Introduction to road materials Part 1
Post on 15-Jul-2015
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Lecture contentMain Conceptsa) What is road and how it's constructed b) Structure of the roadc) Responsibilities d) Main tests for soil, aggregate, concrete and asphalt
Learning How to Learna) Recommended studies b) International codes c) How to get any specification and how to deal with itd) how to perform any test How to work a) Resume writingb) LinkedIn and how to deal with it c) Contracting companies
A road is a path connecting two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by sometransportations .
The beginning of road constructioncould be dated to the time of the Romans. With the advancementof technology from carriages pulled by two horses to vehicles.
Tutti le strade portano a Roma All roads lead toRomewas being used as early .It was based off of the ancient Roman road system where roads radiated fromthe capital of Rome.
The construction of modernhighways did not begin until the late 19th to early 20th century , the Long IslandMotor Parkway was the firstroadway design for automobile use only
Highways Is the type of roads designed to obtains the safe movement of high-speed vehicles, through the removal of intersections.
Atlanta USAHannover GERBuenos Aires, Argentina.Aims from road construction
Establishing a new communityConnecting between placesExtend and development current axes to prevent wasting time and money
Road construction prior studies
1- Exploring studies :Population Number activities customs and tradition favorite conveyance for transportationClimateTemperature humidity rains storms - floods EnvironmentalHazards environmental systemGeology and soilStructure stratigraphy sedimentology hydrology earthquakes geophysics pits water content classification CBR shear tests
SurveySatellite images - Aerial photographs topographic maps - GPSMaterials Sources types - transportation TrafficVolume classification weights ObstructionsMountains dams rivers seas railways villages sand dunes airports factories etc At the end of this stages we selecting suitable three pathsfor road
2- Primary studiesMore detailed for above sections but work will be at the three chosen paths , making traverse for every one of them , setting in-out , then at the end of this stage we will select the best path for our road 3- Final detailed studiesMore deeply for every section in exploration studies DrawingsSoil and material studiesQuantitiesSpecifications
ProfileHorizontal curvesprovides a transition betweentwo tangent strips of roadway, allowing a vehicle to turn at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut
Vertical curvesprovides a transition between two sloped roadways, allowing avehicle to negotiate the elevation rate change at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut
Cross section Lanes shoulders median - sidewalks curbs slopes - barriers bikeways infrastructures
Pavement structureSoil A mixture of mineral grainsAnd solid particles with liquid and gas in the empty spacebetween the solid particles
Reducing site sample to Test sizeMechanical SplitterQuartering method
Moisture content (mc%) Oven Speedy
Sieve analysis Sorting the grains with same diameter and determination of particle size distribution using specified sieves
What are these numbers ?
Atterberg Limits(soil passing #40 - 0.425 mm )
Liquid limitCasagrand method
Cone penetration method
Plasticity index PI = Liquid limit plastic limit
Higher PIHigher plasticityHigher swellingHigher compressibilityHigher activityHigher volumetric change
Soil classification (AASHTO) system
Compaction Process of increasing of unit weight of soil by forcing soil solids into a dense state and decrease air voids
TestsLab ( Proctor ) In situ (sand cone nuclear gauge )
Proctor test (moisture density relation)Which Moisture content will give us maximum dry densityStandard modified
California Bearing Ratio CBRPotential strength determination
Sand equivalentHow much clay in the sample ?
Aggregate tests -Sampling-Sieve analysis -LL , PI-Sand equivalent -Unit weight -Flat and elongated
Specific gravity and absorption for coarse aggregate
Specific gravity and absorption for Fine aggregate
Abrasion resistance (Los Anglos)
No.12 sieveSoundness test
Thin Film Oven Test
Density and thickness
Sieve no 170
- Consistency of paste
- Initial setting time
- Final setting time
Initial needleFinal needleCompressive strength
Concrete Suspension of coarse aggregate particles in mortarmortarSuspension of fine aggregate particles in pastePasteSuspension of cement particles in water
Admixtureadd to the concrete to enhancing their properties or adding a new property Chemical Water reducer , retarders , accelerators , plasticizers , add color MineralFly ash slag silica fume
Red , green concrete
Concrete mixer truck
Cube test for concrete
Learning How to learn
MOOCRecommended studies Codes How to get themHow to deal with them Places to study
Make a timeBe brief Market yourselfFont , Format revise update
Personal informationTarget position/career objective EducationSummary ExperienceTrainings CoursesSkills activitiesCover letter Dear .,(Intro )I would like to apply for position .., kindly find attached resume .(body)I have ...(experience or education and skills ) (End) Thank you for taking the time to consider this application and I look forward to hearing from you in the near future.
Yours sincerelyYour name Network
Family , friends , neighbors, professors, beers
Online (companies websites )
Recommendation Awards Volunteer workSkills & Courses Education
Develop your selfApply what you learn Dont be afraid of work problems Help others
Soil mechanics , CarigPrinciple of geotechnical engineering ,Barja DasConcrete technology , john newmanNeville, A.M. and Brooks, J.J.," CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY", ELBS .1990.Asphalt Institute-The Asphalt Handbook. No 4 (1989)AASHTO( American association of state highway and transportation officials)ASTM(American society of testing materials ) ... .... .... .......
Special thanks to
Regards , AmrElgabry
Penetration (inches)Load on Piston (psi)