ipcc report on bioenergy_2011

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2BioenergyCoordinatingLeadAuthors:HelenaChum(USA/Brazil),AndreFaaij(TheNetherlands),JosMoreira(Brazil)

LeadAuthors:GranBerndes(Sweden),ParveenDhamija(India),HongminDong(China),Benot Gabrielle(France),AlisonGossEng(USA),WolfgangLucht(Germany),Maxwell Mapako(SouthAfrica/Zimbabwe),OmarMaseraCerutti(Mexico),TerryMcIntyre (Canada),TomoakiMinowa(Japan),KimPingoud(Finland)

ContributingAuthors:RichardBain(USA),RanyeeChiang(USA),DavidDawe(Thailand,USA),GarvinHeath (USA),MartinJunginger(TheNetherlands),MartinPatel(TheNetherlands),Joyce Yang(USA),EthanWarner(USA)

ReviewEditors:DavidPar(Canada)andSuzanaKahnRibeiro(Brazil)

Thischaptershouldbecitedas:Chum,H.,A.Faaij,J.Moreira,G.Berndes,P.Dhamija,H.Dong,B.Gabrielle,A.GossEng, W.Lucht,M.Mapako,O.MaseraCerutti,T.McIntyre,T.Minowa,K.Pingoud,2011: Bioenergy.InIPCCSpecialReportonRenewableEnergySourcesandClimateChange Mitigation[O.Edenhofer,R.PichsMadruga,Y.Sokona,K.Seyboth,P.Matschoss,S. Kadner, T.Zwickel,P.Eickemeier,G.Hansen,S.Schlmer,C.vonStechow(eds)],Cambridge UniversityPress,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomandNewYork,NY,USA.

Final Text

Contribution to Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

Chapter 2: BioenergyCONTENTSChapter 2: Bioenergy.....................................................................................................................2 CONTENTS.........................................................................................................................................2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................5 2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................8 2.1.1 Current pattern of biomass and bioenergy use and trends .......................................8 2.1.2 Previous Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessments .....................13 2.2 Resource potential..........................................................................................................14 2.2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................14 2.2.1.1 Methodology assessment ...................................................................................14 2.2.1.2 Total aboveground net primary production of biomass .....................................16 2.2.1.3 Human appropriation of terrestrial net primary production...............................17 2.2.2 Global and regional technical potential .................................................................17 2.2.2.1 Literature assessment .........................................................................................17 2.2.2.2 The contribution from residues, dung, processing by-products and waste........20 2.2.2.3 The contribution from unutilized forest growth.................................................20 2.2.2.4 The contribution from biomass plantations .......................................................20 2.2.3 Economic considerations in biomass resource assessments ..................................24 2.2.4 Factors influencing biomass resource potentials ...................................................26 2.2.4.1 Residue supply in agriculture and forestry ........................................................26 2.2.4.2 Dedicated biomass production in agriculture and forestry ................................28 2.2.4.3 Use of marginal lands ........................................................................................29 2.2.4.4 Biodiversity protection.......................................................................................30 2.2.5 Possible impact of climate change on resource potential ......................................31 2.2.6 Synthesis ................................................................................................................31 2.3 Technologies and applications .......................................................................................32 2.3.1 Feedstocks..............................................................................................................33 2.3.1.1 Feedstock production and harvest......................................................................33 2.3.1.2 Synergies with the agriculture, food and forest sectors .....................................36 2.3.2 Logistics and supply chains for energy carriers from modern biomass.................36 2.3.2.1 Solid biomass supplies and market development for utilization........................36 2.3.2.2 Solid biomass and charcoal supplies in developing countries ...........................37 2.3.2.3 Wood pellet logistics and supplies.....................................................................39 2.3.3 Conversion technologies to electricity, heat, and liquid and gaseous fuels...........39 2.3.3.1 Development stages of conversion technologies ...............................................40 2.3.3.2 Thermochemical processes ................................................................................40 2.3.3.3 Chemical processes ............................................................................................42 2.3.3.4 Biochemical processes .......................................................................................42 2.3.4 Bioenergy systems and chains: Existing state-of-the-art systems .........................43 2.3.4.1 Bioenergy chains for power, combined heat and power, and heat ....................43 2.3.4.2 Bioenergy chains for liquid transport fuels........................................................44 2.3.5 Synthesis ................................................................................................................46 2.4 Global and regional status of market and industry development...................................52 2.4.1 Current bioenergy production and outlook ............................................................52 2.4.2 Traditional biomass, improved technologies and practices, and barriers ..............54 2.4.2.1 Improved biomass cook stoves ..........................................................................55 SRREN 2 of 187 Chapter 2

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Contribution to Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

2.4.2.2 Biogas systems...................................................................................................56 2.4.3 Modern biomass: Large-scale systems, improved technologies and practices, and barriers ...................................................................................................................57 2.4.4 Global trade in biomass and bioenergy..................................................................58 2.4.5 Overview of support policies for biomass and bioenergy......................................60 2.4.5.1 Intergovernmental platforms for exchange on bioenergy policies and standardization ...................................................................................................62 2.4.5.2 Sustainability frameworks and standards...........................................................62 2.4.6 Main opportunities and barriers for the market penetration and international trade of bioenergy ...........................................................................................................64 2.4.6.1 Opportunities......................................................................................................64 2.4.6.2 Barriers...............................................................................................................64 2.4.7 Synthesis ................................................................................................................66 2.5 Environmental and social impacts .................................................................................67 2.5.1 Environmental effects ............................................................................................69 2.5.2 Modern bioenergy: Climate change excluding land use change effects................70 2.5.3 Modern bioenergy: Climate change including land use change effects.................75 2.5.4 Traditional biomass: Climate change effects .........................................................82 2.5.5 Environmental impacts other than greenhouse gas emissions ...............................83 2.5.5.1 Impacts on air quality and water resources........................................................83 2.5.5.2 Biodiversity and habitat loss ..............................................................................84 2.5.5.3 Impacts on soil resources ...................................................................................84 2.5.6 Environmental health and safety implications .......................................................85 2.5.6.1 Feedstock issues.................................................................................................85 2.5.6.2 Biofuels production issues .................................................................................86 2.5.7 Socioeconomic aspects ..........................................................................................86 2.5.7.1 Socioeconomic impact studies and sustainability criteria for bioenergy systems . ............................................................................................................................86 2.5.7.2 Socioeconomic impacts of small-scale systems.................................................87 2.5.7.3 Socioeconomic aspects of large-scale bioenergy systems .................................89 2.5.7.4 Risks to food security.........................................................................................90 2.5.7.5 Impacts on rural and social development...........................................................91 2.5.7.6 Trade-offs between social and environmental