowth slow at first because officials resented the moveBut now, many have moved in search of work</p></li><li><p>Indonesiagovernment paid for people to move from Java to other islandsEuropetrends depend on country and where economic opportunities areIndiaan example when a government limits ability to Migrate; must have a permit to migrate or even visit the State of Assam</p></li><li><p>Intraregional Migrationmigration within a regionMigration from rural to urbanMost prominent type of intraregional migration; less than 5% lived in urban areas in 1800 compared to nearly half todayIn MDCs about of people live in urban areasMigration has increased dramatically in LDCs to urban areasPushed by declining agricultural opportunities and pulled by job opportunitiesHousing is in issue in many LDC urban areas</p></li><li><p>migration from urban to suburbanMost of migration in MDC happens in this wayDrawn by suburban lifestyleTransportation allows people to live in the suburban area but work in the urban areaAs a result, farms on the periphery are being converted to suburban land use.</p></li><li><p>Intraregional Migration in the U.S.Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.</p></li><li><p>Migration from Metropolitan to Nonmetropolitannet migration from urban to rural is called counterurbanizationTrend in late twentieth centuryRepresents some difficulty distinguishing from rural and suburb but most is genuine migration from suburbs and urban areas to small towns and rural communitiesMoving for a desire to change lifestyle sometimes can be retireesNot common in US because the economy of small towns and rural areas not attractiveFarming suffering / industry located in rural areas suffering</p></li></ul>